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Mulberry harbour

Mulberry harbours were temporary portable harbours developed by the United Kingdom during the Second World War to facilitate the rapid offloading of cargo onto beaches during the Allied invasion of Normandy in June 1944. After the Allies held beachheads following D-Day, two prefabricated harbours were taken in sections across the English Channel from Britain with the invading army and assembled off Omaha Beach and Gold Beach; the Mulberry harbours were to be used until major French ports could be captured and brought back into use after repair of the inevitable sabotage by German defenders. The first choice, was captured towards the end of July 1944 but the port facilities were found to have been expertly wrecked booby-trapped. Although Antwerp in Belgium was captured on 4 September 1944, the Port of Antwerp was not opened until 28 November as the approaches to the port were held by the Germans until the Battle of the Scheldt was won. Two French ports were available. Montgomery insisted that the First Canadian Army clear the German garrisons in Boulogne and Dunkirk first before the Scheldt although the French ports were "resolutely defended" and had all suffered demolitions so would not be navigable for some time.

The success of Operation Dragoon meant that the southern French ports of Marseille and Toulon were available in October. The harbour at Gold Beach was used for 10 months after D-Day and over 2.5 million men, 500,000 vehicles, 4 million tons of supplies were landed before it was decommissioned. The still only partially-completed Mulberry harbour at Omaha Beach was damaged on 19 June by a violent storm that arrived from the north-east. After three days the storm abated and damage was found to be so severe that the harbour had to be abandoned; the Dieppe Raid of 1942 had shown that the Allies could not rely on being able to penetrate the Atlantic Wall to capture a port on the north French coast. The problem was that large ocean-going ships of the type needed to transport heavy and bulky cargoes and stores needed sufficient depth of water under their keels, together with dockside cranes, to off-load their cargo and this was not available except at the heavily-defended French harbours. Thus, the Mulberries were created to provide the port facilities necessary to offload the thousands of men and vehicles, tons of supplies necessary to sustain Operation Overlord and the Battle of Normandy.

The harbours were made up of all the elements one would expect of any harbour: breakwater, roadways etc. An early idea for temporary harbours was sketched by Winston Churchill in a 1915 memo to Lloyd George; this memo was for artificial harbours to be created off the German islands of Sylt. No further investigation was made and the memo was filed away. In 1940 the civil engineer Guy Maunsell wrote to the War Office with a proposal for an artificial harbour, but the idea was not at first adopted. Winston Churchill issued his memo'Piers for use on beaches' on 30 May 1942 in some frustration at the lack of progress being made on finding a solution to the temporary harbour problem. Between 17 June and 6 August 1942, Hugh Iorys Hughes submitted a design concept for artificial harbours to the War Office. At a meeting following the Dieppe Raid of 19 August 1942, Vice-Admiral John Hughes-Hallett declared that if a port could not be captured one should be taken across the Channel. Hughes-Hallett had the support of Churchill.

The concept of Mulberry harbours began to take shape when Hughes-Hallett moved to be Naval Chief of Staff to the Overlord planners. In the autumn of 1942, the Chief of Combined Operations Vice-Admiral Lord Louis Mountbatten, outlined the requirement for piers at least a mile long at which a continuous stream of supplies could be handled, including a pier head capable of handling 2,000-ton ships. In July 1943 a committee of eminent civil engineers consisting of Colin R White, J D C Couper, J A Cochrane, R D Gwyther and Lt. Col. Ivor Bell was established to advise on how a number of selected sites on the French coastline could be converted into sheltered harbours; the committee investigated the use of compressed air breakwaters before deciding on blockships and caissons. In August and September 1943 a trial of three competing designs for the cargo-handling jetties was set up together with a test of a compressed air breakwater; the pier designs were by: Hugh Iorys Hughes who developed his "Hippo" piers and "Crocodile" bridge spans.

Prototypes of each of the designs were tested at Rigg Bay on the Solway Firth. The tests revealed various problems; however the final choice of design was determined by a storm during which the "Hippos" were undermined causing the "Crocodile" bridge spans to fail and the Swiss Roll was washed away. Tn5's design proved Beckett's floating roadway survived undamaged.

Blockley Township, Pennsylvania

Blockley Township is a defunct township, located in Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania. Incorporated in 1704, the township was incorporated into the City of Philadelphia under the 1854 Act of Consolidation. An irregularly shaped area of 7,580 acres, Blockley Township was located on the west side of the Schuylkill River, north of Kingsessing Township. Within its boundaries were the villages of Hamilton, West Philadelphia and Haddington, it was traversed by the Darby Road and Chadd’s Ford or Baltimore Pike, the road to West Chester, to Haverford and to Lancaster. The name is derived from Blockley, a parish in England in Worcestershire from which the township's founder, William Warner, hailed. In Philadelphia, "Blockley" was synonymous with the Blockley Almshouse that opened here in 1832; the township contained The Woodlands. The boundaries and area changed on February 17, 1844, when the area encompassing Mantua and Hamilton were incorporated into the Borough of West Philadelphia, dividing the remaining township into two unconnected sections.

The township was incorporated into Philadelphia proper by the 1854 Act of Consolidation. Chronology of the Political Subdivisions of the County of Philadelphia, 1683-1854 Information courtesy of ushistory.org Incorporated District and Townships in the County of Philadelphia, 1854 By Rudolph J. Walther - excerpted from the book at the ushistory.org website

Jane Adams (actress)

Jane Adams is an American actress. She made her Broadway debut in the original production of I Hate Hamlet in 1991, won the Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play for the 1994 revival of An Inspector Calls, her film roles include Happiness, Wonder Boys, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind, Little Children. She had a recurring role on the NBC sitcom Frasier, was nominated for the 2010 Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress on Television for the HBO series Hung. Jane Adams was born in Washington, D. C. the daughter of Janice, an administrative assistant, William Adams, an engineer. She has a younger brother and was raised in Wheaton and Bellevue, Washington. Adams attended the University of Washington, where she studied political science, the Cornish College of the Arts, where she took theater, she attended the Juilliard School's Drama Division where she graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts degree in 1989. Adams performed theatre at the Seattle Repertory Theatre, she turned down the chance to work in Sister Act with Whoopi Goldberg for the opportunity to work with Arthur Miller onstage.

She worked with Steve Martin and Diane Keaton in Father of the Bride Part II. She went back to the stage and won the 1994 Tony Award for best performance by a featured actress in a play for the Broadway revival of An Inspector Calls, she won the Outer Critics Circle Award for best debut performance in a play in the Broadway production of Paul Rudnick's I Hate Hamlet. In 1996, Adams portrayed Karen Lukens in the ABC-TV drama series Relativity.:883-884In 1998, she starred in Happiness with Philip Seymour Hoffman, playing the role of Joy, a sensitive single woman, struggling with life. She and the cast won many ensemble awards; the next year, Adams got a recurring role on the hit comedy series Frasier from 1999 to 2000. She played Dr. Mel Karnofsky, she had a role in the film Mumford. In 2001, she was in the independent film titled Songcatcher, with Janet McTeer, she and the cast won a Sundance Special Jury Prize. She portrayed Reeva Baines Eidenberg in the CBS drama series Citizen Baines. In 2007, she appeared in The Sensation of The Brave One.

In the latter film, she appeared opposite Jodie Foster, Terrence Howard, Mary Steenburgen and Naveen Andrews. From 2009-2011, Adams co-starred in the HBO series Hung:487 opposite Thomas Jane, she co-wrote the movie All the Light in the Sky. In 2002, Adams ceased using marijuana. Jane Adams at AllMovie Jane Adams at the Internet Broadway Database Jane Adams on IMDb