Democrat and Chronicle
The Democrat and Chronicle is a daily newspaper serving the greater Rochester, New York, area. Located at 245 East Main Street in downtown Rochester, the Democrat and Chronicle operates under the ownership of Gannett; the paper's production facility is located in the town of Greece. The Democrat and Chronicle is Rochester's only daily circulated newspaper. Founded in 1833 as The Balance, the paper became known as the Daily Democrat; the Daily Democrat merged with another local paper, the Chronicle, in 1870, to become known as the Democrat and Chronicle. The paper was purchased by Gannett in 1928. In 1997 Gannett merged the evening sister paper the Rochester Times-Union into the Democrat and Chronicle, the two merged staffs in 1992 and had shared the same building since 1959 when the Democrat and Chronicle moved from a location at 59-61 East Main Street on the Main Street Bridge where they had been since 1923. From 1928 to 1985, the Democrat and Chronicle was Gannett's flagship paper, Gannett's corporate headquarters were located in the Democrat and Chronicle building.
Gannett moved its headquarters to Virginia. The Democrat and Chronicle who moved into the building in 1959 continued to occupy the historic Gannett Building at 55 Exchange Boulevard until moving to a new smaller building at the Midtown Plaza site on East Main Street in May, 2016. At 153,350 square feet, the former headquarters in the Gannett building was larger than the current headquarters, 42,000 square feet; the Democrat and Chronicle no longer needed the much larger space in the new digital age where newsprint in the United States is on the decline and the building which included the space that held the printing presses prior to 1996 was expensive to maintain. With the move came new branding as D&C Digital, emphasizing focus on the outlet's digital marketing services and video properties. In 2010, The Democrat and Chronicle ranked number one among US newspapers in market penetration, the percentage of readers in a metro area who read in print or online; the Democrat and Chronicle held that top spot for several years, have been among the leaders since the 1990s.
Earl Caldwell Marie D. De Jesus Arch Merrill Manuel Rivera-Ortiz Michael Walsh The Democrat and Chronicle prices are: $2.50 daily, $3 Sunday and $5 Thanksgiving Day. May be higher outside adjacent counties; the rates for print advertising vary based on seasonality and size. The rates for digital advertising vary, depending on the type of reach of the campaign. Official Site Gannett Official Site 1923 Paper detailing opening of old Pre-Gannett building on Main Street Bridge
Fire alarm call box
A fire alarm box, fire alarm call box, or fire alarm pull box is a device used for notifying a fire department of a fire. Installed on street corners, they were the main means of summoning firefighters before the general availability of telephones; when the box is activated by turning a knob or pulling a hook, a spring-loaded wheel turns, tapping out a pulsed electrical signal corresponding to the box's number. A receiver at fire headquarters annunciates the pulses through flashing lights or tones, or via a pen recorder, the box number is matched to a list of box locations. In modern installations a computer translates the pulses. Though still in wide use, many communities have removed them, relying instead on the widespread availability of landline and cellular telephones. Cities like San Francisco still rely on fire alarm boxes for redundancy in case of emergency; the first telegraph fire alarm system was developed by William Francis Channing and Moses G. Farmer in Boston, Massachusetts in 1852.
Two years they applied for a patent for their "Electromagnetic Fire Alarm Telegraph for Cities". In 1855 John Gamewell of South Carolina purchased regional rights to market the fire alarm telegraph obtaining the patents and full rights to the system in 1859. John F. Kennard bought the patents from the government after they were seized after the Civil War, returned them to Gamewell, formed a partnership, Kennard and Co. in 1867 to manufacture the alarm systems. The Gamewell Fire Alarm Telegraph Co. was formed in 1879. Gamewell systems were installed in 250 cities by 1886 and 500 cities in 1890. By 1910 Gamewell had gained a 95% market share; the simplicity of telegraph alarm boxes and their associated networks means that they are able to operate under conditions which may disrupt or disable other communication systems such as landline phones, cellular phones, emergency services' radio systems. In the years of their use and proliferation, some fire boxes were designed with special devices and other functions in place in an attempt to curb the nuisance of false alarms.
Some of these included an "ear-shattering" wail that would cause discomfort to someone activating the box, while others would handcuff a detachable part of the device to the person triggering the alarm, so that responding police and fire officials could more identify and contact the individual responsible for the activated alarm. Gamewell-FCI company history List of cities with fire box alarm systems Fire alarm boxes in New York City FDNY fire alarm box locator
New York City Fire Department
The New York City Fire Department the Fire Department of the City of New York, is a department of the government of New York City that provides fire protection, technical rescue, primary response to biological and radioactive hazards, emergency medical services to the five boroughs of New York City. The New York City Fire Department is the largest municipal fire department in the United States and the second largest in the world after the Tokyo Fire Department; the FDNY employs 11,051 uniformed firefighters and 4,414 uniformed EMTs, fire inspectors. Its regulations are compiled in title 3 of the New York City Rules; the FDNY's motto is New York's Bravest for fire and New York's Best for EMS. The FDNY serves more than 8.5 million residents within a 302 square mile area. The FDNY headquarters is located at 9 MetroTech Center in Downtown Brooklyn, the FDNY Fire Academy is located on Randalls Island. Like most fire departments of major cities in the United States, the New York City Fire Department is organized in a paramilitary fashion, in many cases, echoes the structure of the police department.
The department's executive staff is divided into two areas that include a civilian Fire Commissioner who serves as the head of the department and a Chief of Department who serves as the operational leader. The current Fire Commissioner is Daniel A. Nigro, who succeeded Salvatore J. Cassano in June 2014; the executive staff includes several civilian deputy commissioners who are responsible for the many administrative bureaus within the department, along with the Chief of Department, Chief of Fire Operations, Chief of EMS, Chief Fire Marshal, Chief of Training and other staff chiefs. Staff chiefs include the seven citywide tour commanders, the Chief of Fire Prevention, the Chief of Safety. Operationally and geographically, the department is organized into five Borough Commands for each of the five Boroughs of New York City. Within those five Borough Commands exists nine firefighting Divisions, each headed by a Deputy Division Chief. Within each Division are four to seven Battalions, each led by a Battalion chief.
Each Battalion consists of three to eight firehouses and consists of 180–200 firefighters and officers. Each firehouse consists of one to three fire companies; each fire company is led by a Captain, who commands three lieutenants and nine to twenty firefighters. There are four shifts of firefighters in each company. Tours can be either night tours or day tours. Under a swapping system called “mutuals”, most firefighters combine tours and work a 24-hour shift, followed by three days off. In one tour or shift, each company is commanded by a Lieutenant or the Captain and is made up of three to five firefighters, depending on the type of fire company/unit: an engine company is staffed by an officer and three to four firefighters; the FDNY faces multifaceted firefighting challenges in many ways unique to New York. In addition to responding to building types that range from wood-frame single family homes to high-rise structures, there are many secluded bridges and tunnels, the New York City Subway system, as well as large parks and wooded areas that can give rise to brush fires.
The FDNY responds to many other incidents such as auto accidents, auto extrications, gas emergencies, construction accidents, high-angle rescues, trench rescues, confined space incidents, transit incidents, unstable buildings or collapses, hazardous material incidents and many more. Over the years, the FDNY has faced and has settled numerous discrimination lawsuits alleging that the FDNY engages in a culture where hiring discrimination towards racial minorities and discrimination towards racial minorities employed by the FDNY by passing them over for raises and promotions is encouraged. Most notably in 2014, the City of New York made a $98 million discrimination lawsuit settlement for a lawsuit brought by the Vulcan Society, an African-American firefighter fraternal organization. There have been investigations concerning FDNY firefighters engaging in bullying and harassing behavior of Muslim firefighters including behavior such as firefighters trying to slip pork products, which are prohibited under Islamic law, into the food of Muslim firefighters.
In another case, the son of a former FDNY commissioner was hired as a firefighter despite alledgedly making comments of anti-semitic nature The origins of the New York City Fire Department go back to 1648 when the first fire ordinance was adopted in what was the Dutch settlement of New Amsterdam. Peter Stuyvesant, within one year of his arrival, appointed four fire wardens to wooden chimneys of thatched-roofed wooden houses, charging a penalty to owners whose chimneys were improperly swept; the first four fire wardens were Martin Krieger, Thomas Hall, Adrian Wyser, George Woolsey. Hooks and buckets were financed through the collection of fines for dirty chimneys, a fire watch was established, consisting of eight wardens which were drawn from the male population. An organization known as the prowlers but given the nickname the rattle watch patrolled the streets with buckets and hooks from nine in the evening until dawn looking for fires. Leather shoe buckets, 250 in all, were manufactured by local Dutch shoemakers in 1658, these bucket brigades are regarded as the beginning of the New York Fire Department.
In 1664 New Amsterdam was renamed New York. The first New York fire brigade entered service in 1731 equ
Firefighting is the act of attempting to prevent the spread of and extinguish significant unwanted fires in buildings, woodlands, etc. A firefighter suppresses fires to protect lives and the environment. Firefighters undergo a high degree of technical training; this involves wildland firefighting. Specialized training includes aircraft firefighting, shipboard firefighting, aerial firefighting, maritime firefighting, proximity firefighting. One of the major hazards associated with firefighting operations is the toxic environment created by combustible materials; the four major risks are smoke, oxygen deficiency, elevated temperatures, poisonous atmospheres. Additional hazards include falls and structural collapse that can exacerbate the problems entailed in a toxic environment. To combat some of these risks, firefighters carry self-contained breathing equipment; the first step in a firefighting operation is reconnaissance to search for the origin of the fire and to identify the specific risks. Fires can be extinguished by fuel or oxidant removal, or chemical flame inhibition.
The earliest known firefighters were in the city of Rome. In 60 A. D. emperor Nero established a Corps of Vigils to protect Rome after a disastrous fire. It consisted of 7,000 people equipped with buckets and axes, they fought fires and served as police. In the 4th century B. C. an Alexandrian Greek named Ctesibius made a double force pump called a siphona. As water rose in the chamber, it compressed the air inside, which forced the water to eject in a steady stream through a pipe and nozzle. In the 16th century, syringes were used as firefighting tools, the larger ones being mounted on wheels. Another traditional method that survived was the bucket brigade, involving two lines of people formed between the water source and the fire. Men in one of the lines would pass along the full buckets of water toward the fire while in the other line women and children would pass back the empty buckets to be refilled. In the 17th century,'fire engines' were made, notably in Amsterdam. In 1721, the English inventor Richard Newsham made a popular fire engine, a rectangular box on wheels filled using a bucket brigade to provide a reservoir while hand-powered pumps supplied sufficient water pressure to douse fires at a distance.
Ancient Rome did not have municipal firefighters. Instead, private individuals relied on their supporters to take action, they would not only form bucket brigades or attempt to smother smaller fires, but would demolish or raze nearby buildings to slow the spread of the fire. However, there is no mention of fires being extinguished, rather they were contained and burned themselves out. Ancient Rome did not have an organized firefighting force until the Vigiles were formed in the reign of Augustus. Prior to the Great Fire of London in 1666, some parishes in the UK had begun to organize rudimentary firefighting. After the Great Fire, Nicholas Barbon introduced the first fire insurance. In order to reduce insurance costs, Barbon formed his own fire brigade, other companies followed suit. By the start of the 1800s, insured buildings were identified with a badge or mark indicating that they were eligible for a company's firefighting services. Buildings not insured with a particular company were left by its firefighters to burn, unless they happened to be adjacent to an insured building, in which case it was in the company's interest to prevent the fire from spreading.
In 1833 fire insurance companies in London merged to form The London Fire Company Establishment. Steam-powered apparatuses were first introduced in the 1850s, allowing a greater quantity of water to be directed onto a fire. In World War II the Auxiliary Fire Service, the National Fire Service, were established to supplement local fire services. At that time, there was no countrywide standard for firefighting terms, ranks, or equipment; these were standardized after the war. In January 1608, a fire destroyed many of the colonists' provisions and lodgings in Jamestown, Virginia. Boston, New York City, Philadelphia were all plagued by fires, volunteer fire brigades formed soon after such disasters. In 1736, Benjamin Franklin founded the Union Fire Company in Philadelphia, which became the standard for volunteer fire organizations; these firefighters had two critical tools: so-called bed keys. Salvage bags were used to collect and save valuables, bed keys were used to separate the wooden frame of a bed into pieces for safe and rapid removal from the fire.
The first American attempt at fire insurance failed after a large fire in Charlestown, Massachusetts in 1736. In 1740, Benjamin Franklin organized the Philadelphia Contributionship to provide fire insurance, more successful; the Contributionship adopted "fire marks" to identify insured buildings. Firefighting started to become formalized with rules for providing buckets and hooks, with the formation of volunteer companies. A chain of command was established. A firefighter's goals are to save lives and the environment. A fire can spread and endanger many lives, but with modern firefighting techniques, catastrophe can be avoided. To prevent fires from starting, a firefighter's duties may include public education about fire safety and conducting fire inspections of locations to verify their adherence to local fire codes. Firefighting requires skills in fire suppression and hazardous materials mitigation. Firefighters must have, or be able to acquire, kno
Canada is a country in the northern part of North America. Its ten provinces and three territories extend from the Atlantic to the Pacific and northward into the Arctic Ocean, covering 9.98 million square kilometres, making it the world's second-largest country by total area. Canada's southern border with the United States is the world's longest bi-national land border, its capital is Ottawa, its three largest metropolitan areas are Toronto and Vancouver. As a whole, Canada is sparsely populated, the majority of its land area being dominated by forest and tundra, its population is urbanized, with over 80 percent of its inhabitants concentrated in large and medium-sized cities, many near the southern border. Canada's climate varies across its vast area, ranging from arctic weather in the north, to hot summers in the southern regions, with four distinct seasons. Various indigenous peoples have inhabited what is now Canada for thousands of years prior to European colonization. Beginning in the 16th century and French expeditions explored, settled, along the Atlantic coast.
As a consequence of various armed conflicts, France ceded nearly all of its colonies in North America in 1763. In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces; this began an accretion of provinces and territories and a process of increasing autonomy from the United Kingdom. This widening autonomy was highlighted by the Statute of Westminster of 1931 and culminated in the Canada Act of 1982, which severed the vestiges of legal dependence on the British parliament. Canada is a parliamentary democracy and a constitutional monarchy in the Westminster tradition, with Elizabeth II as its queen and a prime minister who serves as the chair of the federal cabinet and head of government; the country is a realm within the Commonwealth of Nations, a member of the Francophonie and bilingual at the federal level. It ranks among the highest in international measurements of government transparency, civil liberties, quality of life, economic freedom, education.
It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many other countries. Canada's long and complex relationship with the United States has had a significant impact on its economy and culture. A developed country, Canada has the sixteenth-highest nominal per capita income globally as well as the twelfth-highest ranking in the Human Development Index, its advanced economy is the tenth-largest in the world, relying chiefly upon its abundant natural resources and well-developed international trade networks. Canada is part of several major international and intergovernmental institutions or groupings including the United Nations, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the G7, the Group of Ten, the G20, the North American Free Trade Agreement and the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation forum. While a variety of theories have been postulated for the etymological origins of Canada, the name is now accepted as coming from the St. Lawrence Iroquoian word kanata, meaning "village" or "settlement".
In 1535, indigenous inhabitants of the present-day Quebec City region used the word to direct French explorer Jacques Cartier to the village of Stadacona. Cartier used the word Canada to refer not only to that particular village but to the entire area subject to Donnacona. From the 16th to the early 18th century "Canada" referred to the part of New France that lay along the Saint Lawrence River. In 1791, the area became two British colonies called Upper Canada and Lower Canada collectively named the Canadas. Upon Confederation in 1867, Canada was adopted as the legal name for the new country at the London Conference, the word Dominion was conferred as the country's title. By the 1950s, the term Dominion of Canada was no longer used by the United Kingdom, which considered Canada a "Realm of the Commonwealth"; the government of Louis St. Laurent ended the practice of using'Dominion' in the Statutes of Canada in 1951. In 1982, the passage of the Canada Act, bringing the Constitution of Canada under Canadian control, referred only to Canada, that year the name of the national holiday was changed from Dominion Day to Canada Day.
The term Dominion was used to distinguish the federal government from the provinces, though after the Second World War the term federal had replaced dominion. Indigenous peoples in present-day Canada include the First Nations, Métis, the last being a mixed-blood people who originated in the mid-17th century when First Nations and Inuit people married European settlers; the term "Aboriginal" as a collective noun is a specific term of art used in some legal documents, including the Constitution Act 1982. The first inhabitants of North America are hypothesized to have migrated from Siberia by way of the Bering land bridge and arrived at least 14,000 years ago; the Paleo-Indian archeological sites at Old Crow Flats and Bluefish Caves are two of the oldest sites of human habitation in Canada. The characteristics of Canadian indigenous societies included permanent settlements, complex societal hierarchies, trading networks; some of these cultures had collapsed by the time European explorers arrived in the late 15th and early 16th centuries and have only been discovered through archeological investigations.
The indigenous population at the time of the first European settlements is estimated to have been between 200,000
A Squad Truck is a rescue vehicle designed to transport the necessary tools and personnel to perform a vehicle extrication at the scene of an entrapment. The design of squad trucks varies, depending on the need in any given area. Areas with rough terrain or snow have squad trucks with four-wheel drive, jake brake, locking differentials, hydraulic brakes, aggressive tires. Squads trucks are old ambulances that have been stripped to carry the necessary tools and equipment needed for an extrication, rescue squads or fire departments with a high amount of funding purchase custom trucks that are more elaborate and functional squad trucks; as such, the size of squad trucks is varying, can be classified into three distinct categories. Class I, or light duty squad trucks are the smallest, the cheapest squad trucks, they can range from a converted ambulance or Chevy Suburban type truck, to custom built trucks on Ford F550 chassis. Class II, or medium duty squad trucks are bigger in both the physical size of the truck and its weight.
Medium duty squad trucks can range from smaller fire engines designed for extrications to International truck cabs and chassis. Class III, or heavy duty squad trucks are the dimensions of a full sized fire engine and include more exotic tools such as cascade systems and plasma torches; the tools and equipment listed below are tools found on squad trucks, though the size and combination of these tools depends on both the size of the truck and the needs of the community in which the truck serves. This is a general list as many squad trucks have more tools and equipment not listed