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Munkar and Nakir

Munkar and Nakir in Islamic eschatology, are angels who test the faith of the dead in their graves. These angels are described as having solid black eyes, having a shoulder span measured in miles, carrying hammers "so large, that if all of mankind tried at once to move them a single inch, they would fail"; when they speak, tongues of fire come from their mouths. If one answers their questions incorrectly, one is beaten every day, other than Friday, until Allah gives permission for the beating to stop. Muslims believe that after a person dies, his soul passes through a stage called barzakh, where it exists in the grave; the questioning will begin when the burial is over. Nakir and Munkar prop the deceased soul upright in the grave and ask three questions: Who is your Lord? What is your religion? What is your faith about this person? Who made you aware of this? A righteous believer will respond saying that their Lord is Allah, that Muhammad is their prophet and that their religion is Islam. If the deceased answers the time spent awaiting the resurrection is pleasant and may enter heaven.

Those who do not answer as described above are chastised until the day of judgment. There is belief that the fire which represents the own bad deeds can be seen in Barzakh, that the spiritual pain caused by this can lead to purification of the soul. Muslims believe that a person will answer the questions not by remembering the answers before death but by their iman and deeds such as salat and shahadah. Munkar and Nakir bear some similarity to Zoroastrian divinities; some of these, such as Mithra and Rashnu have a role in the judgement of souls. Rashnu is described as a figure. E. G. Brown has suggested that a continuity exists between Munkar and Nakir. A mythical figure in Mandaean religion, Abathur Muzania is similar to Rashnu, he holds the same position in the world of the dead, holds a set of scales. Muzania means scales in Aramaic. According to recent research and Nakir are astrological figures and a transformation of the Mesopotamian astral god Nergal. Aksoy shows in his new research that the Mesopotamian god Nergal has the same characteristics as Munkar and Nakir.

He begins with Nakru, an epithet of Nergal and means'enemy'. The Assyrian nakru, like the names Munkar and Nakir, comes from the same root, from the proto-Semitic NKR; some scholars use a different spelling. Which is the same as Nakir. Moreover, Nergal is a lord of the grave. Like Munkar and Nakir, he has a terrifying voice that can cause panic among gods, he holds a shining mace and his breath can burn his enemies. Because he is related to fire most scholars suggest that he was a sun god. Furthermore, he is identified with the celestial twins in the Babylonian astral mythology which forms a direct link to Munkar and Nakir. There is no reference to Nakir in the Quran, their names are first mentioned by Tirmidhi in the hadith tradition. Tirmidhi is known to have visited Iraq; this suggests that the names of Munkar and Nakir are introduced to Islamic beliefs during an early stage in the Islamization of Mesopotamia. The Mesopotamians still believed in the sun god Shamash, as well as Nergal and several other Babylonian gods at the time Islam was introduced.

Thus, Nergal the god of the Underworld, symbolized by the planet Mars, is a possible prototype for Munkar and Nakir. Astrologically and Nakir share more clues in their Martian characteristics which connect them to Nergal. Barzakh Dumah Punishment of the Grave Nergal Zabaniyya


PukiWiki is wiki software written in PHP, is used by Japanese wikis. It was forked from YukiWiki developed by Yuuki Hiroshi. Since version 1.4, PukiWiki Development Team became the developer of the software. The support for DBCS of PukiWiki is wider than most wiki software, due to its origination in Japan. Due to the heavy use of mobile phones for browsing the web in Japan, PukiWiki have a layout optimized for mobile use. PukiWiki can run on PHP 4, 5 or 7, it supports interwiki extensions, similar to MediaWiki. PukiWiki is written such that it uses PHP with a series of text files, hence does not require a database to operate, does not support databases natively. However, support could be added through extensions for MySQL, SQLite, Oracle Oci8 and PostgreSQL. XpWiki - Developed by nao-pon and forked from PukiWiki version 1.4.7, aims at integration with XOOPS. PukiWiki Mod - Also developed by nao-pon with the same goal, but forked from version 1.3.x instead. PukiWiki Plus! - Derivative version with enhanced localization features.

PukiWiki Advance - Forked from PukiWiki Plus!. PyukiWiki - Derivative version written in Perl. Official Website


Majanji is a town in the Eastern Region of Uganda. Majanji is 30 kilometres, by road, south of Busia, the nearest large town and the location of the district headquarters; this is 191 kilometres, by road, east of Kampala, the capital of Uganda and its largest city. The coordinates of the town are 0°14'27.0"N, 33°59'29.0"E. Majanji sits on the north-eastern corner of Lake Victoria in Uganda close to the international border with Kenya; the principal activity in the town is fishing, although the weekly catch has declined due to overfishing. Iglo Foods Fish Factory, a local fish processor, produces only 10 tonnes of fish every week, compared to 40,000 tonnes daily when they first opened in the early 2000s; the national census in August 2014 put the population of Majanji sub-county at 11,274. The following points of interest lie within the town limits or close to the edges of the town: The southern end of the Musita–Mayuge–Lumino–Majanji–Busia Road offices of Majanji Town Council Majanji central market Sangalo Sand Beach* Victoria Coconut Beach Hotel.

List of cities and towns in Uganda List of roads in Uganda* Victoria coconut Road

Philip Parham

Philip John Parham is a British diplomat. He was educated at Christ Church, Oxford, he joined the Foreign and Commonwealth Office in 1993, served as UK High Commissioner to Tanzania from 2006 to 2009, as Ambassador and UK Deputy Permanent Representative to the United Nations in New York from 2009 to 2013, as UK Ambassador to the United Arab Emirates from 2014 to 2018. In 2018 he was appointed to be the UK's Envoy to the Commonwealth. Parham was appointed Companion of the Order of St Michael and St George in the 2015 New Year Honours "for services to British multilateral foreign policy interests". Parham is married to teacher and writer Kasia Giedroyc, sister of comedian Mel Giedroyc and director Coky Giedroyc, they have seven children

Brian Crutcher

Brian Crutcher is a former international speedway rider who finished second at the 1954 Speedway World Championship finals. Crutcher made his debut for third division team the Poole Pirates in 1951 at age 16, he made his first World Final appearance in only his second year of racing in 1952, finishing in twelfth place. At the start of 1953 Crutcher moved to first division team the Wembley Lions and appeared in the next four World Championship finals, finishing second in 1954 behind Ronnie Moore. Wembley closed down in 1956 and Crutcher moved to the Southampton Saints until he retired from the sport in 1960. 1952 - London, Wembley Stadium - 11th - 6pts 1953 - London, Wembley Stadium - 10th - 6pts 1954 - London, Wembley Stadium - Second - 13pts 1955 - London, Wembley Stadium - 5th - 10pts 1956 - London, Wembley Stadium - 8th - 9pts 1958 - London, Wembley Stadium - Reserve - did not ride 1959 - London, Wembley Stadium - 6th - 10pts

Luis Perlotti

Luis Perlotti was an Argentine sculptor. Perlotti was born into a family of Italian immigrant workers, his father, a shoe cobbler, died in 1899, young Luis Perlotti was compelled to find work. He was employed at the Rigolleau glass factory, at a cabinet maker, where he developed skills in polishing and shaping, he began his studies as a craftsman and sculptor at the Unione e Benevolenza mutual aid society, was accepted into the National Academy of Fine Arts, where he was trained by painters Pío Collivadino, Pablo Ripamonti, by sculptor Lucio Correa Morales. He soon received commissions to create busts and memorials for the National Military College, in 1914, exhibited for the first time at the National Salon, he became acquainted with other Argentine artists, including painter Benito Quinquela Martín, poet Alfonsina Storni, others, who would gather at the Café Tortoni. The archaeological findings of Eduardo Holmberg and Juan Bautista Ambrosetti, as well as the regionalist fiction of Ricardo Rojas, would influence Perlotti to incorporate indigenous motifs in which developing style, a tour of the Andes in 1925 would further influence his work in subsequent years.

He would be commissioned to create large-scale works for both public display and for private clients, notably the Mar del Plata monument to his friend, the poet Alfonsina Storni, which would be placed in 1942 opposite the place where she had committed suicide. Other notable works would include the Monument in the city of Corrientes. Perlotti donated his house and workshop in the Caballito ward of Buenos Aires in 1969 for its use as a museum. Vacationing in Punta del Este, Uruguay, in January 1969, the noted sculptor died in an automobile accident; the Luis Perlotti Museum became the municipal museum of sculpture of Buenos Aires, was reopened in 2008 following a four-year refurbishment and expansion. Luis Perlotti Museum of Sculptures