A multinational corporation or worldwide enterprise is a corporate organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country. Black's Law Dictionary suggests that a company or group should be considered a multinational corporation if it derives 25% or more of its revenue from out-of-home-country operations. However, a firm that owns and controls 51% of a foreign subsidiary controls production of goods or services in at least one country other than its home country and therefore would meet the criterium if that foreign affiliate generates only a few percent of its revenue. A multinational corporation can be referred to as a multinational enterprise, a transnational enterprise, a transnational corporation, an international corporation, or a stateless corporation. There are subtle but real differences between these three labels, as well as multinational corporation and worldwide enterprise. Most of the largest and most influential companies of the modern age are publicly traded multinational corporations, including Forbes Global 2000 companies.
Multinational corporations are subject to criticisms for lacking ethical standards. They have become associated with multinational tax havens and base erosion and profit shifting tax avoidance activities. A multinational corporation is a large corporation incorporated in one country which produces or sells goods or services in various countries; the two main characteristics of MNCs are their large size and the fact that their worldwide activities are centrally controlled by the parent companies. Importing and exporting goods and services Making significant investments in a foreign country Buying and selling licenses in foreign markets Engaging in contract manufacturing — permitting a local manufacturer in a foreign country to produce their products Opening manufacturing facilities or assembly operations in foreign countriesMNCs may gain from their global presence in a variety of ways. First of all, MNCs can benefit from the economy of scale by spreading R&D expenditures and advertising costs over their global sales, pooling global purchasing power over suppliers, utilizing their technological and managerial know-how globally with minimal additional costs.
Furthermore, MNCs can use their global presence to take advantage of underpriced labor services available in certain developing countries, gain access to special R&D capabilities residing in advanced foreign countries. The problem of moral and legal constraints upon the behavior of multinational corporations, given that they are "stateless" actors, is one of several urgent global socioeconomic problems that emerged during the late twentieth century; the best concept for analyzing society's governance limitations over modern corporations is the concept of "stateless corporations". Coined at least as early as 1991 in Business Week, the conception was theoretically clarified in 1993: that an empirical strategy for defining a stateless corporation is with analytical tools at the intersection between demographic analysis and transportation research; this intersection is known as logistics management, it describes the importance of increasing global mobility of resources. In a long history of analysis of multinational corporations we are some quarter century into an era of stateless corporations - corporations which meet the realities of the needs of source materials on a worldwide basis and to produce and customize products for individual countries.
One of the first multinational business organizations, the East India Company, was established in 1601. After the East India Company, came the Dutch East India Company, founded March 20, 1603, which would become the largest company in the world for nearly 200 years; the main characteristics of multinational companies are: In general, there is a national strength of large companies as the main body, in the way of foreign direct investment or acquire local enterprises, established subsidiaries or branches in many countries. When a corporation invests in the country which it is not domiciled, it is called foreign direct investment. Countries may place restrictions on direct investment; the United States Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States scrutinizes foreign investments. In addition, corporations may be prohibited from various business transactions by international sanctions or domestic laws. For example, Chinese domestic corporations or citizens have limitations on their ability to make foreign investments outside of China, in part to reduce capital outflow.
The Pan-Sahel Initiative, according to a November 7, 2002, by the Office of Counterterrorism, U. S. Department of State, was "a State-led effort to assist Mali, Niger and Mauritania in detecting and responding to suspicious movement of people and goods across and within their borders through training and cooperation, its goals support two U. S. national security interests in Africa: waging the War on Terrorism and enhancing regional peace and security." It was in 2005 superseded by the larger-scope Trans-Saharan Counterterrorism Initiative, which in turn was incorporated into the United States Africa Command in 2008. PSI drew criticism for its lack of attention of underlying regional economic problems and local political struggles, the conduct of partner governments against those suspected of being "terrorists", for indirectly radicalizing certain groups living in or near the Sahara.- "According to State Department officials, the Pan-Sahel region of Africa has become important in the global security arena.
Vast expanses of unpopulated areas, porous borders and corruption make Africa an inviting playground for terrorists." Voice of America's Alex Belida reported on November 14, 2003, that the "multimillion dollar security training and equipment program" was "at last under way" in Mali, "a year after it was announced." The program was to continue in the other three countries "over the next several months." Belida said that "Army Colonel John Schnibben, operations director at U. S. European Command, responsible for most of sub-Saharan Africa, says the effort could have a big pay-off for the United States and its Sahel partners." Belida reported that in October 2002, "AF DAS Robert Perry and S/CT Deputy Coordinator Stephanie Kinney, along with other State representatives, visited Chad, Niger and Mali, briefing host nations on the Pan-Sahel Initiative... a program designed to protect borders, track movement of people, combat terrorism, enhance regional cooperation and stability." Beginning in November 2002, "technical assessments" took place in each country to "help focus training and other capacity building resources."
PSI was to "assist participating countries to counter known terrorist operations and border incursions, as well as trafficking of people, illicit materials, other goods." In addition to the "training and material support," the release states, another program would "bring military and civilian officials from the four countries together to encourage greater cooperation and information exchange within and among the governments of the region on counterterrorism and border security issues." The Associated Press reported on May 6, 2004, that "The European Command has proposed expanding the Pan-Sahel Initiative to include Morocco and Algeria, where terror threats are believed to be growing...." In the May 11, 2004, New York Times, Craig Smith that the "U. S. Training African Forces to Uproot Terrorists." Smith says that the Pan-Sahel Initiative "was begun with $7 million and focused on Mali, Mauritania and Chad. It is being expanded to include Senegal and other countries; the U. S. European Command has asked for $125 million for the region over five years."The Pan-Sahel Initiative is the newest front in the "American campaign against terrorism... in a region that military officials fear could become the next base for Al Qaeda -- the ungoverned swath of territory stretching from the Horn of Africa to the Western Sahara's Atlantic coast," he writes.
"Generals here... say the vast, arid region is a new Afghanistan, with well-financed bands of Islamic militants recruiting and arming themselves. Terrorist attacks like the one on March 11 in Madrid that killed 191 people seem to have a North African link, investigators say, may presage others in Europe." "Having learned from missteps in Afghanistan and Iraq," he says, "the American officers are pursuing this battle with a new approach. Instead of planning on a heavy American military presence, they are dispatching Special Operations forces to countries like Mali and Mauritania in West Africa to train soldiers and outfit them with pickup trucks and global-positioning equipment." Drew Brown, in his May 12, 2004, Knight Ridder article adds that "Marine Corps Gen. James Jones, the commander of U. S. European Command, which covers most of Africa... said that shortly after he took command of NATO in January 2002, a six-month analysis of U. S. force structure within European Command concluded that the United States would face a number of security challenges in Africa over the next 10 to 15 years and that a more robust engagement was needed.
"Late last year, soldiers from the 10th Special Forces Group began training military forces in Mali, Mauritania and Niger under the Pan-Sahel Initiative, a $7 million State Department program designed to help the security forces of those impoverished nations defend against terrorists. "That effort follows the establishment of Task Force Horn of Africa, where more than 1,200 Marines and special-operations soldiers are heading up anti-terror training and operations in eastern Africa from a base in Djibouti. "No U. S. forces have been committed to combat in Africa, Jones said. Involvement has consisted of training and advisory teams." In 2009, a NYTimes article reviewed the PSI as it played out in and now underlies current policy scenarios in Mauritania. League of Arab States Combined Joint Task Force-Horn of Africa military-industrial complex Operation Enduring Freedom Pax Americana Sahel Sahel drought David Gutelius, "US creates African enemies where none were before" Christian Science Monitor, July 9, 2003.
Thomas William Garrett was an early Australian Test cricketer and a distinguished public servant. Tom Garrett was the second son of a newspaper politician who bore the same name, his mother, was his father's first wife. Garrett was educated at Newington College, while the school was still at Newington House, in the Sydney suburb of Silverwater, his ability as a cricketer and sprinter was encouraged by the assistant master Joseph Coates. In 1873 he attended lectures for several terms. In January of the next year, his father secured for him a clerkship in the New South Wales Department of Lands, he transferred to the New South Wales Supreme Court in 1876 and was admitted to practice law as a solicitor on 25 February 1882. He became registrar of probates in 1890, curator of intestate estates as well in 1896, the public trustee in 1914; when he retired in 1924, his staff had increased from fourteen to 67, some 25,000 estates, involving over £10 million, had passed through his office. That year, Garrett returned to private practise as a solicitor and, at 81, still attended his office daily.
A tall all-rounder, he played for New South Wales and bowling right-handed. Bowling, was his strength, he bowled at fast-medium pace and took part in 19 Tests, scoring 339 runs at 12.55, taking 36 wickets at an average of 26.94, with best figures of 6–78. In 160 first-class cricket matches he scored 3,673 runs at 16.18, took 446 wickets at 18.27 runs per wicket, including 29 hauls of five wickets in an innings. Garrett played in the first Test match, against Lillywhite’s team in Melbourne in March 1877. At 18 years and 232 days is still the youngest representative. In that match on the 2nd day he scored 18 not out in the first innings, helped sustain a crucial 43-run partnership with Charles Bannerman until the latter split his finger and retired hurt on 165, his 18 not out was, on the 2nd highest test score. Garrett's score was passed in the day by England opener, Harry Jupp. Promoted to number four in the second innings, Garrett made a duck. Opening the bowling with John Hodges he took two wickets in the first innings.
In 1878, he toured England and North America with the first representative Australian team to go overseas. He toured England again in 1882, his last match was at Sydney in 1888. As a bowler it was said by the all-rounder George Giffen that: "... he would keep a fine line outside the off-stump, never minded being hit. Sometimes the ball would work a little from the pitch which victimised most of the batsmen." He would release the ball from as high a point as he could reach, taking advantage of his 6-foot-tall frame. In his career, as his bowling fell away, he became a powerful batsman square of the wicket, he was noted for his speed in the field: in a Sydney match in 1887 it was reported in the press that he caught a skied ball "in a display of breathtaking agility". Garret became captain of New South Wales, he was rated as a skipper for his skill in handling aspiring young bowlers. He was the selector nominated by New South Wales for the Australian team that toured England in 1890, he died in 1943 and following a service at St James' Church in Turramurra was cremated at the Northern Suburbs Crematorium.
At the time of his death he was Australia’s oldest living Test player and the last survivor of the first Test Match. Garrett's great-grandson is the Midnight Oil lead singer and former Australian federal politician and government minister, Peter Garrett. Trevor Garrett is a great great grandson History of Test cricket List of New South Wales representative cricketers Pollard, Australian Cricket: 1803–1893, The Formative Years, The Book Company, 1995. Pollard, Australian Cricket: The Game and the Players, Hodder & Stoughton, 1982. Cable, K. J.. "Garrett, Thomas William". Australian Dictionary of Biography. Canberra: Australian National University. Retrieved 5 May 2008. Bonnell, Currency Lads: The Life and Cricket of T. W. Garrett, R. C. Allen, S. P. Jones and R. J. Pope. Cricinfo article on Tom Garrett