A mummy is a dead human or an animal whose skin and organs have been preserved by either intentional or accidental exposure to chemicals, extreme cold low humidity, or lack of air, so that the recovered body does not decay further if kept in cool and dry conditions. Some authorities restrict the use of the term to bodies deliberately embalmed with chemicals, but the use of the word to cover accidentally desiccated bodies goes back to at least 1615 AD. Mummies of humans and animals have been found on every continent, both as a result of natural preservation through unusual conditions, as cultural artifacts. Over one million animal mummies have been found in Egypt. Many of the Egyptian animal mummies are sacred ibis, radiocarbon dating suggests the Egyptian Ibis mummies that have been analyzed were from time frame that falls between 450 and 250 BC. In addition to the mummies of ancient Egypt, deliberate mummification was a feature of several ancient cultures in areas of America and Asia with dry climates.
The Spirit Cave mummies of Fallon, Nevada in North America were dated at more than 9,400 years old. Before this discovery, the oldest known deliberate mummy was a child, one of the Chinchorro mummies found in the Camarones Valley, which dates around 5050 BC; the oldest known mummified human corpse is a severed head dated as 6,000 years old, found in 1936 AD at the site named Inca Cueva No. 4 in South America. The English word mummy is derived from medieval Latin mumia, a borrowing of the medieval Arabic word mūmiya and from a Persian word mūm, which meant an embalmed corpse, as well as the bituminous embalming substance, meant "bitumen"; the Medieval English term "mummy" was defined as "medical preparation of the substance of mummies", rather than the entire corpse, with Richard Hakluyt in 1599 AD complaining that "these dead bodies are the Mummy which the Phisistians and Apothecaries doe against our willes make us to swallow". These substances were defined as mummia; the OED defines a mummy as "the body of a human being or animal embalmed as a preparation for burial", citing sources from 1615 AD onward.
However, Chamber's Cyclopædia and the Victorian zoologist Francis Trevelyan Buckland define a mummy as follows: "A human or animal body desiccated by exposure to sun or air. Applied to the frozen carcase of an animal imbedded in prehistoric snow". Wasps of the genus Aleiodes are known as "mummy wasps" because they wrap their caterpillar prey as "mummies". While interest in the study of mummies dates as far back as Ptolemaic Greece, most structured scientific study began at the beginning of the 20th century. Prior to this, many rediscovered mummies were sold as curiosities or for use in pseudoscientific novelties such as mummia; the first modern scientific examinations of mummies began in 1901, conducted by professors at the English-language Government School of Medicine in Cairo, Egypt. The first X-ray of a mummy came in 1903, when professors Grafton Elliot Smith and Howard Carter used the only X-ray machine in Cairo at the time to examine the mummified body of Thutmose IV. British chemist Alfred Lucas applied chemical analyses to Egyptian mummies during this same period, which returned many results about the types of substances used in embalming.
Lucas made significant contributions to the analysis of Tutankhamun in 1922. Pathological study of mummies saw varying levels of popularity throughout the 20th century. In 1992, the First World Congress on Mummy Studies was held in Puerto de la Cruz on Tenerife in the Canary Islands. More than 300 scientists attended the Congress to share nearly 100 years of collected data on mummies; the information presented at the meeting triggered a new surge of interest in the subject, with one of the major results being integration of biomedical and bioarchaeological information on mummies with existing databases. This was not possible prior to the Congress due to the unique and specialized techniques required to gather such data. In more recent years, CT scanning has become an invaluable tool in the study of mummification by allowing researchers to digitally "unwrap" mummies without risking damage to the body; the level of detail in such scans is so intricate that small linens used in tiny areas such as the nostrils can be digitally reconstructed in 3-D.
Such modelling has been utilized to perform digital autopsies on mummies to determine cause of death and lifestyle, such as in the case of Tutankhamun. Mummies are divided into one of two distinct categories: anthropogenic or spontaneous. Anthropogenic mummies were deliberately created by the living for any number of reasons, the most common being for religious purposes. Spontaneous mummies, such as Ötzi, were created unintentionally due to natural conditions such as dry heat or cold, or anaerobic conditions such as those found in bogs. While most individual mummies belong to one category or the other, there are examples of both types being connected to a single culture, such as those from the ancient Egyptian culture and the Andean cultures of South America; until it was believed that the earliest ancient Egyptian mummies were created due to the environment in which they were buried. In 2014, an 11-year study by University of York, Macquarie University and University of Oxford suggested that artificial mummification occurred 1,500 years earlier than first thought.
This was confirmed in 2018, when tests on a 5,600 year-old mummy in Turin revealed that it had been deliberately mummified using linen wrappings and embalming oils made from conifer resin and aromatic plant extracts. The preservation of the dead had a profound effect on
The women's football tournament at the 2019 Pan American Games will be held in Lima from 28 July to 09 August 2019. The eight teams involved in the tournament were required to register a squad of 18 players, including two goalkeepers. For the football competition in these Games, the women competed in an eight-team tournament; the teams were grouped into two pools of four teams each for a round-robin preliminary round. The top two teams in each group advanced to a single elimination bracket; the women’s competition was an open-age competition with no age restrictions. Head Coach: Christopher Cuellar The following players were called-up for the 2019 Pan American Games. Andrea Sánchez was replaced by Kimberly Rodríguez. Head coach: Hue Menzies The following 18 players were named to the roster for the 2019 Pan American Games. Konya Plummer was replaced by Trudi Carter. Carter was replaced by Lauren Silver due to injury. Head coach: Daniel Almada The following players were called up for the 2019 Pan American Games.
Head coach: Nelson Abadia The following players were called up for the 2019 Pan American Games. Sandra Sepúlveda and Yisela Cuesta were ruled out due to injury and were replaced by Stefany Castaño and Michell Lugo. Head coach: Victor Daniel Suarez The following players were called-up for the 2019 Pan American Games; the following players were called up for the 2019 Pan American Games. Head coach: Amelia Valverde Head coach: Carlos Borrello The following players were called up for the 2019 Pan American Games. Head coach: Doriva Bueno The 18-women squad was announced on 25 June 2019
A mailbox provider, mail service provider or, somewhat improperly, email service provider is a provider of email hosting. It implements email servers to send, receive and store email for other organizations or end users, on their behalf; the term "mail service provider" was coined in the Internet Mail Architecture document RFC 5598. There are various kinds of email providers. There are paid and free ones sustained by advertising; some allow anonymous users, whereby a single user can get multiple unrelated accounts. Some require full identification credentials. Companies, organizations and individuals that manage their mail servers themselves adopt naming conventions that make it straightforward to identify, the owner of a given email address. Besides control of the local names, insourcing may provide for data confidentiality, network traffic optimization, fun. Mailbox providers accomplish their task by implementing Simple Mail Transfer Protocol and providing access to messages through Internet Message Access Protocol, the Post Office Protocol, Webmail, or a proprietary protocol.
Parts of the task can still be outsourced, for example virus and spam filtering of incoming mail, or authentication of outgoing mail. Many mailbox providers are access providers. Not the core product, their email services could lack some interesting features, such as IMAP, Transport Layer Security, or SMTP Authentication —in fact, an ISP can do without the latter, as it can recognize its clients by the IP addresses it assigns them. AOL Mail, Lycos, Mail.com, Yahoo! Mail, launched in the 1990s, are among the early providers of free email accounts, joined by GMail in 2004, they attract users because they can advertise their service on every message. According to Jurvetson, Hotmail grew from zero to 12 million users in 18 months; that was. These are the paid equivalent of free mail providers; that is, a better alternative to ISP-based email. Much less popular than free mail, they target a niche of users, it is possible to run a shim service, providing no access but just forwarding all messages to another account, which does not lend itself to direct use, for example because it is temporary or just less appealing.
A mailbox provider is the administrator of the registered domain name that forms the domain-part of its email addresses. As such, it controls the MX records that specify which hosts will receive email destined to those addresses; the operators of those hosts define the meaning of the local-part of an address by associating it to a mailbox, which in turn can be associated to a user. The mailbox provider specifies how users can read their mail creating SRV records to ease email client configuration, or giving detailed instructions. Email addresses are convenient tokens for identifying people at web sites unrelated to email. In fact, they are unique, allow password reminders to be sent at will. From a bureaucracy-oriented point of view, there is no formal undertaking beyond domain name registration; this role is based on IETF standards, unlike X.400 and other ITU-T works, in and of itself requires no arrangements with local authorities. The notion of Administration Management Domain is derived afterwards, from empirical evidence.
However, local authorities concerned with Internet privacy issues may add rules and requisites on top of the original Internet email design. Email mailbox Internet service provider Email hosting service Premium email Web mail server