United Kingdom of the Netherlands
The House of Orange-Nassau came to be the monarchs of this new state. The United Kingdom of the Netherlands collapsed after the 1830 Belgian Revolution, William I, King of the Netherlands, would refuse to recognize a Belgian state until 1839, when he had to yield under pressure by the Treaty of London. Only at this time were exact borders agreed upon, the Benelux Union is in some ways a distant heir of the former United Kingdom of the Netherlands. Their respective political systems are similar and Dutch is the official. William returned to The Hague, where on 6 December he was offered the title of King and he refused, instead proclaiming himself Sovereign Prince of the Principality of the United Netherlands. During the Congress of Vienna in 1815 France had to give up its rule of the Southern Netherlands and these negotiations were not easy, because William tried to get as much out of it as he could. In 1789, after the Southern Netherlands declared themselves independent, Hendrik knew this was a fragile state, since William had never forgotten this and after the fall of Napoleon he saw a chance.
Three different scenarios were made, The Northern Netherlands restored within its old borders, if the Southern Netherlands would stay French, the Northern Netherlands should be extended to the Nete River or probably the whole of Flanders. In this scenario portions of Germany would become Dutch, the border would be the line Mechelen-Maastricht-Jülich-Cologne-Düsseldorf where it ends at the river Rhine. The first two came from Memorandum of Holland made in 1813 after the Battle of Leipzig. The last scenario came from William himself, the first scenario never made it because the Great Powers thought an independent Southern Netherlands/Belgium under an Austrian Prince was too weak and Austria was not interested in getting it back. The Dutch question became a problem, the Great Powers of Europe chose the last scenario, but didnt want to go as far in enlarging the Netherlands as William had wanted. It was incorporated into the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the Duchy of Luxembourg was not fully granted to William, because it was a member of the German Confederation.
William however demanded that Luxembourg become a part of the Netherlands, historically it had been a part of the Seventeen Provinces or Burgundian Netherlands up to 1648, but Luxembourg was still a part of the discussions. On 1 March 1815, while the Congress of Vienna was still going on, Napoleon escaped from Elba and he was defeated at the Battle of Waterloo by Prussian, Belgian and Nassau troops. In response, on 16 March 1815, William proclaimed the Netherlands a kingdom, furthermore, on 31 May 1815, William concluded a treaty at the Congress of Vienna whereby he ceded the Principality of Orange-Nassau to the Kingdom of Prussia in exchange for the Duchy of Luxembourg. With the unification, William completed his familys three-century quest to unite the Low Countries under a single rule, Royaume uni des Pays-Bas never was the French official name of this short-lived kingdom. This French unofficial name stayed in the language to avoid any confusion with the rest of the Netherlands after the Belgian Revolution and secession
North Sulawesi is a province of Indonesia. It is located on the peninsula of the island of Sulawesi, on the Minahasa Peninsula lies south of Philippines. The provinces capital and largest city is Manado, and its population was 4,135,526 according to the 2010 census, the Dinoyo Inscription which was found near the town Malang is the oldest written sources in East Java, that is in 760. In the era of Majapahit under King Hayam Wuruk, its territory up to Malacca, the earliest evidence of the entry of Islam to East Java is the tomb headstone in Gresik many 1102, as well as a number of Islam tombs at the tomb complex of Majapahit. In addition, found the appearance of the Jedong temple in the Wagir Region, East Java, which is believed to be older than the Dinoyo inscription, which is about 6th century AD. Portugal is the nation who arrived in North Sulawesi, the Portuguese ship docked on the Manado Island during the reign of the Kingdom of Manado in 1521. Spanish ships docked in the island of Talaud and Siau and continues to Ternate, the Portuguese built a fort at Amurang.
The Spanish built forts in, and the Minahassa Peninsula started being colonized by Spain, resistance against the Spanish colonization peaked in 1660-1664. Ships from the Netherlands landed in Manado in 1660 in helping the Minahasa Confederation to fight against Spain, after defeating the Spain, the Minahasa Confederation entered into an agreement with the Dutch East India Company. After the independence of Indonesia, Indonesia is divided into eight provinces, the first governor of Sulawesi is Dr. Sam Ratulangi, which is known as a national hero. In,1948 the State of East Indonesia was formed in Sulawesi, the State of East Indonesia was dissolved and merged into the Republic of Indonesia. Based on Law Act No.13 of 1964, formed the North Sulawesi province, on August 14,1959 in the set as the anniversary of the province. Climate in the North Sulawesi region including tropical influenced by monsoon winds, in the months November to April blowing westerly winds bring rain on the north coast, while in the month of May to October there is a change of dry southerly winds.
Rainfall is uneven with a rate ranging between 2, 000-3,000 mm, and the number of rainy days between 90–139 days. Areas that received the most rainfall is Minahasa, the average air temperature is 25 °C. The maximum air temperature recorded an average of 30 °C and minimum air temperature average of 22.1 °C, temperature is affected by the altitude of a location by calculating each increment of 100 meters can lower the temperature by about 0.8 °C. The province areas are immediately adjacent neighbor country the Philippines, mountains lies a chain to an altitude above 1,000 above sea level. Lowland and upland potentially have economic value for the region, the lakes in this area potentially has economic value to the development of the field of tourism and energy
Paul Thomas Mann was a German novelist, short story writer, social critic, philanthropist and the 1929 Nobel Prize in Literature laureate. His highly symbolic and ironic epic novels and novellas are noted for their insight into the psychology of the artist and his analysis and critique of the European and German soul used modernized German and Biblical stories, as well as the ideas of Goethe and Schopenhauer. Mann was a member of the Hanseatic Mann family and portrayed his family and class in his first novel and his older brother was the radical writer Heinrich Mann and three of his six children, Erika Mann, Klaus Mann and Golo Mann, became important German writers. When Hitler came to power in 1933, Mann fled to Switzerland, when World War II broke out in 1939, he moved to the United States, returning to Switzerland in 1952. Thomas Mann is one of the exponents of the so-called Exilliteratur. Manns work influenced many authors, including Heinrich Böll, Joseph Heller, Yukio Mishima. Paul Thomas Mann was born to a family in Lübeck.
His mother was Roman Catholic but Mann was baptised into his fathers Lutheran religion, Manns father died in 1891 and his trading firm was liquidated. The family subsequently moved to Munich, Mann lived in Munich from 1891 until 1933, with the exception of a year in Palestrina, with his novelist elder brother Heinrich. Thomas worked with the South German Fire Insurance Company in 1894-95 and his career as a writer began when he wrote for Simplicissimus. Manns first short story, Little Mr Friedemann, was published in 1898, in 1905, Mann married Katia Pringsheim, daughter of a wealthy, secular Jewish industrialist family. She joined the Lutheran church, today the cottage is a cultural center dedicated to him, with a small memorial exhibition. In 1933, while traveling in the South of France, Mann heard from Klaus and Erika in Munich, the family emigrated to Küsnacht, near Zurich, Switzerland but received Czechoslovak citizenship and a passport in 1936. After Nazi Germany took over Czechoslovakia, he emigrated to the United States in 1939.
In 1942, the Mann family moved to 1550 San Remo Drive in the Pacific Palisades suburb of Los Angeles, on 23 June 1944 Thomas Mann was naturalized as a citizen of the United States. The Manns lived in Los Angeles until 1952, the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939, prompted Mann to offer anti-Nazi speeches to the German people via the BBC. In October 1940 he began monthly broadcasts, recorded in the U. S. and flown to London, in these eight-minute addresses, Mann condemned Hitler and his paladins as crude philistines completely out of touch with European culture. In one noted speech he said, The war is horrible, Mann was one of the few publicly active opponents of Nazism among German expatriates in the U. S
Jacob van Lennep
Jacob van Lennep was a Dutch poet and novelist. He was born in Amsterdam, where his father, David Jacob van Lennep, a scholar and poet, was professor of eloquence and the classical languages in the Atheneum. He spent his summers at Huis te Manpad, where his family had a home. This colorful monument influenced him to write a song about it. Lennep took the degree of doctor of laws at Leiden, and his first poetical efforts had been translations from Byron, of whom he was an ardent admirer, and in 1826 he published a collection of original Academische Idyllen, which had some success. He first attained genuine popularity by the Nederlandsche Legenden which reproduced, after the manner of Sir Walter Scott, in 1832 he became member of the Royal Institute, which became the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. The series included De Roos van Dekama, Onze Voorouders and his Dutch history for young people is attractively written. Apart from the two already mentioned, van Lennep was an indefatigable journalist and literary critic, the author of numerous dramatic pieces.
For some years, van Lennep held an appointment, and from 1853 to 1856 he was a member of the second chamber. He died at Oosterbeek near Arnhem in 1868, there is a collective edition of his Poetische Werken, and of his Romantische Werken. See a bibliography by P. Knoll, and Jan ten Brink, Geschiedenis der Noord-Nederlandsche Letteren in de XIX Eeuw and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Hugh, ed. article name needed. The story is based on the historic Battle of Warns, information about Jacob van Lennep in the digital library of Dutch Literature - DBNL Website based on TV Series that retraces walks through the Netherlands based on his diaries
Ameland is a municipality and one of the West Frisian Islands off the north coast of the Netherlands. It consists mostly of sand dunes and it is the third major island of the West Frisians. It neighbours islands Terschelling to the west and Schiermonnikoog to the east and this includes the small Engelsmanplaat and Rif islands to the east. Ameland is, counted from the west, the fourth inhabited Dutch Wadden island, the whole island falls under one municipality, which carries the same name. The Wadden islands form the border between the North sea and the Wadden sea which lies on the side of the island file. The municipality of Ameland had a population of 3,591 in 2014, the island has four villages, and one small part-village. There were two villages and Sier, but these were flooded and now lie in the sea. The name of these live on in MS Oerd and MS Sier. Although Holland and the Holy Roman Emperor contested this quasi-independent status, it remained a free lordship until the family, Cammingha. Only in the constitution of 1813 was the island finally integrated into the Netherlands into the province of Friesland, the monarchy of the Netherlands still maintain the title Vrijheer van Ameland today.
In 1871 and 1872, a dike was built between Ameland and the mainland by a society for the reclamation of Frisian land from the sea, the dike ran from Holwerd to Buren and was 8.7 km. long. The province and the Dutch realm each paid 200,000 guilders, in the end, it was unsuccessful, the dike did not prove to be durable and in 1882, after heavy storms in the winter and maintenance of the dam were stopped. The dike can still be seen at low tide. The dam at Holwerd is the beginning of this dike, in 1940 German troops were ferried to the island and within hours Ameland was under the control of the German Army. Because of its military value the Allies never invaded Ameland. The German forces on the island did not surrender until June 2,1945, like all West and East Frisian Islands, Ameland is a unique piece of nature. The profusion of different plants on the island is caused by the variety of landscapes. One of the areas is the Oerd, a large complex of dunes which is still expanding by the year
Sumatra is a large island in western Indonesia that is part of the Sunda Islands. It is the largest island that is entirely in Indonesia and the sixth-largest island in the world at 473,481 km2, Sumatra is an elongated landmass spanning a diagonal northwest-southeast axis. The Indian Ocean borders the west and southwest sides of Sumatra with the chain of Simeulue, Nias. On the northeast side the narrow Strait of Malacca separates the island from the Malay Peninsula, on the southeast the narrow Sunda Strait separates Sumatra from Java. The northern tip of Sumatra borders the Andaman Islands, while on the eastern side are the islands of Bangka and Belitung, Karimata Strait. The Bukit Barisan mountains, which several active volcanoes, form the backbone of the island, while the northeast sides are outlying lowlands with swamps, mangrove. The equator crosses the island at its center on West Sumatra, the climate of the island is tropical and humid with lush tropical rain forest once dominating the landscape.
Sumatra was known in ancient times by the Sanskrit names of Swarnadwīpa and Swarnabhūmi, the first word mentioning the name of Sumatra was the name of Srivijayan Haji Sumatrabhumi, who sent an envoy to China in 1017. Arab geographers referred to the island as Lamri in the tenth through thirteenth centuries, late in the 14th century the name Sumatra became popular in reference to the kingdom of Samudra Pasai, which was a rising power until it was replaced by Sultanate of Aceh. Sultan Alauddin Shah of Aceh, on letters written in 1602 addressed to Queen Elizabeth I of England, referred to himself as king of Aceh, the word itself is from Sanskrit Samudra, meaning gathering together of waters, sea or ocean. European writers in the 19th century found that the inhabitants did not have a name for the island. The Melayu Kingdom was absorbed by Srivijaya, Srivijaya was a Buddhist monarchy centred in what is now Palembang. Dominating the region trade and conquest throughout the 7th to 9th centuries. The empire was a thalassocracy or maritime power that extended its influence from island to island, Palembang was a center for scholarly learning, and it was there the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim I Ching studied Sanskrit in 671 CE before departing for India.
On his journey to China, he spent four years in Palembang translating Buddhist texts, Srivijayan influence waned in the 11th century after it was defeated by the Chola Empire of southern India. At the same time, Islam made its way to Sumatra through Arabs, by the late 13th century, the monarch of the Samudra kingdom had converted to Islam. Marco Polo visited the island in 1292, and Ibn Battuta visited twice during 1345–1346, Samudra was succeeded by the powerful Aceh Sultanate, which survived to the 20th century. With the coming of the Dutch, the many Sumatran princely states fell under their control
Amsterdam is the capital and most populous municipality of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Its status as the capital is mandated by the Constitution of the Netherlands, although it is not the seat of the government, which is The Hague. Amsterdam has a population of 851,373 within the city proper,1,351,587 in the urban area, the city is located in the province of North Holland in the west of the country. The metropolitan area comprises much of the part of the Randstad, one of the larger conurbations in Europe. Amsterdams name derives from Amstelredamme, indicative of the citys origin around a dam in the river Amstel, during that time, the city was the leading centre for finance and diamonds. In the 19th and 20th centuries the city expanded, and many new neighborhoods and suburbs were planned, the 17th-century canals of Amsterdam and the 19–20th century Defence Line of Amsterdam are on the UNESCO World Heritage List. As the commercial capital of the Netherlands and one of the top financial centres in Europe, Amsterdam is considered a world city by the Globalization.
The city is the capital of the Netherlands. Many large Dutch institutions have their headquarters there, and seven of the worlds 500 largest companies, including Philips and ING, are based in the city. In 2012, Amsterdam was ranked the second best city to live in by the Economist Intelligence Unit and 12th globally on quality of living for environment, the city was ranked 3rd in innovation by Australian innovation agency 2thinknow in their Innovation Cities Index 2009. The Amsterdam seaport to this day remains the second in the country, famous Amsterdam residents include the diarist Anne Frank, artists Rembrandt van Rijn and Vincent van Gogh, and philosopher Baruch Spinoza. The Amsterdam Stock Exchange, the oldest stock exchange in the world, is located in the city center. After the floods of 1170 and 1173, locals near the river Amstel built a bridge over the river, the earliest recorded use of that name is in a document dated October 27,1275, which exempted inhabitants of the village from paying bridge tolls to Count Floris V.
This allowed the inhabitants of the village of Aemstelredamme to travel freely through the County of Holland, paying no tolls at bridges, the certificate describes the inhabitants as homines manentes apud Amestelledamme. By 1327, the name had developed into Aemsterdam, Amsterdam is much younger than Dutch cities such as Nijmegen and Utrecht. In October 2008, historical geographer Chris de Bont suggested that the land around Amsterdam was being reclaimed as early as the late 10th century. This does not necessarily mean there was already a settlement then, since reclamation of land may not have been for farming—it may have been for peat. Amsterdam was granted city rights in either 1300 or 1306, from the 14th century on, Amsterdam flourished, largely from trade with the Hanseatic League
The Singel is a canal in Amsterdam which encircled the city in the Middle Ages. It served as a moat around the city until 1585, when Amsterdam expanded beyond the Singel, the canal runs from the IJ bay, near Central Station, to the Muntplein square, where it meets the Amstel river. It is now the inner-most canal in Amsterdams semicircular ring of canals, the canal should not be confused with the Singelgracht canal, which became the outer limit of the city during the Dutch Golden Age in the 17th Century. Other Dutch towns have ring-shaped canals named Singel, Amsterdams famous flower market, Bloemenmarkt, is located along the Singel between Koningsplein and Muntplein squares. The market stalls are actually boats floating in the canal, part of the Singel has been designated a red-light district, with prostitutes offering their services from behind red-lit windows. The area, known as the Singelgebied, is located near Lijnbaanssteeg, yab Yum, one of Amsterdams most exclusive brothels until closed by the local authority in January 2008, was located at Singel 295.
The Singel is lined by many beautiful, richly decorated canal houses built during the Dutch Golden Age, notable buildings along the canal include, A house said to be the narrowest in the world — only one meter wide, at Singel 7. De Dolphijn, at Singel 140-142, a monumental canalside house built in ca,1600, once inhabited by Frans Banning Cocq, the central figure in Rembrandts painting The Night Watch. The Oude Lutherse Kerk, at Singel 411, built in 1632-1633, the Ronde Lutherse Kerk, known as Koepelkerk or Nieuwe Lutherse Kerk, built in 1668-1671. The library of the University of Amsterdam, at Singel 425, the Kalvertoren shopping center, between Koningsplein and Muntplein squares. The Munttoren tower, originally part of a gate in the Medieval city walls, on Muntplein square, the Haringpakkerstoren tower was part of Amsterdams Medieval city defenses. The tower stood at the beginning of the Singel, near the IJ, the municipal government is currently considering a plan to rebuild the tower and adjacent houses.
However, this remains highly controversial, opponents consider it in poor taste. The Torensluis, built in 1648, is an arched and exceptionally wide bridge across the Singel, now covered by cosy café terraces and a bust of Dutch writer Multatuli, the Torensluis is the oldest remaining bridge in Amsterdam, and the widest bridge in Amsterdam. The Jan Roodepoortstoren tower stood on one end of the bridge but was torn down in 1829, the towers foundations remain part of the bridge. The entrance and barred windows of the dungeon are still visible. The bridge, known as Brug 9, crosses the Singel near Dam square, up until the 15th century, the Singel was known as the Stedegracht. In the 17th century the canal was known for time as Koningsgracht, in honor of King Henry IV of France
Colonialism is the establishment of a colony in one territory by a political power from another territory, and the subsequent maintenance and exploitation of that colony. The term is used to describe a set of unequal relationships between the colonial power and the colony and often between the colonists and the indigenous peoples. The European colonial period was the era from the 16th century to the century when several European powers established colonies in Asia, Africa. At first the countries followed a policy of mercantilism, designed to strengthen the economy at the expense of rivals. By the mid-19th century, the powerful British Empire gave up mercantilism and trade restrictions and introduced the principle of free trade, collins English Dictionary defines colonialism as the policy and practice of a power in extending control over weaker peoples or areas. The Merriam-Webster Dictionary offers four definitions, including something characteristic of a colony, in the book, Osterhammel asks, How can colonialism be defined independently from colony.
He settles on a definition, Colonialism is a relationship between an indigenous majority and a minority of foreign invaders. The fundamental decisions affecting the lives of the people are made. Rejecting cultural compromises with the population, the colonizers are convinced of their own superiority. Historians often distinguish between two overlapping forms of colonialism, Settler colonialism involves large-scale immigration, often motivated by religious, exploitation colonialism involves fewer colonists and focuses on access to resources for export, typically to the metropole. Surrogate colonialism involves a settlement project supported by a colonial power, internal colonialism is a notion of uneven structural power between areas of a state. The source of exploitation comes from within the state, as colonialism often played out in pre-populated areas, sociocultural evolution included the formation of various ethnically hybrid populations. In fact, everywhere where colonial powers established a consistent and continued presence, notable examples in Asia include the Anglo-Burmese, Anglo-Indian, Eurasian Singaporean, Filipino mestizo and Macanese peoples.
In the Dutch East Indies the vast majority of Dutch settlers were in fact Eurasians known as Indo-Europeans, the Other, or othering is the process of creating a separate entity to persons or groups who are labelled as different or non-normal due to the repetition of characteristics. Othering is the creation from those who discriminate, to distinguish, several scholars in recent decades developed the notion of the other as an epistemological concept in social theory. For example, postcolonial scholars, believed that colonizing powers explained an ‘other’ who were there to dominate, political geographers explain how colonial/ imperial powers othered places they wanted to dominate to legalize their exploitation of the land. During the rise of colonialism and after, post colonialism, the Western powers perspectives of the East as the other and this viewpoint and separation of culture had divided the Eastern and Western culture creating a dominant/ subordinate dynamic, both being the other towards themselves.
The word metropole comes from the Greek metropolis —mother city, the word colony comes from the Latin colonia—a place for agriculture
Nanjing has a prominent place in Chinese history and culture, having served as the capitals of various Chinese dynasties and republican governments dating from the 3rd century CE to 1949. When being the capital of a state, for instance, the ROC, Nanjing is particularly known as Jinling or Ginling and the old name has been used since the Warring States period in Zhou Dynasty. Located in Yangtze River Delta area and the center of east China and it has been awarded the title of 2008 Habitat Scroll of Honour of China, Special UN Habitat Scroll of Honour Award and National Civilized City. Nanjing boasts many high-quality universities and research institutes, with the number of universities listed in 100 National Key Universities ranking third, the ratio of college students to total population ranks No.1 among large cities nationwide. Nanjing is one of the three Chinese top research centers according to Nature Index, Key cultural facilities include Nanjing Library, Nanjing Museum and Art Museum.
Archaeological discovery shows that Nanjing Man lived in more than 500 thousand years ago, zun, a kind of wine vessel, was found to exist in Beiyinyangying culture of Nanjing in about 5000 years ago. According to a legend quoted by an artist in Ming dynasty, Chen Yi, King of the State of Wu, in 473 BCE, the State of Yue conquered Wu and constructed the fort of Yuecheng on the outskirts of the present-day Zhonghua Gate. In 333 BCE, after eliminating the State of Yue, the State of Chu built Jinling Yi in the part of present-day Nanjing. It was renamed Moling during reign of Qin Shi Huang, since then, the city experienced destruction and renewal many times. Nanjing was the city of Danyang Prefecture, and had been the capital city of Yangzhou for about 400 years from late Han to early Tang. This city would soon play a role in the following centuries. Shortly after the unification of the region, the Western Jin dynasty collapsed, First the rebellions by eight Jin princes for the throne and rebellions and invasion from Xiongnu and other nomadic peoples that destroyed the rule of the Jin dynasty in the north.
Its the first time that the capital of the moved to southern part. During the period of North–South division, Nanjing remained the capital of the Southern dynasties for more than two and a half centuries, during this time, Nanjing was the international hub of East Asia. Based on historical documents, the city had 280,000 registered households, assuming an average Nanjing household had about 5.1 people at that time, the city had more than 1.4 million residents. As the old capital of China, many legendary stories happened here, residents in Nanjing all have the warmest affection for this city. Throughout glory and darkness in past centuries, Nanjing becomes a low-key city, GDP growth rate significantly exceeds the average rate in China for decades, which maintain a fast developing model. Possibly the best preserved of them is the ensemble of the Tomb of Xiao Xiu, the period of division ended when the Sui Dynasty reunified China and almost destroyed the entire city, turning it into a small town