Pir or Peer orFakir /Shah is a title for a Sufi master or spiritual guide equally used in the nath tradition. They are referred to as a Hazrat or Shaikh, which is Arabic for Old Man, the title is often translated into English as saint and could be interpreted as Elder. In Sufism a Pirs role is to guide and instruct his disciples on the Sufi path and this is often done by general lessons and individual guidance. Other words that refer to a Pir include, Sheikh, in Alevism, Pirs are considered a direct descendant of Ali. The title Peer Baba or Shah Baba is common in Hindi used to give a salutation to Sufi masters or similarly honored persons, after their death people visit their tombs. The path of Sufism starts when a student takes an oath of allegiance with a teacher called Baiath or Bayah where he swears allegiance at the hands of his Pir, after that, the student is called a Murid. From here, his batin journey starts, a Pir usually has authorizations to be a teacher for one Tariqahs. A Tariqah may have more than one Pir at a time, a Pir is accorded that status by his Shaikh by way of Khilafat or Khilafah.
Khilafat is the process in which a Shaikh identifies one of his disciples as his successor, a Pir can have more than one khalifah so called Fakir. Chapter on Sui Ideology in SUFISM by R. M. Chopra,2016, Anuradha Prakashan, New Delhi
Hafiz, literally meaning guardian or memorizer, depending on the context, is a term used by Muslims for someone who has completely memorized the Quran. The Islamic prophet Muhammad lived in the 6th Century CE, in Arabia in a time when few people were literate, the Arabs preserved their histories and poetry by memory alone. The Arabic writing of the time was a script, that did not include vowel markings or other diacritics needed to distinguish between words. Hence if there was any question as to the pronunciation of a verse, the huffaz were highly appreciated as reciters, whose intoned words were accessible even to the illiterate. Memorization required no expensive materials, at the time there was no paper in the Muslim world, even after Caliph Uthman ibn Affan collected and organized the Quran circa 650-656 CE, recitation of the Quran was still honored and encouraged. There are numerous traditions of recitation, most huffaz know only one version, but some experts can recite in several traditions.
However this does not change the meaning of the content, the Quran is divided into 114 Surahs, containing 6,236 verses. This process generally takes between 3 and 6 years part-time together with schooling, most huffaz have studied as children in special Islamic schools or madrasahs, being instructed in tajwid and vocalisation as well as committing the Quran to memory. Huffaz are highly respected within the Islamic community and they are privileged to use the title Hafiz before their names. They are tested on their knowledge, for example, in one test they are asked to continue the recitation of a passage taken randomly from the Quran. As they do not know which passage will be chosen, they must know the text in order to be sure of passing. In another test, a would-be hafiz might be asked to recite verses containing a word or phrase. In the classical Arabic lexicon, the word hafiz was not traditionally used to refer to one who had memorized the Quran, the word used was hamil Hafiz was used for the scholars of hadith, specifically one who had committed 100,000 hadiths to memory.
Having memorised the Quran, the hafiz or hafiza must ensure they do not forget it, to ensure perfect recall of all the learned verses requires constant practice. The memorisation of the Quran was important to Muslims in the past and is in the present, thousands of students master the Quran and complete the book with interpretation and memorisation. The Quran is perhaps the book, religious or secular. For Muslims who are attempting to memorize certain suras but are unfamiliar with the Arabic script, the most important sura to memorize is Al-Fatiha. All praise and thanks be to Allah, there is none worthy of worship except Allah
Jihad is an Arabic word which literally means striving or struggling, especially with a praiseworthy aim. It can have many shades of meaning in an Islamic context, such as struggle against ones evil inclinations, in classical Islamic law, the term refers to armed struggle against unbelievers, while modernist Islamic scholars generally equate military jihad with defensive warfare. In Sufi and pious circles and moral jihad has been traditionally emphasized under the name of greater jihad, the term has gained additional attention in recent decades through its use by terrorist groups. The word jihad appears frequently in the Quran with and without military connotations, Islamic jurists and other ulema of the classical era understood the obligation of jihad predominantly in a military sense. They developed a set of rules pertaining to jihad, including prohibitions on harming those who are not engaged in combat. In the modern era, the notion of jihad has lost its jurisprudential relevance, while modernist Islamic scholars have emphasized defensive and non-military aspects of jihad, some Islamists have advanced aggressive interpretations that go beyond the classical theory.
Jihad is classified into inner jihad, which involves a struggle against ones own impulses, and external jihad. Most Western writers consider external jihad to have primacy over inner jihad in the Islamic tradition, gallup analysis of a large survey reveals considerable nuance in the conceptions of jihad held by Muslims around the world. Jihad is sometimes referred to as the pillar of Islam. In Twelver Shia Islam jihad is one of the ten Practices of the Religion, a person engaged in jihad is called a mujahid. The term jihad is often rendered in English as Holy War, in Modern Standard Arabic, the term jihad is used for a struggle for causes, both religious and secular. The Hans Wehr Dictionary of Modern Written Arabic defines the term as fight, jihad, nonetheless, it is usually used in the religious sense and its beginnings are traced back to the Quran and words and actions of Muhammad. In the Quran and in Muslim usage, jihad is commonly followed by the expression fi sabil illah, in the path of God.
Muhammad Abdel-Haleem states that it indicates the way of truth and justice, including all the teachings it gives on the justifications and it is sometimes used without religious connotation, with a meaning similar to the English word crusade. The context of the Quran is elucidated by Hadith, of the 199 references to jihad in perhaps the most standard collection of hadith—Bukhari—all assume that jihad means warfare. He said, The best jihad is the one in which your horse is slain, Ibn Nuhaas cited a hadith from Musnad Ahmad ibn Hanbal, where Muhammad states that the highest kind of jihad is The person who is killed whilst spilling the last of his blood. According to another hadith, supporting one’s parents is an example of jihad and it has been reported that Muhammad considered well-performing hajj to be the best jihad for Muslim women. The practice of raids by Bedouin against enemy tribes and settlements to collect spoils predates the revelations of the Quran
Madrasa is the Arabic word for any type of educational institution, whether secular or religious. The word is variously transliterated madrasah, madrassa, medrese, in the West, the word usually refers to a specific type of religious school or college for the study of the Islamic religion, though this may not be the only subject studied. In countries like India, not all students in madrasas are Muslims, the word madrasah derives from the triconsonantal Semitic root د-ر-س D-R-S to learn, through the wazn مفعل, mafʻal, meaning a place where something is done. Therefore, madrasah literally means a place where learning and studying take place, for example, in the Ottoman Empire during the Early Modern Period, madaris had lower schools and specialised schools where the students became known as danişmends. The usual Arabic word for a university, however, is جامعة, the Hebrew cognate midrasha connotes the meaning of a place of learning, the related term midrash literally refers to study or learning, but has acquired mystical and religious connotations.
However, in English, the term usually refers to the specifically Islamic institutions. A regular curriculum includes courses in Arabic, sharīʻah, mantiq, in the Ottoman Empire, during the Early Modern Period, the study of hadiths was introduced by Süleyman I. Depending on the demands, some madaris offer additional advanced courses in Arabic literature and other foreign languages, as well as science. Ottoman madaris along with religious teachings taught styles of writing, syntax, composition, natural sciences, political sciences, people of all ages attend, and many often move on to becoming imams. The certificate of an ʻālim, for example, requires approximately twelve years of study, a good number of the ḥuffāẓ are the product of the madaris. The madaris resemble colleges, where people take evening classes, an important function of the madaris is to admit orphans and poor children in order to provide them with education and training. Madaris may enroll female students, they study separately from the men, the term Islamic education means education in the light of Islam itself, which is rooted in the teachings of the Quran - holy book of Muslims.
Islamic education and Muslim education are not the same, because Islamic education has epistemological integration which is founded on Tawhid - Oneness or monotheism. The first institute of education was at the estate of Hazrat Zaid bin Arkam near a hill called Safa, where Hazrat Muhammad was the teacher. After Hijrah the madrasa of Suffa was established in Madina on the east side of the Al-Masjid an-Nabawi mosque, ubada ibn as-Samit was appointed there by Hazrat Muhammad as teacher and among the students. In the curriculum of the madrasa, there were teachings of The Quran, The Hadith, tajweed, treatises of first aid, there were trainings of horse-riding, art of war and calligraphy, athletics and martial arts. The first part of madrasa based education is estimated from the first day of nabuwwat to the first portion of the Umaiya caliphate and it was founded by Fāṭimah al-Fihrī, the daughter of a wealthy merchant named Muḥammad al-Fihrī. This was followed by the establishment of al-Azhar in 959 in Cairo, niẓām al-Mulk, who would be murdered by the Assassins, created a system of state madaris in various ʻAbbāsid cities at the end of the 11th century
Women sayyids are given the titles Sayyida, Alawiyah, or Sharifa. In some regions of the Islamic world, such as in India, children of a Sayyida mother but a non-Sayyid father are referred to as Mirza. In the Arab world, sayyid is the equivalent of the English word liege lord or master when referring to a descendant of Muhammad, the word sidi is often used in Arabic. Although not verified, many Arabic language experts state that it has its roots in the word Al Asad Arabic, الأسد meaning lion, probably because of the qualities of valour and leadership. In the early period, the Arabs used the term Sayyid, however, in the modern era, the term Sharif has been used to denote descendants from Hasan, and the term Sayyid has been used to denote descendants from Husayn. Although reliable statistics are unavailable, conservative estimates put the number of Sayyids in the tens of millions, Sayyids often include the following titles in their names to indicate the figure from whom they trace their descent.
The descendants of Ali and his wives are called Alvi sayyid, they are titled Shah, Sain. Note, When transliterating Arabic words into English there are two approaches, the user may transliterate the word letter for letter, e. g. الزيدي becomes a-l-z-ai-d-i. The user may transcribe the pronunciation of the word, e. g. الزيدي becomes a-zz-ai-d-i and this is because in Arabic grammar, some consonants cancel the l from the word the al. When the user sees the prefixes an, ar, as, ash, at, az, an i, wi, or vi ending could perhaps be translated by the English suffixes -ite or -ian. The suffix transforms a personal name or place name into the name of a group of people connected by lineage or place of birth, hence Ahmad al-Hassani could be translated as Ahmad, the descendant of Hassan, and Ahmad al-Manami as Ahmad from the city of Manami. For further explanation, see Arabic names, 1Also, El-Husseini, Al-Husseini and Hussaini. 2Those who use the term Sayyid for all descendants of Ali ibn Abi Talib regard Allawis or Alavis as Sayyids.
However, Allawis are not descendants of Muhammad, as they are descended from the children of Ali and those who limit the term Sayyid to descendants of Muhammad through Fatima, do not consider Allawis/Alavis to be Sayyids. Some Sayyids claim to be Najeeb Al Tarfayn, meaning Noble on both sides, which indicates both of their parents are Sayyid. But in actuality this term is applied only to those Sayyids who have both Imam Hassan and Imam Hussain in their ancestry, many feel proud to attach Al Hashmi bil Quraishi at the end as well. The importance of this concept of Najeeb AlTarfayn has its source in the Hadeeth of Muhammad wherein he stated that the Mahdi, or The Hidden One, hence and Sunni Sayyids have different interpretations of this concept. However, the descendants of many Sufi Saints such as Abdul-Qadir Gilani, Bande Nawaz, the existence of any descendant of Imam Hasan al Askari is disputed by many people
Tafsir is the Arabic word for exegesis, usually of the Quran. An author of tafsir is a mufassir, a Quranic tafsir will often explain content and provide places and times, not contained in Quranic verses, as well as give the different views and opinions of scholars on the verse. The word tafsīr is derived from the Arabic root, F-S-R which means to explain, to expound, to disclose. In Islamic contexts, it is defined as understanding and uncovering the Will of Allah which has been conveyed by the Quranic text, by means of the Arabic language and one’s own knowledge. As the Quran was revealed to him, he recited the verses to his companions and this was one of Muhammads responsibilities. Elements of Muhammads explanations are, Clarifying verses whose intents are not understood Indication of names, times etc. These interpretations have not been collected independently in a book, they have recorded in hadith books, under the topic of tafsir. After the death of Muhammad, his companions, the sahabah, undertook the task of interpretation, most of the sahabah, including Abu Bakr, refrained from commenting with their personal views, and only narrated comments by Muhammad.
Others including ibn Abbas used their own knowledge from the Arabic language to interpret the Quran, by the time of the next generations ensuing the Sahabah, the tabiin scholars started using a wide range of sources for tafsir. The whole of the Quran is interpreted, and narrations are separated from tafsir into separate books, grammatical explanations and historical data are preserved within these books, personal opinions are recorded, whether accepted or rejected. The mufasireen listed 15 fields that must be mastered before one can interpret the Quran. Classical Arabic, Is how one learns the meaning of each word, mujahid ibn Jabr said, “It is not permissible for one who holds faith in Allah and the Day of Judgment to speak on the Quran without learning classical Arabic. Arabic Philology, Is important because any change in the diacritical marks affects the meaning, Arabic morphology, is important because changes in the configuration of verb and noun forms change the meaning. Ibn Faris said, “A person who misses out on Arabic morphology has missed out on a lot.
”Al-Ishtiqaaq and this is the science of etymology which explains the reciprocal relation and radical composition between the root and derived word. For example, masih derives from the root word masah which means “to feel something and to something with a wet hand, ”. Ilm al-Bayaan, is the science by which one learns the similes, metonymies, ilm al-Badi’, The science by which one learns to interpret sentences which reveal the beauty and eloquence of the spoken and written word. The above-mentioned three sciences are categorized as Ilm-ul-Balagha and it is one of the most important sciences to a mufassir because he is able to reveal the miraculous nature of the Quran through these three sciences. Ilm al-Qiraat, Dialecticisms of the different readings of the Quran and this science is important because one qiraat of the Quran may differ in meaning from another, and one learns to favor one reading over another based on the difference in the meanings
A caliphate is an area containing an Islamic steward known as a caliph —a person considered a religious successor to the Islamic prophet, and a leader of the entire Muslim community. During the history of Islam after the Rashidun period, many Muslim states, the Sunni branch of Islam stipulates that, as a head of state, a caliph should be elected by Muslims or their representatives. Followers of Shia Islam, believe a caliph should be an Imam chosen by God from the Ahl al-Bayt, before the advent of Islam, Arabian monarchs traditionally used the title malik, or another from the same root. The term caliph, derives from the Arabic word khalīfah, which means successor, however, studies of pre-Islamic texts suggest that the original meaning of the phrase was successor selected by God. There was no specified procedure for this shura or consultation, candidates were usually, but not necessarily, from the same lineage as the deceased leader. Capable men who would lead well were preferred over an ineffectual heir, Sunni Muslims believe that Abu Bakr was chosen by the community and that this was the proper procedure.
Sunnis further argue that a caliph should ideally be chosen by election or community consensus, the Shia believe that Ali, the son-in-law and cousin of Muhammad, was chosen by Muhammad as his spiritual and temporal successor as the Mawla of all Muslims in the event of Ghadir Khumm. The caliph was often known as Amir al-Muminin, Muhammad established his capital in Medina, after he died, it remained the capital during the Rashidun Caliphate, before Kufa was reportedly made the capital by Caliph Ali. At times there have been rival claimant caliphs in different parts of the Islamic world, according to Sunni Muslims, the first caliph to be called Amir al-Muminin was Abu Bakr, followed by Umar, the second of the Rashidun. Uthman and Ali were called by the title, while the Shia consider Ali to have been the only truly legitimate caliph. After the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk officially abolished the system of Caliphate in Islam as part of his secular reforms, the Kings of Morocco still label themselves with the title Amir al-Muminin for the Moroccans, but lay no claim to the Caliphate.
Some Muslim countries, including Somalia and Malaysia, were never subject to the authority of a Caliphate, with the exception of Aceh, these countries had their own, sultans or rulers who did not fully accept the authority of the Caliph. Abu Bakr, the first successor of Muhammad, nominated Umar as his successor on his deathbed, the second caliph, was killed by a Persian named Piruz Nahavandi. His successor, was elected by a council of electors, Uthman was killed by members of a disaffected group. Ali took control but was not universally accepted as caliph by the governors of Egypt and he faced two major rebellions and was assassinated by Abd-al-Rahman ibn Muljam, a Khawarij. Alis tumultuous rule lasted only five years and this period is known as the Fitna, or the first Islamic civil war. The followers of Ali became the Shia minority sect of Islam, the followers of all four Rashidun Caliphs became the majority Sunni sect. Under the Rashidun each region of the Caliphate had its own governor, Muawiyah, a relative of Uthman and governor of Syria, succeeded Ali as Caliph
This usually implies that the student has learned this knowledge through face-to-face interactions at the feet of the teacher. The ijazah was limited to the study of Islamic law and in the transmission of knowledge in the Islamic spiritual tradition Sufism, natural sciences and Islamic theology were excluded. In a paper titled Traditionalism in Islam, An Essay in Interpretation, according to a 1989 hypothesis by George Makdisi, the origins of the Christian medieval doctorate dates back to the ijāzah al-tadrīs wa al-iftā in the medieval Islamic legal education system. Makdisi proposed that the ijazat attadris was the origin of the European doctorate, according to the 1989 paper, the ijazat was equivalent to the Doctor of Laws qualification and was developed during the 9th century after the formation of the Madhhab legal schools. To obtain a doctorate, a student had to study in a school of law, usually four years for the basic undergraduate course. The commonly held view is all these titles were proper developments of the medieval university in Europe.
It should be noted that madrasas only issued the ijazat attadris in one field, the Islamic religious law of Sharia, other academic subjects, including the natural sciences and literary studies, were only treated ancillary to the study of the Sharia. The Islamic law degree in Al-Azhar University, the most prestigious madrasa, was granted without final examinations. However, the doctorate in law was only obtained after an oral examination. He points out that, much like the ijazat attadris was confined to law, in a discussion of Makdisis thesis, Toby Huff disagreed and argued that there was never any equivalent to the Bachelors degree or the doctorate in the Islamic madrasahs
Fitna is an Arabic word with extensive connotations of trial, affliction, or distress. A word loaded with important historical implications, it is widely used in modern Arabic. Aside from its use in the Quran, fitna is used as term for the four heavy civil wars within the Islamic Caliphate from the 7th to the 9th century AD, Fitna has the triliteral root fā-tā-nūn. The verb came to be applied to the smelting of gold and it was extended to mean causing one to enter into fire and into a state of punishment or affliction. Thus, one says that caused one to enter al-fitna, i. e. trial, etc. or more generally. The definitions offered by Lane match those suggested by Badawi and Haleem in their dictionary of Quranic usage and they gloss fitna as meaning charm, enchantment, unrest, rebellion. The first Quran verse about Fitna was supposedly revealed during the Nakhla Raid, after his return from the first Badr encounter, Muhammad sent Abdullah ibn Jahsh in Rajab with 12 men on a fact-finding operation.
Abdullah ibn Jahsh was a cousin of Muhammad. He took along with him Abu Haudhayfa, Abdullah ibn Jahsh, Ukkash ibn Mihsan, ghazwan, Sa’d ibn Abi Waqqas, Amir ibn Rabia, Waqid ibn Abdullah and Khalid ibn al-Bukayr. Muhammad gave Abdullah ibn Jahsh a letter, but not to be read until he had traveled for two days and to do what he was instructed to do in the letter without putting pressure on his companions, while the Quraysh were busy preparing food, the Muslims attacked. In the short battle took place, Waqid ibn Abdullah killed Amr ibn Hadrami. The Muslims captured two Quraysh tribe members, nawfal ibn Abdullah managed to escape. The Muslims took Uthman ibn Abdullah and al-Hakam ibn Kaysan as captives, Abdullah ibn Jahsh returned to Medina with the booty and with the two captured Quraysh tribe members. The followers planned to give one-fifth of the booty to Muhammad, Muhammad initially disapproved of that act and suspended any action as regards the camels and the two captives on account of the prohibited months.
The Arab pagans exploited this opportunity to accuse the Muslims of violating what is divinely inviolable, allah said, Badawi & Haleem note that the triliteral root fā-tā-nūn occurs in 6 different forms a total of 60 times in the Quran. In particular, it appears 34 times as a noun and 26 times in various verbal forms, the following table sets out the details, note that since the root only appears as a verb in Form I forms, that is assumed. The triliteral root fā-tā-nūn, as noted above, bears a range of significations, the Quranic appearances of the root are explored below. Fitna as persecution appears in several of the verses commanding Muslims to fight the unbelievers, for example, in Quran 2,191, the command to fight is justified on the grounds that persecution is worse than slaying
Walī is an Arabic word of which the literal meanings include custodian, protector and friend. In the vernacular, it is most commonly used by Muslims to indicate an Islamic saint, in the traditional Islamic understanding of saints, the saint is portrayed as someone marked by divine favor. Holiness, and who is chosen by God and endowed with exceptional gifts. From the twelfth to the century, the general veneration of saints. In general Islamic piety of the period, the saint was understood to be a contemplative state of spiritual perfection. Permanent expression in the teaching bequeathed to his disciples, in short, it is believed that every prophet is a saint, but not every saint is a prophet. Although there are similarities between the traditional Islamic and apostolic Christian conception of saints, there are important differences. For example, Islam has no process of canonization, with saints being declared by popular acclaim and their presence and veneration as unacceptable deviations. For - like Religion, prayer, etc, in Persian, which became the second most influential and widely-spoken language in the Islamic world after Arabic, the general title for a saint or a spiritual master became pīr.
Although the ramifications of this include the connotations of a general saint. Amongst Indian Muslims, the title peer baba is commonly used in Hindi to refer to Sufi masters or similarly honored saints, in Islamic mysticism, a pīrs role is to guide and instruct his disciples on the mystical path. Additionally, other Arabic and Persian words that often have the same connotations as pīr. Their tombs, are denoted by terms of Arabic or Persian origin alluding to the idea of pilgrimage, but such tombs are denoted by terms usually used for dervish convents, or a particular part of it, or by a quality of the saint. As has been noted by modern scholars, the Quran does not explicitly outline a doctrine or theory of saints. In the Quran, the adjective walī is applied to God, particular Quranic verses were interpreted by early Islamic scholars to refer to a special, exalted group of holy people. These included 10,62, Surely Gods friends, no fear shall be on them, neither shall they sorrow, and 5,54, the best of company are they, to carry a reference to holy people who were not prophets and were ranked below the latter.
In general Islamic piety of the period, the saint was understood to be a contemplative state of spiritual perfection. Permanent expression in the teaching bequeathed to his disciples and it was by virtue of his spiritual wisdom that the saint was accorded veneration in medieval Islam, and it is this which
Figuratively, fiqh means, knowledge about Islamic legal rulings from their sources. He must look deep down into a matter and not suffice himself with just the apparent meaning, a person who only knows the appearance of a matter is not a faqīh. Conceptually, the attempt to understand divine law. Whereas shariah is immutable and infallible, fiqh is fallible and changeable, fiqh is distinguished from usul al-fiqh, the methods of legal interpretation and analysis. Fiqh is the product of application of usul al-fiqh, the product of human efforts at understanding the divine will. A hukm is a ruling in a given case. Fiqh deals with the observance of rituals and social legislation in Islam, in the modern era, there are four prominent schools of fiqh within Sunni practice, plus two within Shia practice. A person trained in fiqh is known as a Faqih, the word fiqh is an Arabic term meaning deep understanding or full comprehension. Technically it refers to the body of Islamic law extracted from detailed Islamic sources and this definition is consistent amongst the jurists.
In Modern Standard Arabic, fiqh has come to mean jurisprudence in general and it is separated in Sunni and others. Qiyas, i. e. analogy which is deployed if Ijma or historic collective reasoning on the issue is not available. For example, the Quran states one needs to engage in prayers and fast during the month of Ramadan. Details about these issues can be found in the traditions of Muhammad, so Quran, some topics are without precedent in Islams early period. In those cases, Muslim jurists try to arrive at conclusions by other means, Sunni jurists use historical consensus of the community, a majority in the modern era use analogy and weigh the harms and benefits of new topics, and a plurality utilizes juristic preference. The conclusions arrived at with the aid of additional tools constitute a wider array of laws than the Sharia consists of. Thus, in contrast to the sharia, fiqh is not regarded as sacred and this division of interpretation in more detailed issues has resulted in different schools of thought.
This wider concept of Islamic jurisprudence is the source of a range of laws in different topics that guide Muslims in everyday life, Islamic jurisprudence covers two main areas, Rules in relation to actions, Rules in relation to circumstances surrounding actions. The Sunni schools are Hanafi Maliki Shafii Hanbali see Wahhabism Zahiri Qurtubi No longer exists Laythi No longer exists, the schools of Shia Islam comprise, Jafari Zaydi Entirely separate from both the Sunni and Shia traditions, Khawarij Islam has evolved its own distinct school