The Bronze Age is a historical period characterized by the use of bronze, in some areas proto-writing, other early features of urban civilization. The Bronze Age is the second principal period of the three-age Stone-Bronze-Iron system, as proposed in modern times by Christian Jürgensen Thomsen, for classifying and studying ancient societies. An ancient civilization is defined to be in the Bronze Age either by producing bronze by smelting its own copper and alloying with tin, arsenic, or other metals, or by trading for bronze from production areas elsewhere. Bronze itself is harder and more durable than other metals available at the time, allowing Bronze Age civilizations to gain a technological advantage. Copper-tin ores are rare, as reflected in the fact that there were no tin bronzes in Western Asia before trading in bronze began in the third millennium BC. Worldwide, the Bronze Age followed the Neolithic period, with the Chalcolithic serving as a transition. Although the Iron Age followed the Bronze Age, in some areas, the Iron Age intruded directly on the Neolithic.
Bronze Age cultures differed in their development of the first writing. According to archaeological evidence, cultures in Mesopotamia and Egypt developed the earliest viable writing systems; the overall period is characterized by widespread use of bronze, though the place and time of the introduction and development of bronze technology were not universally synchronous. Human-made tin bronze technology requires set production techniques. Tin must be mined and smelted separately added to molten copper to make bronze alloy; the Bronze Age was a time of developing trade networks. A 2013 report suggests that the earliest tin-alloy bronze dates to the mid-5th millennium BC in a Vinča culture site in Pločnik, although this culture is not conventionally considered part of the Bronze Age; the dating of the foil has been disputed. Western Asia and the Near East was the first region to enter the Bronze Age, which began with the rise of the Mesopotamian civilization of Sumer in the mid 4th millennium BC.
Cultures in the ancient Near East practiced intensive year-round agriculture, developed a writing system, invented the potter's wheel, created a centralized government, written law codes and nation states and empires, embarked on advanced architectural projects, introduced social stratification and civil administration and practiced organized warfare and religion. Societies in the region laid the foundations for astronomy and astrology. Dates are approximate, consult particular article for details The Ancient Near East Bronze Age can be divided as following: The Hittite Empire was established in Hattusa in northern Anatolia from the 18th century BC. In the 14th century BC, the Hittite Kingdom was at its height, encompassing central Anatolia, southwestern Syria as far as Ugarit, upper Mesopotamia. After 1180 BC, amid general turmoil in the Levant conjectured to have been associated with the sudden arrival of the Sea Peoples, the kingdom disintegrated into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until as late as the 8th century BC.
Arzawa in Western Anatolia during the second half of the second millennium BC extended along southern Anatolia in a belt that reaches from near the Turkish Lakes Region to the Aegean coast. Arzawa was the western neighbor – sometimes a rival and sometimes a vassal – of the Middle and New Hittite Kingdoms; the Assuwa league was a confederation of states in western Anatolia, defeated by the Hittites under an earlier Tudhaliya I, around 1400 BC. Arzawa has been associated with the much more obscure Assuwa located to its north, it bordered it, may be an alternative term for it. In Ancient Egypt the Bronze Age begins in the Protodynastic period, c. 3150 BC. The archaic early Bronze Age of Egypt, known as the Early Dynastic Period of Egypt follows the unification of Lower and Upper Egypt, c. 3100 BC. It is taken to include the First and Second Dynasties, lasting from the Protodynastic Period of Egypt until about 2686 BC, or the beginning of the Old Kingdom. With the First Dynasty, the capital moved from Abydos to Memphis with a unified Egypt ruled by an Egyptian god-king.
Abydos remained the major holy land in the south. The hallmarks of ancient Egyptian civilization, such as art and many aspects of religion, took shape during the Early Dynastic period. Memphis in the Early Bronze Age was the largest city of the time; the Old Kingdom of the regional Bronze Age is the name given to the period in the 3rd millennium BC when Egypt attained its first continuous peak of civilization in complexity and achievement – the first of three "Kingdom" periods, which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley. The First Intermediate Period of Egypt described as a "dark period" in ancient Egyptian history, spanned about 100 years after the end of the Old Kingdom from about 2181 to 2055 BC. Little monumental evidence survives from this period from the early part of it; the First Intermediate Period was a dynamic time when the rule of Egypt was divided between two competing power bases: Heracleopolis in Lower Egypt and Thebes in Upper Egypt. These two kingdoms would come into conflict, with the Theban kings conquering the north, resulting in the reunification of Egypt under a single ruler during the second part of the 11th Dynasty.
The Middle Kingdom of Egypt laste
Pottery is the process of forming vessels and other objects with clay and other ceramic materials, which are fired to give them a hard, durable form. Major types include earthenware and porcelain; the place where such wares are made by a potter is called a pottery. The definition of pottery used by the American Society for Testing and Materials, is "all fired ceramic wares that contain clay when formed, except technical and refractory products." In archaeology of ancient and prehistoric periods, "pottery" means vessels only, figures etc. of the same material are called "terracottas". Clay as a part of the materials used is required by some definitions of pottery, but this is dubious. Pottery is one of the oldest human inventions, originating before the Neolithic period, with ceramic objects like the Gravettian culture Venus of Dolní Věstonice figurine discovered in the Czech Republic dating back to 29,000–25,000 BC, pottery vessels that were discovered in Jiangxi, which date back to 18,000 BC.
Early Neolithic pottery artefacts have been found in places such as Jōmon Japan, the Russian Far East, Sub-Saharan Africa and South America. Pottery is made by forming a ceramic body into objects of a desired shape and heating them to high temperatures in a kiln and induces reactions that lead to permanent changes including increasing the strength and solidity of the object's shape. Much pottery is purely utilitarian, but much can be regarded as ceramic art. A clay body can be decorated after firing. Clay-based pottery can divided in three main groups: earthenware and porcelain; these require more specific clay material, higher firing temperatures. All three are made for different purposes. All may be decorated by various techniques. In many examples the group a piece belongs to is visually apparent, but this is not always the case; the fritware of the Islamic world does not use clay, so technically falls outside these groups. Historic pottery of all these types is grouped as either "fine" wares expensive and well-made, following the aesthetic taste of the culture concerned, or alternatively "coarse", "popular" "folk" or "village" wares undecorated, or so, less well-made.
All the earliest forms of pottery were made from clays that were fired at low temperatures in pit-fires or in open bonfires. They were hand undecorated. Earthenware can be fired as low as 600°C, is fired below 1200°C; because unglazed biscuit earthenware is porous, it has limited utility for the storage of liquids, eating off. However, earthenware has a continuous history from the Neolithic period to today, it can be made from a wide variety of clays, some of which fire to a buff, brown or black colour, with iron in the constituent minerals resulting in a reddish-brown. Reddish coloured varieties are called terracotta when unglazed or used for sculpture; the development of ceramic glaze which makes it impermeable makes it a popular and practical form of pottery. The addition of decoration has evolved throughout its history. Stoneware is pottery, fired in a kiln at a high temperature, from about 1,100°C to 1,200°C, is stronger and non-porous to liquids; the Chinese, who developed stoneware early on, classify this together with porcelain as high-fired wares.
In contrast, stoneware could only be produced in Europe from the late Middle Ages, as European kilns were less efficient, the right sorts of clay less common. It remained a speciality of Germany until the Renaissance. Stoneware is tough and practical, much of it has always been utilitarian, for the kitchen or storage rather than the table, but "fine" stoneware has been important in China and the West, continues to be made. Many utilitarian types have come to be appreciated as art. Porcelain is made by heating materials including kaolin, in a kiln to temperatures between 1,200 and 1,400 °C; this is higher than used for the other types, achieving these temperatures was a long struggle, as well as realizing what materials were needed. The toughness and translucence of porcelain, relative to other types of pottery, arises from vitrification and the formation of the mineral mullite within the body at these high temperatures. Although porcelain was first made in China, the Chinese traditionally do not recognise it as a distinct category, grouping it with stoneware as "high-fired" ware, opposed to "low-fired" earthenware.
This confuses the issue of. A degree of translucency and whiteness was achieved by the Tang Dynasty, considerable quantities were being exported; the modern level of whiteness was not reached until much in the 14th century. Porcelain was made in Korea and in Japan from the end of the 16th century, after suitable kaolin was located in those countries, it was not made outside East Asia until the 18th century. Before being shaped, clay must be prepared. Kneading helps to ensure an moisture content throughout the body. Air trapped within the clay body needs to be removed; this is called de-airing and can be accomplished either by a machine called a vacuum pug or manually by wedging. Wedging can help produce an moisture content. Once a clay body has been kneaded and de-aired or wedged, it is shaped by a variety of techniques. After it has been shaped, it is dried and fired. Greenware refers to unfired objects. At sufficient moisture content, bodies at this stage are in their most plastic form (as they are soft and mal
Korean arts include traditions in calligraphy, music and pottery marked by the use of natural forms, surface decoration and bold colors or sounds. The earliest examples of Korean art consist of stone age works dating from 3000 BC; these consist of votive sculptures and more petroglyphs, which were rediscovered. This early period was followed by the art styles of dynasties. Korean artists sometimes modified Chinese traditions with a native preference for simple elegance, an appreciation for purity of nature; the Goryeo Dynasty was one of the most prolific periods for a wide range of disciplines pottery. The Korean art market is concentrated in the Insadong district of Seoul where over 50 small galleries exhibit and occasional fine arts auctions. Galleries are cooperatively run and with curated and finely designed exhibits. In every town there are smaller regional galleries, with local artists showing in traditional and contemporary media. Art galleries have a mix of media. Attempts at bringing Western conceptual art into the foreground have had their best success outside of Korea in New York, San Francisco and Paris.
Professionals have begun to acknowledge and sort through Korea’s own unique art culture and important role in not only transmitting Chinese culture, but assimilating and creating a unique culture of its own. "An art given birth to and developed by a nation is its own art". Humans have occupied the Korean Peninsula from at least c. 50,000 BC. Pottery dated to 7,000 BC has been found; this pottery was made from clay and fired over open or semi-open pits at temperatures around 700 degrees Celsius. The earliest pottery style, dated to circa 7,000 BC, were flat-bottomed wares were decorated with relief designs, raised horizontal lines and other impressions. Jeulmun-type pottery, is cone-bottomed and incised with a comb-pattern appearing circa 6,000 BC in the archaeological record; this type of pottery is similar to Siberian styles. Mumun-type pottery emerged 2000 BC and is characterized as large, undecorated pottery used for cooking and storage. Between 2000 BC and 300 BC bronze items began to be made in Korea.
By the seventh century BC, an indigenous bronze culture was established in Korea as evidenced by Korean bronze having a unique percentage of zinc. Items manufactured during this time were weapons such as swords and spearheads. Ritual items such as mirrors and rattles were made; these items were buried in dolmens with the cultural elite. Additionally, iron-rich red pots began to be created around circa 6th century. Comma-shaped beads made from nephrite, known as kokkok have been found in dolmen burials. Kokkok may be carved to imitate bear claws. Another Siberian influence can be seen in rock drawings of animals that display a "life line" in the X-ray style of Siberian art; the Iron Age began in Korea around 300 BC. Korean iron was valued in the Chinese commanderies and in Japan. Korean pottery advanced with the introduction of the potters climbing kiln firing; this period began circa 57 BC to 668 AD. Three Korean kingdoms, Goguryeo and Silla vied for control over the peninsula. Buddhist missionaries introduced Buddhism to Goguryeo in 372 CE, which covered the central and southern parts of Manchuria and the northern half of modern-day Korea.
As Buddhism infiltrated the culture, Goguryeo kings began commissioning art and architecture dedicated to Buddha. A notable aspect of Goguryeo art are tomb murals that vividly depict everyday aspects of life in the ancient kingdom as well as its culture. UNESCO designated the Complex of Goguryeo Tombs as a World Heritage Site. Goguryeo painting inspired the creation of similar works in other parts of East Asia, like Japan; this can be seen in the wall murals of Horyu-ji. Mural painting spread to the other two kingdoms; these murals reveal valuable clues about the Goguryeo kingdom including the importance of Buddhism, its architecture, the clothing worn at the time. These murals were the beginnings of Korean landscape paintings and portraiture. However, because the tombs were accessed, its treasures were looted leaving few physical artifacts. Baekje is considered the kingdom with the greatest art among the three states. Baekje was a kingdom in southwestern Korea and was influenced by southern Chinese dynasties, such as the Liang Dynasty.
Baekje was one of the kingdoms to introduce a significant Korean influence into the art of Japan during this time period. Baekje Buddhist sculpture is characterized by its naturalness and harmonious proportions exhibits a unique Korean style. Another example of Korean influence is the use of the distinctive "Baekje smile", a mysterious and unique smile, characteristic of many Baekje statutes. While there are no surviving examples of wooden architecture, the Mireuksa site holds the foundation stones of a destroyed temple and two surviving granite pagodas that show what Baekje architecture may have looked. An example of Baekje architecture may be gleaned from Horyu-ji temple because Baekje architects and craftsmen helped design and construct the original temple; the tomb of King Muryeong held a treasure trove of artifacts not looted by grave robbers. Among the items were flame-like gold pins, gilt-bronze shoes, gold girdles, swords with gold hilts with dragons and phoenixes; the Silla Kingdom was the most isolated kingdom from the Korean peninsula because it was situated in the southeastern part of the peninsula.
The kingdom was the last to adopt foreign cultural influences. The
Christian Jürgensen Thomsen
Christian Jürgensen Thomsen was a Danish antiquarian who developed early archaeological techniques and methods. In 1816 he was appointed head of'antiquarian' collections which developed into the National Museum of Denmark in Copenhagen. While organizing and classifying the antiquities for exhibition, he decided to present them chronologically according to the three-age system. Other scholars had proposed that prehistory had advanced from an age of stone tools, to ages of tools made from bronze and iron, but these proposals were presented as systems of evolution, which did not allow dating of artifacts. Thomsen refined the three-age system as a chronological system by seeing which artifacts occurred with which other artifacts in closed finds. In this way, he was the first to establish an evidence-based division of prehistory into discrete periods; this achievement led to his being credited as the originator of the three-age system of European antiquity. Thomsen wrote one of the first systematic treatises on gold bracteates of the Migration period.
Thomsen's study of artifacts within the Copenhagen museum were based on associations between stylistic change and context. His results were published in the Ledetraad til Nordisk Oldkyndighed in 1836. An English translation was produced in 1848. Christian Jurgensen Thomsen was born in Copenhagen in 1788 into a wealthy merchant family; as a young man he visited Paris and, once he had returned to Denmark, became interested in coin collecting. This may have helped him develop his awareness of stylistic change through time. In 1816 Thomsen was selected to curate Danish Royal Commission for the Collection and Preservation of Antiquities' first exhibition; as the post was unsalaried, Thomsen's independent means and his experience as a collector of coins were his primary qualifications. He knew of the three-age model of prehistory through the works of Lucretius, Vedel Simonsen and Mahudel, decided to sort the material in the collection chronologically. Before Thomsen, this might have been done by mechanically sorting the materials according to their materials or the level of craftsmanship they displayed, but as the provenance of many of the materials were known, he could see that crude artifacts were sometimes found with fine ones and metal artifacts with artifacts of stone.
Rather than take a simple technological or evolutionary approach, he realized that the task was to determine in which periods the artifacts had been made. Thomsen decided to map out which kinds of phenomena co-occurred in deposits and which did not, as this would allow him to discern any trends that were exclusive to certain periods. In this way he discovered that stone tools were found in connection with amber, glass beads, whereas bronze was found with both iron and gold, but silver was only found in connection with iron, he found that bronze weapons did not occur with iron artifacts - so that each period could be defined by its preferred cutting material. He found that the types of grave goods varied between burial types: stone tools were found with uncremated corpses and stone-chamber tombs, bronze weapons and lurs in relation to stone-schist graves, iron with chamber tombs in barrows; when detractors asked rhetorically why there was no ”glass age,” Thomsen responded that glass beads were found in all three periods, but bowls of glass only in the Iron Age.
To Thomsen the find circumstances were the key to dating. As early as 1821, he wrote in a letter to fellow antiquarian Schröder that, ”othing is more important than to point out that hitherto we have not paid enough attention to what was found together,” and, the next year, that ” still do not know enough about most of the antiquities either … only future archaeologists may be able to decide, but they will never be able to do so if they do not observe what things are found together and our collections are not brought to a greater degree of perfection.”This analysis emphasizing coöcurrence and systematic attention to archaeological context allowed Thomsen to build a chronological framework of the materials in the collection and to classify new finds in relation to the established chronology without much knowledge of its provenience. In this way, Thomsen's system was a true chronological system rather than an evolutionary or technological system, his chronology was established by 1825, visitors to the museum were instructed in his methods.
Thomsen published journal articles and pamphlets in which he emphasized the importance of the find circumstances for interpretation and dating. In 1836, he published the illustrated monograph Guide to Northern Antiquity, in which he described his chronology together with comments about which things occurred together in finds. Like previous antiquarians, such as Winckelmann, Thomsen paid attention to stylistic analysis as well, but he used his chronological framework as evidence that stylistic developments had taken place, not the other way round. Thomsen may have been able to make his early advances in the development of archaeology because he had such a wide variety of material to review, consisting of collective finds from a large homogeneous culture area, he was the first to develop it into a chronological system rather than a speculative evolutionary model. Thomsen was an important influence on subsequent generations of prehistorians in Scandinavia, he taught his methods to archaeologists such as J. J. A. Worsaae and Bror Emil Hildebrand and Oscar Montelius.
He importantly influenced and was inf
Three Kingdoms of Korea
The Three Kingdoms of Korea refers to the three kingdoms of Baekje and Goguryeo. Goguryeo was known as Goryeo, from which the modern name Korea is derived; the Three Kingdoms period is defined as being from 57 BC to 668 AD. The three kingdoms occupied the entire Korean Peninsula and half of Manchuria, located in present-day China and Russia; the kingdoms of Baekje and Silla dominated the southern half of the Korean Peninsula and Tamna, whereas Goguryeo controlled the Liaodong Peninsula and the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Baekje and Goguryeo originated from Buyeo. In the 7th century, allied with China under the Tang dynasty, Silla unified the Korean Peninsula for the first time in Korean history, forming a united Korean national identity for the first time. After the fall of Baekje and Goguryeo, the Tang dynasty established a short-lived military government to administer parts of the Korean peninsula. However, as a result of the Silla–Tang War, Silla forces expelled the Protectorate armies from the peninsula in 676.
The following period is known as the Unified Later Silla. Subsequently, Go of Balhae, a former Goguryeo general, founded Balhae in the former territory of Goguryeo after defeating the Tang dynasty at the Battle of Tianmenling; the predecessor period, before the development of the full-fledged kingdoms, is sometimes called Proto–Three Kingdoms period. Main primary sources for this period include Samguk sagi and Samguk yusa in Korea, the "Eastern Barbarians" section from the Book of Wei of the Records of the Three Kingdoms in China. Beginning in the 7th century, the name "Samhan" became synonymous with the Three Kingdoms of Korea; the "Han" in the names of the Korean Empire, Daehan Jeguk, the Republic of Korea, Daehan Minguk or Hanguk, are named in reference to the Three Kingdoms of Korea. According to the Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, Silla implemented a national policy, "Samhan Unification", to integrate refugees and migrants from Baekje and Goguryeo. In 1982, a memorial stone dating back to 686 was discovered in Cheongju with an inscription: "The Three Han were unified and the domain was expanded."
During the Later Silla period, the concepts of Samhan as the ancient confederacies and the Three Kingdoms of Korea were merged. In a letter to an imperial tutor of the Tang dynasty, Choe Chiwon equated Byeonhan to Baekje, Jinhan to Silla, Mahan to Goguryeo. By the Goryeo period, Samhan became a common name to refer to all of Korea. In his Ten Mandates to his descendants, Wang Geon declared that he had unified the Three Han, referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea. Samhan continued to be a common name for Korea during the Joseon period and was referenced in the Annals of the Joseon Dynasty. In China, the Three Kingdoms of Korea were collectively called Samhan since the beginning of the 7th century; the use of the name Samhan to indicate the Three Kingdoms of Korea was widespread in the Tang dynasty. Goguryeo was alternately called Mahan by the Tang dynasty, as evidenced by a Tang document that called Goguryeo generals "Mahan leaders" in 645. In 651, Emperor Gaozong of Tang sent a message to the king of Baekje referring to the Three Kingdoms of Korea as Samhan.
Epitaphs of the Tang dynasty, including those belonging to Baekje and Silla refugees and migrants, called the Three Kingdoms of Korea "Samhan" Goguryeo. For example, the epitaph of Go Hyeon, a Tang dynasty general of Goguryeo origin who died in 690, calls him a "Liaodong Samhan man"; the History of Liao equates Byeonhan to Silla, Jinhan to Buyeo, Mahan to Goguryeo. The name "Three Kingdoms" was used in the titles of the Korean histories Samguk Sagi and Samguk Yusa, should not be confused with the Three Kingdoms of China; the Three Kingdoms was founded after the fall of Wiman Joseon, conquered and absorbed various other small states and confederacies. After the fall of Gojoseon, the Han dynasty established four commanderies in present Liaoning. Three fell to the Samhan, the last was destroyed by Goguryeo in 313; the nascent precursors of Baekje and Silla expanded within the web of statelets during the Proto Three Kingdoms Period, Goguryeo conquered neighboring state like Buyeo in Manchuria and chiefdoms in Okjeo, Dongye which occupied the northeastern Korean peninsula.
The three polities made the transition from walled-town state to full-fledged state-level societies between 1st – 3rd century AD. All three kingdoms shared a similar language, their original religions appear to have been shamanistic, but they were influenced by Chinese culture Confucianism and Taoism. In the 4th century, Buddhism was introduced to the peninsula and spread briefly becoming the official religion of all three kingdoms. Goguryeo emerged in the wake of Gojoseon's fall; the first mention of Goguryeo in Chinese records dates from 75 BC in reference to a commandery established by the Chinese Han dynasty, although earlier mentions of "Guri" may be of the same state. Evidence indicates Goguryeo was the most advanced, the first established, of the three kingdoms. Goguryeo the largest of the three kingdoms, had several capitals in alternation: two capitals in the upper Yalu area, Nangrang, now part of Pyongyang. At the beginning, the state was located on t
Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea
The Korean Provisional Government, formally the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a recognized Korean government-in-exile, based in Shanghai, in Chungking, during the Japanese colonial rule of Korea. On April 11, 1919, the provisional constitution was enacted, the national sovereignty was called "Republic of Korea" and the political system was called "Democratic Republic". Introduced the presidential system and established three separate systems of legislative and judicial separation, the KPG inherited the territory of the former Korean Empire and stated that he favored the former imperial court, it supported and supported the independence movement under the provisional government, received economic and military support from the Kuomintang of China, the Soviet Union and France. After the Surrender of Japan on August 15, 1945, figures such as Kim Gu returned. On August 15, 1948, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was dissolved. Rhee, the first president of the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, became the first President of the Republic of Korea in 1948.
The Constitution of South Korea, amended in 1987, stated that the Korean people inherited the rule of the KPG. The government was formed on April 13, 1919, shortly after the March 1st movement of the same year during the Imperial Japanese colonial rule of the Korean peninsula. Key members in its establishment included An Changho and Syngman Rhee, both of which were leaders of the Korean National Association at that time. An Changho played an important part in making Shanghai the center of the liberation movement and in getting KPG operations underway; as acting premier, he would help reorganize the government from a parliamentary cabinet system to a presidential system. The government resisted the colonial rule of Korea that lasted from 1910 to 1945, they coordinated the armed resistance against the Japanese imperial army during the 1920s and 1930s, including the Battle of Chingshanli in October 1920 and the assault on Japanese military leadership in Shanghai's Hongkou Park in April 1932. This struggle culminated in the formation of Korean Liberation Army in 1940, bringing together many if not all Korean resistance groups in exile.
The government duly declared war against the Axis powers Japan and Germany on December 9, 1941, the Liberation Army took part in allied action in China and parts of Southeast Asia. During World War II, the Korean Liberation Army was preparing an assault against the Imperial Japanese forces in Korea in conjunction with American Office of Strategic Services, but the Japanese surrender prevented the execution of the plan; the government's goal was achieved with Japanese surrender on September 2, 1945, but they were not approved by other governments as a member of allied nations, who signed peace treaty with Japan in San Francisco. The sites of the Provisional Government in Shanghai and Chongqing have been preserved as museums. In 1919, when U. S. President Woodrow Wilson ruled for national self-determination, Rhee Syng-man promoted the League of Nations mandate in the United States, Kim Kyu-sik pushed for independence under the approval of a victorious country in Paris; the provisional government gained approval from Poland through diplomatic efforts.
Meanwhile, in 1944, the government received approval from the Soviet Union. Jo So-ang, the head of diplomatic department of provisional government, met with the French ambassador in Chongqing and was quoted as saying that French government would give unofficial and substantively approve the government in April 1945. However, The government did not gain formal recognition from United States, United Kingdom and other world powers. Syngman Rhee - Impeached by the provisional assembly Yi Dongnyeong - Acting Park Eun-sik - Acting Park Eun-sik Yi Yu-pil -Acting Yi Sang-ryong Yang Gi-tak Yi Dongnyeong Ahn Chang-ho Yi Dong-nyeong Hong Jin Kim Koo Yi Dongnyeong Song Byeong-jo Yi Dongnyeong - Died in office Kim Koo Syngman Rhee - Became the first president of South Korea, from July 24, 1948 to April 26, 1960 History of South Korea Korean independence movements Korean Liberation Army Korea Times article "Provisional Government in Shanghai Resisted Colonial Rule" by Robert Neff Korea's Provisional Government established in 1919 in Shanghai - Arirang News