In mathematics, a multiplication table is a mathematical table used to define a multiplication operation for an algebraic system. The decimal multiplication table was traditionally taught as an essential part of elementary arithmetic around the world, as it lays the foundation for arithmetic operations with base-ten numbers. Many educators believe it is necessary to memorize the table up to 9 × 9; the oldest known multiplication tables were used by the Babylonians about 4000 years ago. However, they used a base of 60; the oldest known tables using a base of 10 are the Chinese decimal multiplication table on bamboo strips dating to about 305 BC, during China's Warring States period. The multiplication table is sometimes attributed to the ancient Greek mathematician Pythagoras, it is called the Table of Pythagoras in many languages, sometimes in English. The Greco-Roman mathematician Nichomachus, a follower of Neopythagoreanism, included a multiplication table in his Introduction to Arithmetic, whereas the oldest surviving Greek multiplication table is on a wax tablet dated to the 1st century AD and housed in the British Museum.
In 493 AD, Victorius of Aquitaine wrote a 98-column multiplication table which gave the product of every number from 2 to 50 times and the rows were "a list of numbers starting with one thousand, descending by hundreds to one hundred descending by tens to ten by ones to one, the fractions down to 1/144."In his 1820 book The Philosophy of Arithmetic, mathematician John Leslie published a multiplication table up to 99 × 99, which allows numbers to be multiplied in pairs of digits at a time. Leslie recommended that young pupils memorize the multiplication table up to 50 × 50; the illustration below shows a table up to 12 × 12, a size used in schools. The traditional rote learning of multiplication was based on memorization of columns in the table, in a form like This form of writing the multiplication table in columns with complete number sentences is still used in some countries, such as Bosnia and Herzegovina, instead of the modern grid above. There is a pattern in the multiplication table that can help people to memorize the table more easily.
It uses the figures below: Figure 1 is used for multiples of 1, 3, 7, 9. Figure 2 is used for the multiples of 2, 4, 6, 8; these patterns can be used to memorize the multiples of any number from 0 to 10, except 5. As you would start on the number you are multiplying, when you multiply by 0, you stay on 0; the pattern works with multiples of 10, by starting at 1 and adding 0, giving you 10 just apply every number in the pattern to the "tens" unit as you would do as usual to the "ones" unit. For example, to recall all the multiples of 7: Look at the 7 in the first picture and follow the arrow; the next number in the direction of the arrow is 4. So think of the next number after 7 that ends with 4, 14; the next number in the direction of the arrow is 1. So think of the next number after 14 that ends with 1, 21. After coming to the top of this column, start with the bottom of the next column, travel in the same direction; the number is 8. So think of the next number after 21 that ends with 8, 28. Proceed in the same way until the last number, 3, corresponding to 63.
Next, use the 0 at the bottom. It corresponds to 70. Start again with the 7; this time it will correspond to 77. Continue like this. Tables can define binary operations on groups, fields and other algebraic systems. In such contexts they can be called Cayley tables. Here are the addition and multiplication tables for the finite field Z5. For every natural number n, there are addition and multiplication tables for the ring Zn. For other examples, see group, octonion; the Chinese multiplication table consists of eighty-one sentences with four or five Chinese characters per sentence, making it easy for children to learn by heart. A shorter version of the table consists of only forty-five sentences, as terms such as "nine eights beget seventy-two" are identical to "eight nines beget seventy-two" so there is no need to learn them twice. A bundle of 21 bamboo slips dated 305 BC in the Warring States period in the Tsinghua Bamboo Slips collection is the world's earliest known example of a decimal multiplication table.
In 1989, the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics developed new standards which were based on the belief that all students should learn higher-order thinking skills, which recommended reduced emphasis on the teaching of traditional methods that relied on rote memorization, such as multiplication tables. Adopted texts such as Investigations in Numbers and Space omitted aids such as multiplication tables in early editions. NCTM made it clear in their 2006 Focal Points that basic mathematics facts must be learned, though there is no consensus on whether rote memorization is the best method. Chinese multiplication table Vedic square IBM 1620, an early computer that used tables stored in memory to perform addition and multiplication
Maksim Gorkiy class is a class of Russian river passenger ships. It is named after the first ship in the class Maksim Gorkiy. Four-deck cruise ships built in Austria, 1974. List of river cruise ships Valerian Kuybyshev-class motorship Rossiya class motorship Rossiya class motorship Anton Chekhov class motorship Vladimir Ilyich class motorship Rodina class motorship Baykal class motorship Dmitriy Furmanov class motorship Sergey Yesenin class motorship Oktyabrskaya Revolyutsiya class motorship Yerofey Khabarov class motorship Dunay class motorship Тип Максим Горький, проект Q-040 Project Q-040
Casey Riordan Millard is a Cincinnati-based artist working in a variety of media including painting, sculpture and publication. Millard’s work aims to “create a temporary distraction from the weight of oneself”, she obtained a Bachelor's in Fine Art in 1994 from Ohio University in Ohio. Millard’s artwork has been displayed in various cities and states such as Cincinnati, Buffalo, New York, Chicago, Illinois; the majority of Millard's pieces include Shark Girl. Millard’s character, Shark Girl, appears in many of her illustrations and sculptures. Shark Girl is a young girl with the head of a shark created in 1999, she was a way for Millard to “reflect her own anxieties”. A fiberglass sculpture of Shark Girl was built for the Ohio River Downtown with a $6,000 grant in 2012. Visitors used the piece as a photo-op. Around Easter 2014, visitors began to deface Shark Girl with graffiti; the city left repairs in Millard’s hands. Soon after, Aaron Ott, the public art curator at the Albright–Knox Art Gallery in Buffalo purchased the sculpture and the museum created a fund to maintain it.
The sculpture was moved to Buffalo. A YouTube video entitled “Come Follow Me” features Shark Girl; the video, created for Millard’s 2012 installation at The Contemporary Arts Center’s UnMuseum in Cincinnati, follows Shark Girl on a journey leading her to a horse, featured as a sculpture in the installation. The video is 4 minutes and 11 seconds long and was uploaded to YouTube on February 12, 2013, it features drawings and animation by Millard with editing and co-direction by Ossian Mendoza and music by John Aselin. Shark Girl is the title character in Millard’s 2014 children’s book “Shark Girl & Belly Button”. Shark Girl Teeth New Success article