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Multiculturalism

The term multiculturalism has a range of meanings within the contexts of sociology, of political philosophy, of colloquial use. In sociology and in everyday usage, it is a synonym for "ethnic pluralism", with the two terms used interchangeably, for example, a cultural pluralism in which various ethnic groups collaborate and enter into a dialogue with one another without having to sacrifice their particular identities, it can describe a mixed ethnic community area where multiple cultural traditions exist or a single country within which they do. Groups associated with an indigenous or autochthonous ethnic group and foreigner ethnic groups are the focus. In reference to sociology, multiculturalism is the end-state of either a natural or artificial process and occurs on either a large national scale or on a smaller scale within a nation's communities. On a smaller scale this can occur artificially when a jurisdiction is established or expanded by amalgamating areas with two or more different cultures.

On a large scale, it can occur as a result of either legal or illegal migration to and from different jurisdictions around the world. In reference to political science, Multiculturalism can be defined as a states capacity to and efficiently deal with cultural plurality within its sovereign borders. Multiculturalism as a political philosophy involves policies which vary widely, it has been described as a "salad bowl" and as a "cultural mosaic", in contrast to a "melting pot". In the political philosophy of multiculturalism, ideas are focused on the ways in which societies are either believed to or should, respond to cultural and religious differences, it is associated with "identity politics", "the politics of difference", "the politics of recognition". It is a matter of economic interests and political power. In more recent times political multiculturalist ideologies have been expanding in their use to include and define disadvantaged groups such as African Americans, LGBT, with arguments focusing on ethnic and religious minorities, minority nations, indigenous peoples and the disabled.

It is within this context in which the term is most understood and the broadness and scope of the definition, as well as its practical use, has been the subject of serious debate. Most debates over multiculturalism center around whether or not multiculturalism is the appropriate way to deal with diversity and immigrant integration; the arguments regarding the perceived rights to a multicultural education include the proposition that it acts as a way to demand recognition of aspects of a group's culture subordination and its entire experience in contrast to a melting pot or non-multicultural societies. The term multiculturalism is most used in reference to Western nation-states, which had achieved a de facto single national identity during the 18th and/or 19th centuries. Multiculturalism has been official policy in several Western nations since the 1970s, for reasons that varied from country to country, including the fact that many of the great cities of the Western world are made of a mosaic of cultures.

The Canadian government has been described as the instigator of multicultural ideology because of its public emphasis on the social importance of immigration. The Canadian Royal Commission on Bilingualism and Biculturalism is referred to as the origins of modern political awareness of multiculturalism. Canada has provided provisions to the French speaking majority of Quebec, whereby they function as an autonomous community with special rights to govern the members of their community, as well as establish French as one of the official languages. In the Western English-speaking countries, multiculturalism as an official national policy started in Canada in 1971, followed by Australia in 1973 where it is maintained today, it was adopted as official policy by most member-states of the European Union. Right-of-center governments in several European states – notably the Netherlands and Denmark – have reversed the national policy and returned to an official monoculturalism. A similar reversal is the subject of debate in the United Kingdom, among others, due to evidence of incipient segregation and anxieties over "home-grown" terrorism.

Several heads-of-state or heads-of-government have expressed doubts about the success of multicultural policies: The United Kingdom's ex-Prime Minister David Cameron, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, Australia's ex-prime minister John Howard, Spanish ex-prime minister Jose Maria Aznar and French ex-president Nicolas Sarkozy have voiced concerns about the effectiveness of their multicultural policies for integrating immigrants. Many nation-states in Africa and the Americas are culturally diverse and are'multicultural' in a descriptive sense. In some, communalism is a major political issue; the policies adopted by these states have parallels with multiculturalist policies in the Western world, but the historical background is different, the goal may be a mono-cultural or mono-ethnic nation-building – for instance in the Malaysian government's attempt to create a'Malaysian race' by 2020. Multiculturalism is seen by its supporters as a fairer system that allows people to express who they are within a society, more tolerant and that adapts better to social issues.

They argue that culture is not one definable thing based on one race or religion, but rather the result of multiple factors that c

Eriogonum siskiyouense

Eriogonum siskiyouense is a rare species of wild buckwheat known by the common name Siskiyou buckwheat. The plant is endemic to far northern California, it is known only from the area between Mount Eddy in the Trinity Mountains and the Scott Mountains, around the border of Siskiyou County and Trinity County. Both ranges are in the southern Klamath Mountains System, it is a member of the local serpentine soils flora, found at elevations of 1,600–2,800 metres in yellow pine forest habitats within the Shasta-Trinity National Forest. Eriogonum siskiyouense is perennial herb forms, it bears clusters of small rounded to oval leaves each under a centimeter long and coated in gray woolly fibers at least on the undersides. The flowering stem arising from the caudex has a whorl of two to four leaflike bracts around the middle and is otherwise naked but for a coat of woolly hairs. Atop the scape are the bright yellow flowers, which are arranged in a spherical cluster. Calflora Database: Eriogonum siskiyouense Jepson Manual eFlora treatment of Eriogonum siskiyouense U.

C. Photos gallery of Eriogonum siskiyouense

The Diamonds

The Diamonds are a Canadian vocal quartet that rose to prominence in the 1950s and early 1960s with 16 Billboard hit records. The original members were Dave Somerville, Ted Kowalski, Phil Levitt, Bill Reed, they were most noted for interpreting and introducing rhythm and blues vocal group music to the wider pop music audience. Contrary to a popular myth, the father of Tom Hanks was never a member of the group. In 1953, Dave Somerville, while working as a sound engineer for the Canadian Broadcasting Corporation in Toronto, Canada, met three other young singers, they decided to form a stand-up quartet called The Diamonds. The group's first performance was in the basement of St. Thomas Aquinas Church in Toronto singing in a Christmas minstrel show; the audience's reaction to the Somerville-led group was so positive that they decided that night they would turn professional. After 18 months of rehearsal, they drove to New York and tied for 1st Place on Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts; the prize of being guest artist for a week on Godfrey’s show led to a recording contract with Coral Records.

Professional musician Nat Goodman became their manager. Coral released four songs, the most notable being "Black Denim Trousers & Motorcycle Boots", written by Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller; the next big step was an audition with Cleveland, radio disc jockey, Bill Randle, who had aided in the success of some popular groups, such as The Crew-Cuts. Randle was impressed with The Diamonds and introduced them to a producer at Mercury Records who signed the group to a recording contract; the Diamonds’ first recording for Mercury was "Why Do Fools Fall in Love", which reached #12 in the U. S. as their first hit, their follow-up hit single, "The Church Bells May Ring", reached #14 in the U. S; the Diamonds' biggest hits were 1957's "Little Darlin'" and "The Stroll", an original song written for the group by Clyde Otis, from an idea by Dick Clark. Although they were signed to do rock and roll, Mercury paired them with jazz composer and arranger Pete Rugolo, in one of his Meet series recordings; the album, entitled The Diamonds Meet Pete Rugolo, allowed them to return to their roots and do some established standards.

The group sang "Little Darlin"' and ``. They sang the theme song to the 1958 film, Kathy O’, their television appearances included the TV shows of Steve Allen, Perry Como, Vic Damone, Tony Bennett, Eddy Arnold, Paul Winchell. They appeared on American Bandstand. In the late 1950s, Reed and Levitt left the group and were replaced by Mike Douglas, John Felten, Evan Fisher. Despite the ever-changing style of rock & roll and their Mercury contract expiring, The Diamonds continued touring the country. After Dave Somerville left the group in 1961 to pursue a folk singing career as "David Troy", he was replaced by Jim Malone. There were no more hit records by The Diamonds. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s The Diamonds performed in Las Vegas led, at first, by Mike Douglas being continued by Glenn Stetson. At one time, there were at least two groups performing under The Diamonds name, the other principally being led by John Felten until his death on May 17, 1982, in a plane crash; this created an issue in the late 1980s that went to court.

The right to the use of the name "The Diamonds" was awarded to Gary Owens with the original members being allowed to use their name on special occasions each year. Owens, along with members Bob Duncan, Steve Smith, Gary Cech, released an album in 1987, "Diamonds Are Forever", which contained two songs that entered the lower reaches of the Country Music Charts, "Just a Little Bit" and "Two Kinds Of Women". In 1986, Glenn Stetson and Dick Malono opened up Little Darln's Rock and Roll Palace near Disney in Orlando, Florida, a magical success for all the acts of that era to perform; the Country Music Network starting videos of the groups that went on the TV network. In 1983, The Diamonds with Glenn Sterson were the first rock and roll group to go on the Country Music Network on a show called Nashville Now with Ralph Emory; the Diamonds received national attention once again in 2000, when the original members were invited to sing in TJ Lubinsky’s PBS production of Doo-Wop 51, again in the PBS production entitled Magic Moments-The Best Of'50s Pop in 2004.

Stetson received a heart transplant in 2000, died in 2003. Original member Kowalski died on August 8, 2010, from heart disease, at the age of 79. In 2012 The Diamonds were listed as guest stars with The Fabulous Palm Springs Follies at the Plaza Theatre in Palm Springs, California; the Diamonds are on the Live On Stage 2013-2014 roster for a national community concert tour. Somerville died on July 2015, in Santa Barbara, California; the Diamonds continue to tour to this day with the line-up of Gary Owens, Adam David Marino, Michael Lawrence and Jeff Dolan, although none of the members are from the original group which had records on Mercury Records. Dave Somerville – Lead / Replaced by Jim Malone 1961 Ted KowalskiTenor / Replaced by Evan Fisher 1958 Phil Levitt – Baritone / Replaced by Mike Douglas 1957 Bill Reed – Bass / Replaced by John Felten 1958 / Replaced by Gary Cech until 1992. Glenn Stetson – Lead vocalist / replaced John Felten in 1968. Mike Douglas remained with the group as the only original member who recorded for Mercury in the 1950s and early 1960s.

At this time The Diamon