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A multimeter or a multitester known as a VOM, is an electronic measuring instrument that combines several measurement functions in one unit. A typical multimeter can measure voltage and resistance. Analog multimeters use a microammeter with a moving pointer to display readings. Digital multimeters have a numeric display, may show a graphical bar representing the measured value. Digital multimeters are now far more common due to their lower cost and greater precision, but analog multimeters are still preferable in some cases, for example when monitoring a varying value. A multimeter can be a hand-held device useful for basic fault finding and field service work, or a bench instrument which can measure to a high degree of accuracy. Multimeters are available in a wide range of prices. Cheap multimeters can cost less than US$10, while laboratory-grade models with certified calibration can cost more than US$5,000; the first moving-pointer current-detecting device was the galvanometer in 1820. These were used to measure resistance and voltage by using a Wheatstone bridge, comparing the unknown quantity to a reference voltage or resistance.

While useful in the lab, the devices were slow and impractical in the field. These galvanometers were delicate; the D'Arsonval–Weston meter movement uses a moving coil which carries a pointer and rotates on pivots or a taut band ligament. The coil rotates in a permanent magnetic field and is restrained by fine spiral springs which serve to carry current into the moving coil, it gives proportional measurement rather than just detection, deflection is independent of the orientation of the meter. Instead of balancing a bridge, values could be directly read off the instrument's scale, which made measurement quick and easy; the basic moving coil meter is suitable only for direct current measurements in the range of 10 μA to 100 mA. It is adapted to read heavier currents by using shunts or to read voltage using series resistances known as multipliers. To read alternating currents or voltages, a rectifier is needed. One of the earliest suitable rectifiers was the copper oxide rectifier developed and manufactured by Union Switch & Signal Company, Pennsylvania part of Westinghouse Brake and Signal Company, from 1927.

Multimeters were invented in the early 1920s as radio receivers and other vacuum tube electronic devices became more common. The invention of the first multimeter is attributed to British Post Office engineer, Donald Macadie, who became dissatisfied with the need to carry many separate instruments required for maintenance of telecommunications circuits. Macadie invented an instrument which could measure amperes and ohms, so the multifunctional meter was named Avometer; the meter comprised a moving coil meter and precision resistors, switches and sockets to select the range. The Automatic Coil Winder and Electrical Equipment Company, founded in 1923, was set up to manufacture the Avometer and a coil winding machine designed and patented by MacAdie. Although a shareholder of ACWEECO, Mr MacAdie continued to work for the Post Office until his retirement in 1933, his son, Hugh S. MacAdie, became Technical Director; the first AVO was put on sale in 1923, many of its features remained unaltered through to the last Model 8.

Any meter will load the circuit under test to some extent. For example, a multimeter using a moving coil movement with full-scale deflection current of 50 microamps, the highest sensitivity available, must draw at least 50 μA from the circuit under test for the meter to reach the top end of its scale; this may load a high-impedance circuit so much as to affect the circuit, thereby giving a low reading. The full-scale deflection current may be expressed in terms of "ohms per volt"; the ohms per volt figure is called the "sensitivity" of the instrument. Thus a meter with a 50 μA movement will have a "sensitivity" of 20,000 Ω/V. "Per volt" refers to the fact that the impedance the meter presents to the circuit under test will be 20,000 Ω multiplied by the full-scale voltage to which the meter is set. For example, if the meter is set to a range of 300 V full scale, the meter's impedance will be 6 MΩ. 20,000 Ω/V is the best sensitivity available for typical analog multimeters that lack internal amplifiers.

For meters that do have internal amplifiers, the input impedance is fixed by the amplifier circuit. The first Avometer had a sensitivity of 60 Ω/V, three direct current ranges, three direct voltage ranges, a 10,000 Ω resistance range. An improved version of 1927 increased this to 166.6 Ω/V movement. A "Universal" version having additional alternating current and alternating voltage ranges was offered from 1933 and in 1936 the dual-sensitivity Avometer Model 7 offered 500 and 100 Ω/V. Between the mid 1930s until the 1950s, 1,000 Ω/V became a de facto standard of sensitivity for radio work and this figure was quoted on service sheets. However, some manufacturers such as Simpson and Weston, all in the USA, produced 20,000 Ω/V VOMs before the Second World War and some of these were exported. After 1945–46, 20,000 Ω/V became the expected standard for electronics, but some makers offered more sensitive instruments. For industrial and other "heavy-current" use low sensitivity multimeters continued to be produced and these were considered more robust than the more sensitive types.

High-quality analog multimeters continue to be made by several manufacturers, including Chauvin Arnoux (France


AdiPURE was a range of football boots developed by the German sportswear manufacturer Adidas. The company based the design of the AdiPure on its own boots from the 1978 World Cup. In order to remain practical for the modern game, the boot's construction included updated materials and improved manufacturing techniques, to create a product lighter than its 1978 counterpart. For the 2010 FIFA World Cup, Adidas released the adiPURE in a black/sun colourway in honour of the tournament's host nation, South Africa; the original adiPURE was available at launch in both the traditional black/white and a white/black colourway, these were followed by blue/white and silver/black colourways. The boots were constructed using high quality k-leather and displayed many design features similar to Adidas' World Cup 1978 boots, including three lines of stitching on either side of the toe and a short tongue; the adiPURE was accompanied by two less expensive, boots. AdiCORE and Telstar II; the adiPURE II was again released in White/Black, Black/White colourways, with the Blackout, Black/Metallic Gold, White/Cardinal and Brown/White colourways being released later.

Notable design differences from the original adiPure included the omission of the three stripes on the instep of the boot, the addition of a contrasting collar and the implementation of an asymmetric lacing system. The second generation of adiPURE was accompanied by another set of lower-end models, with the usual minor cosmetic differences and the use of a full-grain upper; the Telstar name was replaced with adiNOVA. The adiPURE III was released in Black/White colourway, but this time accompanied by a White/Blue colourway on release. Other colourways released included White/Gold, Gold/Black, Black/Sun, Blue Beauty/White, White/Black/Poppy, Black/Warning and White/Warning. Notable design differences from the adiPURE II included the return of the three stripes on the instep of the boot, although noticeably shorter and wider than on the original adiPURE, it featured an adiPRENE insert in the sole. Again the cheaper adiCore and adiNova variants of the boot were made available with similar differences in pricing and quality.

Announced 1 December 2010, the adiPure IV followed the trend of adidas' 2010 range of football boots by undergoing a significant weight reduction verses previous incarnations. As well as being the lightest adiPure at the time of release, the adiPure IV was the first adiPure boot since the adiPure I to feature a central lacing system and a tongue separate to the rest of the upper. Adidas moved the classic three-stripes further towards the toe-end of the boots, giving them a look more reminiscent of the classic adidas boots of the 1950s, like those worn by the German national football team in the 1954 World Cup; the adiPure IV launched on 1 January 2011 with two colourways. The release of the adiPure IV marked an increase in price for the range, with the price points of both the FG & SG models increased to £120. A Light Scarlet/White/Black colourway was made available in early February; the adiPURE IV SL is the lighter counterpart of the adiPURE IV boot The next generation of adiPure boots were released in February 2012 and were known as the 11pro.

An updated look included an engineered ultra thin 360° support saddle for increased stability and compatibility with Adidas' MiCoach system. Somewhat controversially for purists, Adidas transitioned from a K-Leather upper to Taurus leather for the 11pro; the adiPURE 11pro SL was the lighter counterpart of the adiPURE 11pro. Unlike the adiPURE 11pro, it featured a combination of a K-Leather toe and a SprintSkin heel, allowing the boot to weigh in at just 180 grams; the boot featured a SprintFrame outsole, MiCoach and Traxion studs. The adiPURE 11pro SL was released on 1 February 2012 in a Black/Core Energy colorway. Adidas Predator range of football boots.

IIG meteorite

IIG meteorites are a group of iron meteorites. The group has six members, they are hexahedrites with large amounts of schreibersite. The meteoric iron is composed of kamacite. Iron meteorites are designated with one or two letters. Classification is based on diagrams in which nickel content of meteoric iron is plotted against trace elements. Clusters in these diagrams are assigned a letter in alphabetical order. IIG meteorites are therefore from the second row, cluster G; the Bellsbank, La Primitiva and Tombigbee meteorites were iron meteorites that were found to have chemical and structural similarities in 1967. Further descriptions were made in 1973 and in 1974 it was proposed that the three meteorites should be grouped into the "Bellsbank Trio" grouplet; the group status, that requires five specimen was filled in 1984 by the Twannberg meteorite and in 2000 by the Guanaco meteorite. IIG meteorites are hexahedrites; the meteoric iron has a low concentration of Nickel and is kamacite. IIGs contain large amounts of phosphorus in the form of schreibersite and low concentrations of sulfur.

Trace elements of IIAB and IIG meteorites are offset, interpreted as the two groups forming on a separate planetesimal. Other explanations for the offset are melt inmiscibility; this process took place. First meteoric iron crystallized into a network of channels. Crystallization cut off the channels and made cavities of trapped melt; when the remaining melt reached the eutectic point, the cavities crystallized a mixture of schreibersite and meteoric iron. The matrix of this process would form the IIAB meteorites, while the cavities would form the IIG meteorites; the IIG group has 6 meteorites that are assigned to it. The Bellsbank, La Primitiva, Twannberg and the Auburn meteorite. Glossary of meteoritics

Mario's Early Years!

The Mario's Early Years! Series is a trilogy of point-and-click educational games released on MS-DOS and Super Nintendo Entertainment System by Software Toolworks; the three games consist of Fun with Fun with Numbers and Preschool Fun. In each product, the player has a number of islands to choose from; each island contains a different activity. The game highlights any characters which are clickable. Throughout the activities the player is prompted by voiced instructions and every word, letter or number is read out; the SNES versions of the products contain less activities than the original DOS ones. The Super Nintendo versions support the SNES Mouse peripheral. To create the games and ensure suitability for children, Software Toolworks hired child development specialists, educational research experts and speech and language teachers; the three games are each made up of several minigame activities designed to reinforce or foster basic skills and help children in discovering aspects of everyday things, providing them many hours of entertainment.

The respective games help children recognise colors and numbers. "Fun with Letters" teaches phonics to users. "Fun with Numbers" teaches grouping and organising objects to/from a set as well as thinking about numbers through songs. "Preschool Fun" teaches learning materials for children on their first school year with a good mix of Mathematics and English language. All three products aid in promoting self-esteem, interaction between children and parents, developing new skills and imagination as well as confidence and being positive about learning. In the United Kingdom the games were known as "Mario Teaches Words", "Mario Teaches Sums" and "Mario's Playschool" respectively. Software Toolworks released a compilation on the PC titled "Mario's Early Years CD-ROM Collection"; the game were released in the French and German languages. Computer Gaming World said that the PC version of Fun with Letters "has enough balance between active and passive activities to keep kids engaged for hours". Nintendo Power stated in December 1994 that Preschool Fun noted that the "simple learning activities provide lots of reward" but that "such simple activities without any game play elements will become tedious to the youngest players over a short period."

And that the "digitized voice is annoying." Mario's Early Years: Preschool Fun at MobyGames Mario's Early Years: Fun With Letters at MobyGames Mario's Early Years: Fun with Numbers at MobyGames

List of hospitals in the Republic of Ireland

This is a list of hospitals in the Republic of Ireland. Bon Secours Hospital, Galway Galway Clinic, Galway Merlin Park University Hospital, Galway Portiuncula University Hospital, Ballinasloe University Hospital Galway, Galway Our Lady's Hospital, Manorhamilton Mayo University Hospital, Castlebar Ballina District Hospital, Ballina Swinford District Hospital, Swinford Belmullet District Hospital, Belmullet Sacred Heart Hospital, Castlebar Roscommon University Hospital, Roscommon Sacred Heart Hospital, Roscommon Sligo University Hospital, Sligo St. John's Hospital, Sligo Kingsbridge Private Hospital Sligo St. Dympna's Hospital Clane General Hospital, Clane Naas General Hospital, Naas St. Vincent's Hospital, Athy Aut Even Hospital, Kilkenny Castlecomer District Hospital, Castlecomer Kilcreene Orthopaedic Hospital, Kilcreene St. Canice's Psychiatric Hospital, Kilkenny St. Luke's General Hospital, Kilkenny Midland Regional Hospital, Portlaoise St. Fintan's Hospital, Portlaoise Our Lady of Lourdes Hospital, Drogheda Louth County Hospital, Dundalk Our Lady's Hospital, Navan St. Joseph's Hospital, Trim Birr District Hospital, Birr Midland Regional Hospital, Tullamore Midland Regional Hospital, Mullingar St. Loman's Hospital, Mullingar St. Mary's Hospital, Mullingar Saint Francis Private Hospital, Mullingar Ely Hospital, Wexford Gorey District Hospital, Gorey New Houghton Hospital, New Ross John's Hospital, Enniscorthy Wexford General Hospital, Wexford St. Vincent's Hospital, Wicklow Newcastle Hospital, Newtownmountkennedy Ennis Hospital St. Johns Hospital, Ennis Caherkalla Hospice & Private Hospital, Ennis Bon Secours Hospital, Tralee Cahersiveen Community Hospital, Cahersiveen Dingle Community Hospital, Dingle Kenmare Community Hospital, Kenmare Killarney Community Hospital, Killarney Listowel Community Hospital, Listowel University Hospital Kerry, Tralee Barringtons Hospital, Limerick Croom Hospital, Croom St. Camillus' Geriatric Hospital, Limerick St. John's Hospital, Limerick St. Joseph's Hospital, Limerick University Hospital Limerick University Maternity Hospital, Limerick Nenagh Hospital South Tipperary General Hospital, Clonmel St. Brigid's District Hospital, Carrick-on-Suir St. Joseph's Hospital, Dungarvan St. Otteran's Hospital, Waterford St. Vincent's District Hospital, Dungarvan University Hospital Waterford, Waterford Cavan General Hospital Ballyshannon Carndonagh Community Hospital, Carndonagh Donegal Community Hospital, Donegal Dungloe Community Hospital, Dungloe Killybegs Community Hospital, Killybegs Letterkenny University Hospital, Letterkenny Lifford Community Hospital, Lifford Monaghan Hospital, Monaghan


Amgala is an oasis in Western Sahara. It is located between Tifariti and Smara, outside the Moroccan Wall in the area controlled by the Polisario. Amgala was the scene of several SPLA-RMA battles. In January 1976 and again in February 1976, clashes took place in Amgala between units of the Royal Moroccan Armed Forces and Polisario Front forces, supported by units of the Algerian Army; because of its ample supply of water, Amgala was an important place in the Saguia el-Hamra Valley and Algerian troops set up a Polisario base here where refugees could be given food and medical assistance and transported onward to Algeria. The unexpected attack by the Moroccans caused much anger as well as heavy damage, ninety-nine Algerian soldiers were captured. An all-out war between the two countries was only avoided because of decisive action by President Houari Boumediene of Algeria. After that, Algeria increased its support for the rebels. Algeria claimed that their forces were only in the area to render humanitarian assistance to Sahrawi refugees fleeing from Moroccan occupation and heading for the Sahrawi refugee camps at Tindouf, in western Algeria.

Morocco said. A second battle took place at Amgala between the 13 and 15 February 1976. On this occasion, Polissario troops defeated the small Moroccan garrison which suffered heavy casualties and were nearly wiped out. Morocco complained that the Algerians had been involved in this attack but the latter denied the claim. Another Battle of Amgala took place on 8 November 1989