Duntocher is a village in West Dunbartonshire, Scotland. It has an estimated population of 6,850; the etymology of the name of the village indicates that its name means "the fort on the causeway". Duntocher has become a northern suburb of the nearby town of Clydebank, as have neighbouring Hardgate and Faifley. Duntocher expanded due to housebuilding by Clydebank Burgh Council after the Second World War, although the area was never formally absorbed into the burgh; when burghs were abolished by local government reorganisation in 1975, Duntocher was included in the larger Clydebank District, which existed until the creation of West Dunbartonshire in 1997. Further housing was built by the Wimpey firm in the late 1960s and early 1970s, on what had been green belt land. At one time this was the most north westerly point on the Glasgow Corporation Transport tram system, trams operating from here via Hardgate to Clydebank, at times, on to Partick depot. Duntocher had several cotton and corn mills, driven by the Duntocher Burn, the traditional boundary between Duntocher and neighbouring village Hardgate.
The Antonine Wall runs through the village, ancient Roman fortifications are still visible in the local Goldenhill Park. Lottery funding is to provide funds for a children's playpark at Goldenhill. Sir George Macdonald wrote about the findings at Duntocher. Duntocher has a Roman Catholic church - St. Mary's, a United Presbyterian Church and a Church of Scotland - Duntocher Trinity; the village has one Roman Catholic primary school - St Mary's and one non-denominational, Carleith Primary School. The village has a main street; the majority of the villages shops and pubs, the cafe and the local churches and village halls are located along or close to a small stretch of this road The village is at the southern edge of the Kilpatrick Hills. The Roman Fort at Duntocher has been known about since at least the 18th century. Digital reconstructions of the fort and the fortlet it was built to replace, have been created. Two distance slabs of the Second Legion were found in the area. Other distance slabs by the Second Legion include one from Balmuildy.
The Second Legion is associated with The Bridgeness Slab. The slabs are two of the four inscriptions on stone found at Duntocher; the first, with its upper right corner missing lacks information about its discovery. Both slabs have a Pegasus below their inscriptions. Both slabs have two decorative pelta shields, one on either side of the slab each of, embellished with two griffins' heads. Symmetry suggests both were designed with four rosettes in the corners though one has the upper right rosette missing. Other differences between the slabs are the amount of decoration around the inscription, the Emperor's title, but most notably the number of paces being 4,140 versus 3,271. Other find which have been RTI mapped include rooftile fragments, a water nymph fountainhead, a hypocausted tile; until 1649 the villages of Bowling, West Dunbartonshire, Hardgate and Old Kilpatrick were all part of Kilpatrick Parish for a further 240 or so years formed part of Old or West Kilpatrick Parish. In 1889 however, the formation of Dumbarton County Council saw the transfer of authority to that body where it remained until 1975 when the villages were split up.
Bowling and Milton became part of the Dumbarton District Council area and Duntocher, along with Old Kilpatrick and Hardgate, was absorbed by Clydebank District. Industry around the village was aided by the nearness of the Duntocher Burn, a fast flowing waterway ideal for industrial purposes. Between 1808 and 1831 four large cotton mills were set up there leading to a significant population increase and subsequent improvements being instituted to road and river transport links; the boom was short lived however and the demise of the cotton industry towards the end of the 1800s left Duntocher the loser. There were lime mines near Duntocher in the 19th century. Today all five of the villages form a bedroom community for commuters to Clydebank and Glasgow. Traditionally a gala was held in the first week in June for Hardgate. "Duntocher". Encyclopædia Britannica. 8. 1911
Watling Lodge was a Roman fortlet on the Antonine Wall in Scotland. It was located near what is now Lock Sixteen on the Forth and Clyde Canal in Falkirk with neighbouring forts at Rough Castle to the west and Falkirk to the east. There was a fort at Camelon to the north. There was a Roman temporary camp found a short distance south of the site. Watling Lodge has been described as the best preserved stretch of ditch from the Antonine Wall still in existence today, it is situated along south-west of Falkirk. This stretch is excellently preserved. One of the best overviews of the site is the video of the Bridgeness Slab by Falkirk Council, presented by Geoff Bailey, Keeper of Archeology and Local History at Falkirk Museum, from about 4 minutes 30s. In Falkirk, the site is accessed from the B816, Tamfourhill Road. There is an information panel close to the top of the wall; the panel shows how the Wall may have looked, suggests Watling Lodge's place in the grand design of the construction. Sir George Macdonald wrote about the site.
A digital reconstruction of the fortlet has been created. A minecraft model of the site has been constructed. Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men. Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men but sheltered women and children as well, although the troops were not allowed to marry, it is that large communities of civilians were located around the site
Seabegs Wood was the site of a Roman fortlet on the Antonine Wall in Scotland. At Seabegs, the outline of Antonine's Wall, has lasted. Archaeologists from previous generations recorded this and stated that the ditch was deep and watterlogged. There is an underpass under the Clyde Canal nearby known locally as the Pend. In in the 1890s, the Antonine Wall Committee of Glasgow Archaeological Society’s cut several trenches across the Roman rampart; these uncovered its stone base. Subsequent excavations in 1977 found a Roman fortlet attached to the south of the Rampart. In 1981, a mound little has been discovered; the neighbouring forts to this fortlet are Rough Castle in the east. Sir George Macdonald and others theorized that because these neighbouring fort were widespread another structure was in the Seabegs area. No coinage has been recovered nor any inscriptions. There are two marching camps nearby at Milnquarter. Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men. Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men but sheltered women and children as well although the troops were not allowed to marry.
There is too to have been large communities of civilians around the site. Drone footage from Seabegs Wood ]
Battle of Falkirk
The Battle of Falkirk, which took place on 22 July 1298, was one of the major battles in the First War of Scottish Independence. Led by King Edward I of England, the English army defeated the Scots, led by William Wallace. Shortly after the battle Wallace resigned as Guardian of Scotland. King Edward learned of the defeat of his northern army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge. After concluding a truce with the French king, Philip the Fair in October 1297, he returned to England on 14 March 1298 to continue the ongoing organising of an army for his second invasion of Scotland, in preparation since late 1297; as a preliminary step he moved the centre of government to York, where it was to remain for the next six years. A council-of-war was held in the city in April to finalise the details of the invasion; the Scottish magnates were all summoned to attend, when none appeared they were all declared to be traitors. Edward ordered his army to assemble at Roxburgh on 25 June; the force counted ca 2,000 men-at-arms and about 12,000 infantry receiving wages, after the manner of medieval armies there would have been many more serving without pay either as a statement of personal independence, forgiveness of debts to the crown, criminal pardons or just for adventure, including 10,900 Welshmen armed with the longbow.
Edward advanced into central Scotland and Wallace's army shadowed the English, intending to avoid battle until shortages of supplies and money forced Edward to withdraw, at which point the Scots would harass his retreat. Edward's own supply fleet was delayed by bad weather, when the army reached central Scotland it was both tired and hungry; the Welsh infantry in particular were badly demoralised. While the army was encamped at Temple Liston, near Edinburgh, they erupted in a drunken riot, broken up by the English cavalry, who killed 80 Welshmen. Edward faced the prospect of the kind of ignominious retreat that became a regular feature of his son's campaigns in the succeeding reign; as he was on the point of falling back on Edinburgh he received intelligence that Wallace had taken up position in the wood of Callendar near Falkirk, only thirteen miles away, ready to pursue the retreating English. Edward was delighted: As God lives... they need not pursue me. The Scots army, again made up chiefly of spearmen as at Stirling, was arranged in four great armoured'hedgehogs' known as schiltrons.
The long spears pointed outwards at various heights gave these formations a formidable and impenetrable appearance. The gaps between the schiltrons were filled with archers and to the rear there was a small troop of men-at-arms, provided by magnates. On Tuesday 22 July, the English cavalry, divided into four battalions caught sight of their elusive enemy; the left was commanded by the Earls of Norfolk and Lincoln. The right was under the command of Antony Bek, Bishop of Durham, while the King commanded the centre, still a little distance to the rear of the vanguard. Once in sight of the enemy and his colleagues began an immediate attack, but on encountering a small marsh to the front of the Scots position, made a long detour to the west before being able to make contact with the right of Wallace's army. Bek tried to hold back his own battalion to give the King time to get into position but he was overruled by his impatient knights, who were anxious to join their comrades on the left in an immediate attack.
In a disorganised pell-mell the cavalry closed on the Scots, on the right and left. The Scots bowmen commanded by Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, the younger brother of the High Steward of Scotland, stood their ground and were destroyed, but the schiltrons held firm, with the knights making little impression on the dense forest of long spears, a small number of riders being killed under their horses. King Edward arrived in time to witness the discomfiture of his cavalry and restored discipline; the knights were ordered to withdraw and Edward prepared to employ the tactics that the Earl of Warwick had used to defeat the Welsh spearmen at the Battle of Maes Moydog in 1295. The Scottish light cavalry charged the English heavy cavalry, but were outnumbered and destroyed. Edward's longbowmen were brought into place and overcame the inexperienced force of badly armed Scottish archers; the schiltrons were an easy target. The hail of arrows was supplemented by slingshot. Unable to retreat or attack, the battle was lost for the Scots as soon as the first arrows began to fall, the arrows came at a pace of up to 14 arrows per minute per long bowmen.
The English cavalry waited, this time observing the King's command, until the Scots ranks were thin enough to allow them to penetrate the Scottish formation and cause whatever damage they could. The English footsoldiers, advancing during the English barrage on the Scottish formations, closed the distance and the schiltrons started to break and scatter. A great many Scots were killed, including son of the Earl of Fife; the survivors, Wallace included, escaped as best they could into the nearby forest of Torwood where their pursuers could not safely follow. Casualties among the Scottish leaders were not heavy, but did include Wallace's second-in-command Sir John de Graham, Sir John Stewart of Bonkill, Macduff of Fife; the Falkirk Roll is a collection of the arms of the English bannerets and noblemen present at the battle of Falkirk. It is the oldest known English occasional roll of arms, contains 111 names and blazoned shields. Following are a collection of modern illustrations of the Falkirk Rol
Rough Castle Fort
Rough Castle Fort is a Roman fort on the Antonine Wall 2 kilometres south east of Bonnybridge near Tamfourhill in the Falkirk council area, Scotland. It is owned by the National Trust for Scotland; the Antonine Wall dates from about 143 AD. The ends of the wall were uncertain for many years. In the east Carriden near Bo'ness on the Forth was a endpoint. In the west is Old Kilpatrick on the Clyde, although there were forts beyond that at Bishopton and Barochan Hill; the fort is one of the best-preserved of the forts constructed along the Wall. Built against the southern rear face of the Wall, the fort was defended by 6 metre thick turf ramparts and surrounded by defensive ditches. Gateways were provided through the main Wall to the north, through the walls on the other three sides of the fort. Causeways were constructed across the main Antonine and secondary defensive ditches, affording easy access to and from the fort; the fort had an area of about 4,000 square metres. The fort contained several buildings, made of stone from a time when this was a less common construction material.
The traces of the commander's house, the barracks, the headquarters, the bath house and a granary have been discovered. Although the original buildings have not survived, these buildings' foundations were discovered during excavations in 1902-03, 1932 and 1957-61. A video reconstruction of the site has been produced. Inscriptions found on recovered artifacts indicate that the fort based 480 men of the Cohors VI Nerviorum of Nervii, foot soldiers drawn from a north-eastern Gallic tribe; the military road on the south side of the Wall, which enabled transport between all forts, is still well defined and there is a fine length of rampart and ditch still intact to the west. An altar to Victory was found in 1843 to the south of the fort. Other finds include some glass from a window and leather shoes. A feature of the defences at the fort, discovered during the excavations, is a series of pits lying to the north west of the causeway across the Antonine ditch; these pits, known as lilia, would have contained sharpened stakes at the bottom.
The lilia were positioned to help defend the vulnerable northern gateway through the Wall. Near the fort were a turf platform and gravel pits for building of the military road. Interestingly the bath house was built on an annexe; the fort was defended by Nervii and Flavius Betto was a commanding officer. One of the best overviews of the site is the video of the Bridgeness Slab by Falkirk Council, presented by Geoff Bailey, Keeper of Archeology and Local History at Falkirk Museum, from about 10 minutes. For early discoveries see Sir George Macdonald's writings. A sound and light show has been organised at Rough Castle in November 2018 to promote tourism. List of places in Falkirk district Media related to Rough Castle at Wikimedia Commons Antonine Wall: Rough Castle at Historic Envirnment Scotland website Rough Castle Fort on the Gazetteer for Scotland Falkirk Local History Society
Auchendavy was a Roman fort on the Antonine Wall in Scotland. Much of the site archeology was destroyed by the builders of the Clyde Canal. Between Bar Hill and Balmuildy the wall follows the southern bank of the River Kelvin; the site of the fort is north of Kirkintilloch's northern border. It can be seen as a mound mid-way between the road. Sir George Macdonald wrote about the excavation of the site, he says, "Auchendavy is distinguished for the large number of antiquities found in and about it." "About it" includes Shirva Farm in Twechar. Many Roman forts along the wall held garrisons of around 500 men. Larger forts like Castlecary and Birrens had a nominal cohort of 1000 men but sheltered women and children as well although the troops were not allowed to marry. There is too to have been large communities of civilians around the site. A centurion called, he was a soldier with the Second Augusta Legion. A sandstone altar to Jupiter and Victory was found in a pit to the south-west of the Roman fort at Auchendavy.
There is an altar to Silvanus. A sandstone altar, dedicated to the Presiding Spirit of the Land of Britain, was found near Auchendavy fort. Again a sandstone altar to Diana and Apollo, was found near Auchendavy fort, yet another altar to Mars was discovered. It has dedications to: Minerva, parade-ground goddesses, Hercules and Victory. A distance slab by the 20th Legion Valiant was found. A fragment of a male torso was found too. Gordon and others speak of coins; the ballista bullets are said to have been upwards of fifty in number. Two iron mallets were found. Many other artefacts have been found at Shirva, near Twechar
The Gask Ridge is the modern name given to an early series of fortifications, built by the Romans in Scotland, close to the Highland Line. Modern excavation and interpretation has been pioneered by the Roman Gask Project, with Birgitta Hoffmann and David Woolliscroft; the ridge fortifications: forts and watchtowers were only in operation for a short number of years a single digit number. The name "Gask Ridge" refers to the 10-mile ridge of land to the north of the River Earn in Perthshire. In Scottish Gaelic, a gasg is a projecting strip of land. In the early 20th century, a line of Roman signal-towers was discovered along this ridge between the Roman forts of Strageath and Bertha; the Gask Ridge system was constructed sometime between 70 and 80 A. D.. Construction on Hadrian's Wall was started 42 years after completion of the Gask Ridge, the Antonine Wall was started just 12 years after completion of Hadrian's Wall. Although the Gask Ridge was not a wall, it may be Rome's earliest fortified land frontier.
The fortifications follow the boundary between Scotland's fertile Lowlands and mountainous Highlands, in Perth and Kinross and Angus. The Hadrian's Wall and Antonine Wall were further south and by taking advantage of the indented coastline of Great Britain, were shorter; the principal forts of the Gask Ridge frontier system were: Camelon, Malling, Glenbank, Ardoch, Kaims Castle, Dalginross, Fendoch, Inchtuthil, Cardean and Stracathro. The forts of Drumquhassle, Menteith/Malling, Doune and Fendoch in the south-west were collectively referred to as glenblocker forts in the older literature. Glenblocker refers to their location at the exit of some of the glens or straths and can thus supervise traffic. All of the forts were built during the Flavian occupation in Scotland. A broader group consists of Drumquhassle, overlooking the southern end of Loch Lomond and the road back to the Clyde) Malling Bochastle, overlooking the road to Loch Katrine and the Pass of Leny Dalginross overlooking the Eastern end of Loch Earn Fendoch overlooking the Sma' Glen Inchtuthil The legionary fortress at the mouth of Strath Tay, guarding the main roads to Inverness Inverquharity a fortlet-sized station at the east end of Glen ClovaIt is debatable whether Cardean and Doune should be listed among these, as they are sited further away from their respective traffic corridors, although fulfilling the same function.
It has traditionally been thought that these forts were meant to prevent invasions out of the Scottish Highlands into Roman-held territory. This may have been the intention, in cooperation with the other forts on the Gask Ridge and along Strathmore, as only the legionary fortress of Inchtuthil with 5,000–6,000 soldiers would have been strong enough to deal with a major incursion; the smaller forts were more to serve as a disincentive to small-scale raiding parties. The relationship between the Glenblocker forts and the Gask Ridge has in the past been seen as a staged withdrawal. Recent research suggests that the three elements are part of the same frontier system, stretching from Loch Lomond to Montrose. In this hypothesis, the Glenblocker forts controlled access to valleys in the frontier area, which loop back into the frontier, rather than link with the Iron Age settlements further north, their value as a block to invasion is doubtful, as their situation would have allowed supervision but they lacked the manpower to deter anything but cattle rustling.
Only the legionary fortress at Inchtuthil, conveniently situated for access into Braemar and its hinterland, is large enough to have functioned as a defensive fortification or a jumping-off point for an invasion. The Gask Road and the towers alongside it in this hypothesis guarded the strategically-important link to the harbours at the Firths of Tay and Forth and the southern part of the province. Tacitus writes in De vita Iulii Agricolae that Agricola was fighting in the area in around 80 AD; this would suggest. Recent archaeology has shown that many of the forts on the Gask Ridge were rebuilt, sometimes twice, without evidence of destruction through warfare. Further digs may cast some light on this apparent contradiction; the forts of Ardoch and Bertha on the Gask Road, as well as the forts of Cargill in Strathmore and the so-called glenblocker fort of Dalginross have produced Antonine material attesting to a reuse of the sites contemporary with the Antonine Wall. In the Severan period the army passed through the area, although there are a number of camps across Scotland which are dated to this period (for example, Kair House in Aberdeenshire and the fort at Carpow Roman Fort, on the Firth of Tay.
The permanent sites are complemented by a series of large marching camps from the Scottish Lowlands into Aberdeenshire and Moray. The Roman legions in the 1st century established a chain of forts at Ardoch, Inchtuthil, Battledykes and Raedykes, taking the Elsick Mounth on the way to Normandykes, before going north to Glenmaillen and Auchinhove. Contrary to wikipedia, the sites at Bellie and Balnageith