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Munich Agreement

The Munich Agreement or Munich Betrayal was an agreement concluded at Munich on 30 September 1938, by Nazi Germany, the United Kingdom, the French Third Republic, the Kingdom of Italy. It provided "cession to Germany of the Sudeten German territory" of Czechoslovakia. Most of Europe celebrated the agreement, because it prevented the war threatened by Adolf Hitler by allowing Nazi Germany's annexation of the Sudetenland, a region of western Czechoslovakia inhabited by more than 3 million people German speakers. Hitler announced it was his last territorial claim in Europe, the choice seemed to be between war and appeasement. An emergency meeting of the main European powers – not including Czechoslovakia or the Soviet Union, an ally to both France and Czechoslovakia – took place in Munich, Germany, on 29–30 September 1938. An agreement was reached on Hitler's terms, it was signed by the top leaders of Germany, France and Italy. Militarily, the Sudetenland was of strategic importance to Czechoslovakia as most of its border defenses were situated there to protect against a German attack.

The agreement between the four powers was signed on the backdrop of a low-intensity undeclared German-Czechoslovak war that had started on 17 September 1938. Meanwhile, Poland moved its army units towards its common border with Czechoslovakia after 23 September 1938. Czechoslovakia yielded to French and British diplomatic pressure and agreed on 30 September to give up territory to Germany on Munich terms. Fearing the possible loss of Zaolzie to Germany, Poland issued an ultimatum for Zaolzie, which Germany had accepted in advance and Czechoslovakia accepted on 1 October; the Munich Agreement was soon followed by the First Vienna Award on 2 November 1938, separating Hungarian inhabited territories in southern Slovakia and southern Subcarpathian Rus' from Czechoslovakia, while Poland annexed territories from Czechoslovakia in the North. In March 1939, the First Slovak Republic was proclaimed, shortly by the creation of the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia Germany took full control of the remaining Czech parts.

As a result, Czechoslovakia had disappeared. Today, the Munich Agreement is regarded as a failed act of appeasement, the term has become "a byword for the futility of appeasing expansionist totalitarian states". Czechoslovakia was created in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the end of World War I; the Treaty of Versailles recognized the independence of Czechoslovakia with a population that included three million German-speaking people, 24 percent of the total population of the country. The Germans lived in border regions of the historical Czech lands of Bohemia and Moravia for which they coined the new name Sudetenland, bordering on Germany and the newly created country of Austria, they arrived to the Czech lands in every century, including many since 1850. The Sudeten Germans were not consulted about. Although the constitution guaranteed equality for all citizens, there was a tendency among political leaders to transform the country "into an instrument of Czech and Slovak nationalism".

Some progress was made to integrate the Germans and other minorities, but they continued to be under-represented in the government and the army. Moreover, the Great Depression beginning in 1929 impacted the industrialized and export-oriented Sudeten Germans more than it did the Czech and Slovak populations. By 1936, 60 percent of the unemployed people in Czechoslovakia were Germans. In 1933 Sudeten German leader Konrad Henlein founded the Sudeten German Party, "militant and hostile" to the Czechoslovakian government and soon captured two-thirds of the vote in districts with a heavy German population. Historians differ as to whether the SdP was from its beginning a Nazi front organization, or evolved into one. By 1935, the SdP was the second largest political party in Czechoslovakia as German votes concentrated on this party while Czech and Slovak votes were spread among several parties. Shortly after the Anschluss of Austria to Germany, Henlein met with Hitler in Berlin on 28 March 1938, where he was instructed to raise demands unacceptable to the Czechoslovak government led by president Edvard Beneš.

On 24 April, the SdP issued a series of demands upon the government of Czechoslovakia, that were known as the Carlsbad Program. Among the demands, Henlein demanded autonomy for Germans living in Czechoslovakia; the Czechoslovak government responded by saying that it was willing to provide more minority rights to the German minority but was reluctant to grant them autonomy. With tension high between Germans and the Czechoslovakian government, on 15 September 1938 President Beneš offered secretly to give 6,000 square kilometres of Czechoslovakian territory to Germany in exchange for a German agreement to admit 1.5 to 2.0 million Sudeten Germans which Czechoslovakia would expel. Hitler did not reply; as the previous appeasement of Hitler had shown, the governments of both France and Britain were intent on avoiding war. The French government did not wish to face Germany alone and took its lead from Britain's Conservative government of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain. Chamberlain considered the Sudeten German grievances justified and believed Hitler's intentions were limited.

Both Britain and France, advised Czechoslovakia to accede to Germany's demands. Beneš resisted and on 19 May initiated a partial mobilization in response to possible German invasion. On 20 May, Hitler presented his generals with a draft plan of attack on Czechoslovakia codenamed Operation Green, in

International Festival of Animated Objects

The International Festival of Animated Objects is a biennial festival sponsored by the non-profit group Calgary Animated Objects Society that promotes the arts of puppetry and animated objects. It takes place in downtown Calgary, Canada; the IFAO features high calibre local and international artists working in the realm of animated objects. Programming includes live performances, lectures and exhibitions for all ages, adult audiences, including the ever-popular late night "Dolly Wiggler Cabaret" and "Opening Night Galabash". Past programming has included Canadian marionette superstar Ronnie Burkett, BC spectacle artists Three on the Tree, Tsimphisan carver Victor Reece, Cirque du Soleil artist Mooky Cornish, Phillip Huber, Frank Meschkuleit, Calgary's The Old Trout Puppet Workshop, Red Smarteez, Czech group Buchty a Loutky, amongst others. Puppets on Film is the screening portion of the International Festival of Animated Objects. Submissions for the film portion may be made through Withoutabox.

Supporting the IFAO are the following organizations: Canadian Heritage Human Resources Development Canada Alberta Lotteries Alberta Foundation for the Arts Alberta Human Resources Calgary Arts Development Official Website CAOS Website Glenbow Museum Golden Sheaf Awards VTape Prairie Tales Phillip Huber Frank Meschkuleit Cirque du Soleil Varekai The Old Trout Puppet Workshop The Red Smarteez Ronnie Burkett Buchty a LoutkyPress Links AMMSA Calgary Herald Canadian Theatre Review FFWD 2009 Festival Preview FFWD 2009 Crawdaddy Review Calgary Herald 2009 Les Voisins Review Calgary Herald 2009 Alice Nelson Review

Zoanthus sociatus

Zoanthus sociatus known as the green sea mat or button polyp, is a zoanthid found in shallow reef zones of tropical regions from Caribbean to southeastern Brazil. Z. sociatus is being studied for its use against human lymphatic parasites. Zoanthus sociatus has nematocysts; as it has polyp morphology, it is an anthozoan. It has tentacles in multiples of 6, so it falls under the subclass Hexacorallia, it is in the order Zoanthidea due to its lack of a calcium carbonate skeleton. Forms elaborate piecemeal mats of green to turquoise polyps, they are found on reef flats exposed to high light intensity and intermittently strong currents. Stolon-connected polyps have 30 short tentacles, polyps are extended continuously day and night and feed predominantly on detritus, not zooplankton. Z. Sociatus can be found in the lower intertidal and upper subtidal zones on protected Caribbean reefs, it is a colonial organism. Z. sociatus grows on disturbed substrate. Z. sociatus can survive lower levels of salinity. It appears to dominate other zoanthids.

Reproduction in Z. sociatus is asexual although sexual reproduction may happen as well. There is extratentacular budding, the creation of a new polyp from an old polyp, fission, a new fragment in formed; the size of a fragment is controlled by the increasing rate of mortality with decreasing fragment size. A colony is genetically the same; when a colony is sexually reproductive, a large proportion of polyps remain infertile, which demonstrates the greater importance of asexual reproduction and growth. Z. sociatus colonies do not become reproductive. They use external fertilization, are hermaphroditic, although some are male or protogynous. Z. sociatus was found to reproduce seasonally in Panama, synchronizes the release of gametes with low tides. Z. sociatus polyps obtain nearly half of their required energy from the zooxanthellae, organism that Z. Sociatus forms symbiosis with. Therefore, the rest of the energy must be obtained through feeding. Zoanthids have nematocysts on their mesenterial filaments.

Z. sociatus will eat anything, the right size such as from Artemia cysts and dissolved organic matter. While zoanthids are less efficient heterotrophs, they produce more energy photosynthetically due to their lack of a calcified skeleton; the lack of a skeleton allows more light to reach the chloroplasts. To digest prey, it uses both intracellular methods. Http://www.advancedaquarist.com/issues/feb2003/invert.htm http://www.sealifebase.org/summary/speciessummary.php?id=44798 http://www. Thecephalopodpage.org/MarineInvertebrateZoology/Zoanthussociatus.html http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/umrsmas/bullmar/1983/00000033/00000001/art00009 http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bscb.19810900913/abstract