Karlheinz Stockhausen was a German composer acknowledged by critics as one of the most important but controversial composers of the 20th and early 21st centuries. A critic calls him "one of the great visionaries of 20th-century music", he is known for his groundbreaking work in electronic music, for introducing controlled chance into serial composition, for musical spatialization. He was educated at the Hochschule für Musik Köln and the University of Cologne studying with Olivier Messiaen in Paris and with Werner Meyer-Eppler at the University of Bonn. One of the leading figures of the Darmstadt School, his compositions and theories were and remain influential, not only on composers of art music, but on jazz and popular music, his works, composed over a period of nearly sixty years, eschew traditional forms. In addition to electronic music—both with and without live performers—they range from miniatures for musical boxes through works for solo instruments, chamber music and orchestral music, to a cycle of seven full-length operas.
His theoretical and other writings comprise ten large volumes. He received numerous prizes and distinctions for his compositions and for the scores produced by his publishing company, his notable compositions include the series of nineteen Klavierstücke, Kontra-Punkte for ten instruments, the electronic/musique-concrète Gesang der Jünglinge, Gruppen for three orchestras, the percussion solo Zyklus, the cantata Momente, the live-electronic Mikrophonie I, Stimmung for six vocalists, Aus den sieben Tagen, Mantra for two pianos and electronics, Inori for soloists and orchestra, the gigantic opera cycle Licht. He died of sudden heart failure on 5 December 2007 at his home in Kürten, Germany. Stockhausen was born in the "castle" of the village of Mödrath; the village, located near Kerpen in the Cologne region, was displaced in 1956 to make way for lignite strip mining, but the castle itself still stands. Despite its name, the building is not a castle at all, but rather was a manor house built in 1830 by a local businessman named Arend.
Because of its imposing size, locals began calling it Burg Mödrath. From 1925 to 1932 it was the maternity home of the Bergheim district, after the war it served for a time as a shelter for war refugees. In 1950, the owners, the Düsseldorf chapter of the Knights of Malta, turned it into an orphanage, but it was subsequently returned to private ownership and became a private residence again. In 2017, an anonymous patron purchased the house and opened it in April 2017 as an exhibition space for modern art, with the first floor to be used as the permanent home of the museum of the WDR Electronic Music Studio, where Stockhausen had worked from 1953 until shortly before WDR closed the studio in 2000, his father, Simon Stockhausen, was a schoolteacher, his mother Gertrud was the daughter of a prosperous family of farmers in Neurath in the Cologne Bight. A daughter, was born the year after Karlheinz, a second son, Hermann-Josef followed in 1932. Gertrud played the piano and accompanied her own singing but, after three pregnancies in as many years, experienced a mental breakdown and was institutionalized in December 1932, followed a few months by the death of her younger son, Hermann.
From the age of seven, Stockhausen lived in Altenberg, where he received his first piano lessons from the Protestant organist of the Altenberger Dom, Franz-Josef Kloth. In 1938 his father remarried, his new wife, had been the family's housekeeper. The couple had two daughters; because his relationship with his new stepmother was less than happy, in January 1942 Karlheinz became a boarder at the teachers' training college in Xanten, where he continued his piano training and studied oboe and violin. In 1941 he learned that his mother had died, ostensibly from leukemia, although everyone at the same hospital had died of the same disease, it was understood that she had been a victim of the Nazi policy of killing "useless eaters". The official letter to the family falsely claimed she had died 16 June 1941, but recent research by Lisa Quernes, a student at the Landesmusikgymnasium in Montabaur, has determined that she was gassed along with 89 other people at the Hadamar Euthanasia Centre in Hesse-Nassau on 27 May 1941.
Stockhausen dramatized his mother's death in hospital by lethal injection, in Act 1 scene 2 of the opera Donnerstag aus Licht. In the autumn of 1944, he was conscripted to serve as a stretcher bearer in Bedburg. In February 1945, he met his father for the last time in Altenberg. Simon, on leave from the front, told his son, "I'm not coming back. Look after things". By the end of the war, his father was regarded as missing in action, may have been killed in Hungary. A comrade reported to Karlheinz that he saw his father wounded in action. Fifty-five years after the fact, a journalist writing for the Guardian newspaper stated unequivocally, though without offering any fresh evidence, that Simon Stockhausen was killed in Hungary in 1945. From 1947 to 1951, Stockhausen studied music pedagogy and piano at the Hochschule für Musik Köln and musicology and Germ
Ian Hornak was an American draughtsman and printmaker and one of the founding artists of the Hyperrealist and Photorealism art movements. Born in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to parents who immigrated from Slovakia, Hornak moved to Brooklyn, New York, at the age of 3 and relocated with his family to Mount Clemens, Michigan, at age 8. At age 9 he received a set of oil paints and a book of important Renaissance paintings from his mother as a gift and began copying the works of Michelangelo Buonarroti, Leonardo da Vinci and Raphael Sanzio. During an interview with the 57th Street Review in 1976, Hornak remarked "I picked up my technique as a child through my interest in art and copying paintings I liked. I loved Renaissance painting, because it had clarity and simplification of form and great organization". Upon graduating from High School in New Haven, Hornak relocated to Detroit and attended the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor and received his BFA and MFA at Wayne State University where he taught for a short time.
Hornak produced Hyperrealist and Photorealism artwork with surreal overtones in the midst of the pop art movement. He was introduced into the New York City art scene in 1968 by Pop Artist, Lowell Blair Nesbitt, with whom Hornak lived and worked until 1969. By 1971, he maintained his primary residence and studio in East Hampton, NY where he lived until his death in 2002, a secondary penthouse studio in New York City at 116 East 73rd Street near the corner of Park Avenue. While living in East Hampton, Hornak came to work with and befriend art world figures, Robert Motherwell, Willem de Kooning, Robert Indiana, Andy Warhol, Claes Oldenburg and Fairfield Porter; when Hornak began his career in New York in 1968, he created artworks that were pen & ink drawings and paintings of floating figures both clothed and nude, in addition to an erotic art series. In 1970, Hornak began to produce conceptual multiple exposure landscape paintings as well as traditional landscape paintings. In 1974 John Canaday wrote in the New York Times, "Mr. Hornak is right at the top of the list of romantically descriptive painters today".
As Hornak was nearing the end of the landscape series, Art Critic, Marcia Corbino wrote, *"Not since the Hudson River School glorified the grandiose panorama of the natural world in meticulous detail has an American artist embraced landscape painting with the artistic totality of Ian Hornak". From 1985 until 2002 he produced Dutch & Flemish-inspired botanical and still life paintings with 4-6 inch painted frames, where the artist extended the imagery of the primary painting onto the frame itself. Hornak said of the development and creation of those paintings, "I begin with one flower add and subtract and counterbalance; the finesse of the surface, the sensual appeal of the subject matter are there but the beauty lies deeper in the content. My flower pieces derive less from 19th century realists and/or impressionists, with their literal depiction of color and form, more from the 17th century Flemish painters whose flowers give visual pleasure, imply a more generalized reality and symbolism".
Gerrit Henry wrote of these works, "Hornak is a rather self-explanatory if not wholly tautological postmodernism. Though, his excesses ring true for the approaching millennium: this is'end-time' painting that exercises its romantic license to the fullest in its presentation of multiple styles of the last fin de siècle - naturalist, allegorical, apocalyptic". Although Hornak's earliest paintings from 1954-1969 were created using a traditional, brush application of oil paint on canvas, from 1970-1996 the artist chose to use acrylic paint before returning to oil from 1996-2002; the artist cited the Hudson River School artists as major influences Martin Johnson Heade and Frederic Edwin Church in addition to Nineteenth-Century German Romantic Artist, Caspar David Friedrich. Additionally the artist commented on his influences, *"What I so like about Poussin and Cézanne is their sense of organization. I like the way in which they develop space and shape in architectural continuity - the rhythm across their paintings.
When I paint a landscape, I get the greatest pleasure out of composing it. As I paint, I try to work out a visual sonata form or a fugue, with realistic images". Hornak said of his own vision, "While I know that the beautiful, the spiritual and the sublime are today suspect, I have begun to stop resisting the constant urge to deny that beauty has a valid right to exist in contemporary art". Hornak was homosexual, his life partner from 1970 to 1976 was Julius Rosenthal Wolf, a prominent American casting director, theatrical agent, art collector and art dealer. During the 1950s and 1960s, Wolf had been the assistant director of Edith Halpert's Downtown Gallery in New York City where he became a champion of American Modernism in the visual arts. Together and Hornak lived at their homes in New York City's Upper East Side and at their weekend home in East Hampton, New York where Hornak continued to live until his own death in 2002. Following Wolf's death in 1976, Frank Burton was Hornak's life partner until Burton's death in 1996.
Throughout the 1950s and 1960s, Wolf dedicated himself to the collection of American Modernist and African American art, which he had developed a professional knowledge of during his time as assistant director of The Downtown Gallery. After entering into a relationship with Ian Hornak, Hornak introduced Wolf to the contemporary art scene in New York City and educated him on the current trends in contemporary art. Together and Hornak assembled a formidable collection of artwork and upon Wolf's death in 1976, per Wolf and Hornak's wishes, John G. Heimann, Wolf's estate
Photography is the art and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either electronically by means of an image sensor, or chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film. It is employed in many fields of science and business, as well as its more direct uses for art and video production, recreational purposes and mass communication. A lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. With an electronic image sensor, this produces an electrical charge at each pixel, electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing; the result with photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, chemically "developed" into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.
The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός, genitive of φῶς, "light" and γραφή "representation by means of lines" or "drawing", together meaning "drawing with light". Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian historian believes were written in 1834; this claim is reported but has never been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. The German newspaper Vossische Zeitung of 25 February 1839 contained an article entitled Photographie, discussing several priority claims – Henry Fox Talbot's – regarding Daguerre's claim of invention; the article is the earliest known occurrence of the word in public print. It was signed "J. M.", believed to have been Berlin astronomer Johann von Maedler. The inventors Nicéphore Niépce, Henry Fox Talbot and Louis Daguerre seem not to have known or used the word "photography", but referred to their processes as "Heliography", "Photogenic Drawing"/"Talbotype"/"Calotype" and "Daguerreotype".
Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries, relating to seeing an image and capturing the image. The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid independently described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE. In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments; the Arab physicist Ibn al-Haytham invented a camera obscura and pinhole camera. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural camera obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art, it is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.
The birth of photography was concerned with inventing means to capture and keep the image produced by the camera obscura. Albertus Magnus discovered silver nitrate, Georg Fabricius discovered silver chloride, the techniques described in Ibn al-Haytham's Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials. Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566. Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals in 1694; the fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography. Around the year 1800, British inventor Thomas Wedgwood made the first known attempt to capture the image in a camera obscura by means of a light-sensitive substance, he used paper or white leather treated with silver nitrate. Although he succeeded in capturing the shadows of objects placed on the surface in direct sunlight, made shadow copies of paintings on glass, it was reported in 1802 that "the images formed by means of a camera obscura have been found too faint to produce, in any moderate time, an effect upon the nitrate of silver."
The shadow images darkened all over. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a attempt to make prints from it. Niépce was successful again in 1825. In 1826 or 1827, he made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature; because Niépce's camera photographs required an long exposure, he sought to improve his bitumen process or replace it with one, more practical. In partnership with Louis Daguerre, he worked out post-exposure processing methods that produced visually superior results and replaced the bitumen with a more light-sensitive resin, but hours of exposure in the camera were still required. With an eye to eventual commercial exploitation, the partners opted for total secrecy. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent.
Chroma key compositing, or chroma keying, is a visual effects/post-production technique for compositing two images or video streams together based on color hues. The technique has been used in many fields to remove a background from the subject of a photo or video – the newscasting, motion picture, video game industries. A color range in the foreground footage is made transparent, allowing separately filmed background footage or a static image to be inserted into the scene; the chroma keying technique is used in video production and post-production. This technique is referred to as color keying, colour-separation overlay, or by various terms for specific color-related variants such as green screen, blue screen – chroma keying can be done with backgrounds of any color that are uniform and distinct, but green and blue backgrounds are more used because they differ most distinctly in hue from most human skin colors. No part of the subject being filmed or photographed may duplicate the color used as the backing.
It is used for weather forecast broadcasts, wherein a news presenter is seen standing in front of a large CGI map during live television newscasts, though in actuality it is a large blue or green background. When using a blue screen, different weather maps are added on the parts of the image where the color is blue. If the news presenter wears blue clothes, his or her clothes will be replaced with the background video. Chroma keying is common in the entertainment industry for visual effects in movies and video games. Prior to the introduction of travelling mattes and optical printing, double exposure was used to introduce elements into a scene which were not present in the initial exposure; this was done using black draping. George Albert Smith first used this approach in 1898. In 1903, The Great Train Robbery by Edwin S. Porter used double exposure to add background scenes to windows which were black when filmed on set, using a garbage matte to expose only the window areas. In order to have figures in one exposure move in front of a substituted background in the other, a travelling matte was needed, to occlude the correct portion of the background in each frame.
In 1918 Frank Williams patented a travelling matte technique, again based on using a black background. This was used in many films, such as The Invisible Man. In the 1920s, Walt Disney used a white backdrop to include human actors with cartoon characters and backgrounds in his Alice Comedies; the blue screen method was developed in the 1930s at RKO Radio Pictures. At RKO, Linwood Dunn used an early version of the travelling matte to create "wipes" – where there were transitions like a windshield wiper in films such as Flying Down to Rio. Credited to Larry Butler, a scene featuring a genie escaping from a bottle was the first use of a proper bluescreen process to create a traveling matte for The Thief of Bagdad, which won the Academy Award for Best Special Effects that year. In 1950, Warner Brothers employee and ex-Kodak researcher Arthur Widmer began working on an ultraviolet travelling matte process, he began developing bluescreen techniques: one of the first films to use them was the 1958 adaptation of the Ernest Hemingway novella, The Old Man and the Sea, starring Spencer Tracy.
Petro Vlahos was awarded an Academy Award for his refinement of these techniques in 1964. His technique exploits the fact that most objects in real-world scenes have a color whose blue-color component is similar in intensity to their green-color component. Zbigniew Rybczyński contributed to bluescreen technology. An optical printer with two projectors, a film camera and a'beam splitter', was used to combine the actor in front of a blue screen together with the background footage, one frame at a time. In the early 1970s, American and British television networks began using green backdrops instead of blue for their newscasts. During the 1980s, minicomputers were used to control the optical printer. For the film The Empire Strikes Back, Richard Edlund created a'quad optical printer' that accelerated the process and saved money, he received a special Academy Award for his innovation. For decades, travelling matte shots had to be done "locked-down", so that neither the matted subject nor the background could shift their camera perspective at all.
Computer-timed, motion-control cameras alleviated this problem, as both the foreground and background could be filmed with the same camera moves. Meteorologists on television use a field monitor, to the side of the screen, to see where they are putting their hands against the background images. A newer technique is to project a faint image onto the screen; some films make heavy use of chroma key to add backgrounds that are constructed using computer-generated imagery. Performances from different takes can be composited together, which allows actors to be filmed separately and placed together in the same scene. Chroma key allows performers to appear to be in any location without leaving the studio. Computer development made it easier to incorporate motion into composited shots when using handheld cameras. Reference-points can be placed onto the colored background. In post-production, a computer can use the references to compute the camera's position and thus render an image that matches the perspective and movement of the foreground perfectly.
Modern advances in software and computational power have eliminated the need to place the markers – the software figures out their position in space (a disadvantage of this is that it requires a large camer
VueScan is a computer program for image scanning of photographs, including negatives. It supports optical character recognition of text documents.. The software can be downloaded for free, but a watermark is placed on all scans until the user purchases a license. Vuescan is intended to work with a large number of image scanners, excluding specialised professional scanners such as drum scanners, on many computer operating systems if drivers for the scanner are not available for the OS; these scanners are supplied with device drivers and software to operate them, included in their price. A 2014 review considered that the reasons to purchase VueScan are to allow older scanners not supported by drivers for newer operating systems to be used in more up-to-date systems, for better scanning and processing of photographs than is afforded by manufacturers' software; the review did not report any advantages to Vuescan's processing of documents compared to other software. When compared to SilverFast, a similar program, the reviewer considered the two programs to be comparable, with support for some specific scanners better in one or the other.
Vuescan supports more scanners, with a single purchase giving access to the full range of both film and flatbed scanners, carries a lower price. The Vuescan program can be used with its own drivers, or with drivers supplied by the scanner manufacturer, if supported by the operating system. Vuescan drivers can be used without the Vuescan program by applications software that supports scanning directly, such as Photoshop, again enabling the use of scanners without current manufacturers' drivers. VueScan enables the user to fine-tune the scanning parameters; the program uses its own independent method to interface with scanner hardware, can support many older scanners under computer operating systems for which drivers are not available, allowing old scanners to be used with newer platforms which do not otherwise support them. VueScan supports more than 2,400 different supported scanners and digital cameras on Windows, 2,100 on Mac OS X and 1,900 on Linux. VueScan is supplied as one downloadable file for each operating system, which supports the full range of scanners.
Without the purchase of a license the program runs in functional demo mode, identical to Professional mode except that watermarks are superimposed on saved and printed images. Purchase of a Professional licence removes the watermark; as distributed VueScan supports optical character recognition of English documents. In September 2011, Ed Hamrick said. Image Capture – alternative scanner software bundled free with Mac OS X Scanner Access Now Easy – open source scanner API for Unix, Windows, OS/2 The VueScan Bible: Everything You Need to Know for Perfect Scanning. Official website
GIMP is a free and open-source raster graphics editor used for image retouching and editing, free-form drawing, converting between different image formats, more specialized tasks. GIMP is released under GPLv3+ licenses and is available for Linux, macOS, Microsoft Windows. GIMP was released as the General Image Manipulation Program. In 1995 Spencer Kimball and Peter Mattis began developing GIMP as a semester-long project at the University of California, Berkeley for the eXperimental Computing Facility. In 1996 GIMP was released as the first publicly available release. In the following year Richard Stallman visited UC Berkeley where Spencer Kimball and Peter Mattis asked if they could change General to GNU. Richard Stallman approved and the definition of the acronym GIMP was changed to be the GNU Image Manipulation Program; this reflected its new existence as being developed as Free Software as a part of the GNU Project. The number of computer architectures and operating systems supported has expanded since its first release.
The first release supported UNIX systems, such as Linux, SGI IRIX and HP-UX. Since the initial release, GIMP has been ported to many operating systems, including Microsoft Windows and macOS. Following the first release, GIMP was adopted and a community of contributors formed; the community began developing tutorials and shared better work-flows and techniques. A GUI toolkit called GTK was developed to facilitate the development of GIMP. GTK was replaced by its successor GTK+ after being redesigned using object-oriented programming techniques; the development of GTK+ has been attributed to Peter Mattis becoming disenchanted with the Motif toolkit GIMP used. GIMP is developed by volunteers as a free software project associated with both the GNU and GNOME Projects. Development takes place in a public git source code repository, on public mailing lists and in public chat channels on the GIMPNET IRC network. New features are held in public separate source code branches and merged into the main branch when the GIMP team is sure they won't damage existing functions.
Sometimes this means that features that appear complete do not get merged or take months or years before they become available in GIMP. GIMP itself is released as source code. After a source code release installers and packages are made for different operating systems by parties who might not be in contact with the maintainers of GIMP; the version number used in GIMP is expressed in a major-minor-micro format, with each number carrying a specific meaning: the first number is incremented only for major developments. The second number is incremented with each release of new features, with odd numbers reserved for in-progress development versions and numbers assigned to stable releases; each year GIMP applies for several positions in the Google Summer of Code. From 2006 to 2009 there have been nine GSoC projects that have been listed as successful, although not all successful projects have been merged into GIMP immediately; the healing brush and perspective clone tools and Ruby bindings were created as part of the 2006 GSoC and can be used in version 2.8.0 of GIMP, although there were three other projects that were completed and are available in a stable version of GIMP.
Several of the GSoC projects were completed in 2008, but have been merged into a stable GIMP release in 2009 to 2014 for Version 2.8.xx and 2.9.x. Some of them needed some more code work for the master tree. Second public Development 2.9-Version was 2.9.4 with many deep improvements after initial Public Version 2.9.2 Third Public 2.9-Development version is Version 2.9.6. One of the new features is removing the 4GB size limit of XCF file. Increase of possible threads to 64 is an important point for modern parallel execution in actual AMD Ryzen and Intel Xeon processors. Version 2.9.8 included many bug improvements in gradients and clips. Improvements in performance and optimization beyond bug hunting were the development targets for 2.10.0. MacOS Beta is available with Version 2.10.4 The next stable version in the roadmap is 3.0 with a GTK3 port. The user interface of GIMP is designed by a dedicated usability team; this team was formed. A user interface brainstorming group has since been created for GIMP, where users of GIMP can send in their suggestions as to how they think the GIMP user interface could be improved.
GIMP is presented in two forms and multiple window mode. In multiple-window mode a set of windows contains all GIMP's functionality. By default and tool settings are on the left and other dialogues are on the right. A layers tab is to the right of the tools tab, allows a user to work individually on separate image layers. Layers can be edited by right-clicking on a particular layer to bring up edit options for that layer; the tools tab and layers tab are the most common dockable tabs. The Libre Graphics Meeting (L
Exposure compensation is a technique for adjusting the exposure indicated by a photographic exposure meter, in consideration of factors that may cause the indicated exposure to result in a less-than-optimal image. Factors considered may include unusual lighting distribution, variations within a camera system, non-standard processing, or intended underexposure or overexposure. Cinematographers may apply exposure compensation for changes in shutter angle or film speed, among other factors. Many digital cameras have a display setting and a physical dial whereby the photographer can set the camera to either over or under expose the subject by up to three f-stops in 1/3rd stop intervals; each number on the scale represents one f-stop, decreasing the exposure by one f-stop will halve the amount of light reaching the sensor. The dots in between the numbers represent 1/3rd of an f-stop. In photography, some cameras include exposure compensation as a feature to allow the user to adjust the automatically calculated exposure.
Compensation can be either positive or negative, is available in third- or half-step, less in full steps or quarter-step increments up to two or three steps in either direction. Camera exposure compensation is stated in terms of EV units. Exposure can be adjusted by changing either the exposure time. If the mode is aperture priority, exposure compensation changes the exposure time. If a flash is being used, some cameras will adjust it as well; the earliest reflected-light exposure meters were wide-angle, averaging types, measuring the average scene luminance. Exposure meter calibration was chosen to result in the “best” exposures for typical outdoor scenes; when measuring a scene with atypical distribution of light and dark elements, or a single element, lighter or darker than a middle tone, the indicated exposure may not be optimal. For example, a scene with predominantly light tones will be underexposed, while a scene with predominantly dark tones will be overexposed; that both scenes require the same exposure, regardless of the meter indication, becomes obvious from a scene that includes both a white horse and a black horse.
A photographer can recognize the difference between a white horse and a black horse. When metering a white horse, a photographer can apply exposure compensation so that the white horse is rendered as white. Many modern cameras incorporate metering systems that measure scene contrast as well as average luminance, employ sophisticated algorithms to infer the appropriate exposure from these data. In scenes with unusual lighting, these metering systems sometimes cannot match the judgment of a skilled photographer, so exposure compensation still may be needed. An early application of exposure compensation was the Zone System developed by Ansel Adams and Fred Archer. Although the Zone System has sometimes been regarded as complex, the basic concept is quite simple: render dark objects as dark and light objects as light, according to the photographer's visualization. Developed for black-and-white film, the Zone System divided luminance into 11 zones, with Zone 0 representing pure black and Zone X representing pure white.
The meter indication would place. The tonal range of color negative film is less than that of black-and-white film, the tonal range of color reversal film and digital sensors less; the meter indication, remains Zone V. The relationship between exposure compensation and exposure zones is straightforward: an exposure compensation of one EV is equal to a change of one zone; the Zone System is a specialized form of exposure compensation, is used most when metering individual scene elements, such as a sunlit rock or the bark of a tree in shade. Many cameras incorporate narrow-angle spot meters to facilitate such measurements; because of the limited tonal range, an exposure compensation range of ±2 EV is sufficient for using the Zone System with color film and digital sensors. Exposure value Exposure index Light meter Zone System Exposure bracketing Auto Exposure Bracketing