click links in text for more info


The Munsee or mə́n'si·w are a subtribe of the Lenape constituting one of the three great divisions of that nation and dwelling along the upper portion of the Delaware River, the Minisink, the adjacent country in New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. From their principal totem they were called the Wolf tribe of the Lenape, they were considered the most warlike portion of their nation and assumed the leadership in war councils. They were prominent in the early history of New York and New Jersey, being among the first nations of that region to meet the European settlers; the Munsee occupied the headwaters of the Delaware River in present-day New York, New Jersey, Connecticut, extending south to the Lehigh River, held the west bank of the Hudson River from the Catskill mountains nearly to the New Jersey line. They were bordered by the Mahican and Wappinger on the north and east, the Lenape on the south and southeast, they were regarded as a buffer between the southern Lenape and the Iroquois Confederacy based in present-day New York south of the Great Lakes.

Their council village was Minisink in Sussex County, New Jersey. The bands along the Hudson were prominent in the early history of New York, but as European-American settlements increased, most of the Munsee moved south to join their relatives along the Delaware. In 1669 they aided the Esopus tribe in attacking the Dutch colonists, were defeated by Martin Cregier. By a noted fraudulent treaty known as the Walking Purchase, the main body of the Munsee was forced to move from the Delaware River about the year 1740, they settled on the Susquehanna River, on lands assigned them by the Iroquois -. Soon afterward they moved westward. Most became incorporated with that group. In 1756 those remaining in New York were placed upon lands in Schoharie County and were incorporated with the Mohawk. A considerable body, the Christian Munsee, who were converted by the Moravian missionaries, drew off from the rest and formed a separate organization, most of them moving to Canada during the American Revolution.

Others joined Stockbridge people in Wisconsin. The majority were incorporated in the Lenape, with whom they participated in their subsequent wars and removals; those who kept the name of Munsee were in three bands in the early 20th century, in Canada and the United States. Two had consolidated with remnants of other nations; these nations were the Munsee of the Thames, Canada, 120. The Stockbridge-Munsee Community is a federally recognized tribe in United States. Christian Munsee Minisink Munsee-Delaware Nation Munsee language Moravian 47, Ontario Stockbridge-Munsee Community Ripley, George. "Munsees". The American Cyclopædia; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Gilman, D. C.. "Munsee". New International Encyclopedia. New York: Dodd, Mead. Penford, Saxby Voulaer. "Romantic Suffern - The History of Suffern, New York, from the Earliest Times to the Incorporation of the Village in 1896", Tallman, N. Y. 1955, "Munsee Indians". Encyclopedia Americana. 1920

Soil map

Soil map is a geographical representation showing diversity of soil types and/or soil properties in the area of interest. It is the end result of a soil survey inventory, i.e. soil survey. Soil maps are most used for land evaluation, spatial planning, agricultural extension, environmental protection and similar projects. Traditional soil maps show only general distribution of soils, accompanied by the soil survey report. Many new soil maps are derived using digital soil mapping techniques; such maps are richer in context and show higher spatial detail than traditional soil maps. Soil maps produced using statistical techniques include an estimate of the model uncertainty. In the digital era, soil maps come in various digital vector and raster formats and are used for various applications in geosciences and environmental sciences. In this context, soil maps are only visualizations of the soil resource inventories stored in a Soil Information System, of which the major part is a Soil Geographical Database.

A Soil Information System is a systematic collection of complete and consistent gridded or vector soil property and/or class maps with an attached report, user manual and/or metadata. A SIS is in the most cases, a combination of polygon and point maps linked with attribute tables for profile observations, soil mapping units and soil classes. Different elements of an SIS can be manipulated and visualized against the spatial reference. For example, soil profiles can be used to make spatial prediction of different chemical and physical soil properties. In the case of pedometric mapping, both predictions and simulations of values are visualized and used for GIS modeling, it is important to distinguish between the following types of soil maps: hand-drawn soil polygon maps representing distribution of soil types. Map Soil science Soil survey Pedometric mapping Digital soil mapping Geographic information system Pedometrics International Working Group on Digital Soil Mapping International Union of Soil Sciences EuDASM includes more than 5,400 Soil Maps of the world European Digital Archive on Soil Maps of the World National Soil Maps

James Macpherson (trade unionist)

James Macpherson was a British trade unionist. Born in Bernain, near Dunkeld in Scotland, Macpherson completed an apprenticeship as a drapers' assistant in Glasgow before moving to London in 1879, he worked in a variety of retail positions and became a founder member of the National Union of Shop Assistants. In 1891, Macpherson was a founder of its branch in Bow, he was elected as general secretary of the soon-renamed National Amalgamated Union of Shop Assistants and Clerks in 1894, holding the post until 1912. Through this, he attended the Trades Union Congress and became involved in the Labour Representation Committee. Margaret Bondfield was inspired to join the union after reading a letter from Macpherson in a newspaper. Macpherson was an acquaintance of her brother, she became assistant general secretary to Macpherson from 1898. Macpherson stood as a Labour candidate in Gravesend at the 1906 general election, although he took only 16.2% of the vote and was not elected

Franklin D. Fraser

Franklin D. Fraser was a Florida lawyer and a Republican politician who served on the Florida Supreme Court from 1873 to 1874. Fraser was born in Montrose, Pennsylvania in Susquehanna County on April 23, 1819, his father was Dr. Charles Fraser and his mother was Mary, he attended schools at Montrose and at Oxford, New York and attended Union College at Schenectady, New York. He returned to Montrose to read law with Sr.. He was worked in Susquehanna and Wyoming counties, he married Jane B. Clark, they had Fannie. He had a reputation for careful, thoughtful preparation, great ability, for tenacity once he'd reached a decision, he served as a Prosecuting Attorney in Pennsylvania. His older brother Philip, who had a law practice in Jacksonville and who had served as mayor, was an ally of Isaiah and Ossian Bingley Hart. Philip had fled to Montrose after the Unionists evacuated Jacksonville in 1862; when he returned as Federal judge for Northern District of Florida, Franklin Fraser came to work as the district's deputy clerk before returning to Pennsylvania.

In 1869, he returned to Florida as the Northern District's register in bankruptcy. When Hart became governor in 1872, he needed someone he could trust to fill his position on the bench, he appointed Fraser to the Court January 16, 1873. After Hart died in March 1874, Fraser resigned from the court that May, expressing dissatisfaction with his salary and with Southern society, he had served 16 months on the court. He returned to his law practice in Pennsylvania, he died of pneumonia on November 10, 1879. Manley, Walter W. Brown, E. Canter. and Rise, Eric W. The Supreme Court of Florida and Its Predecessor Courts, 1821-1917. Pp 227–230. University Press of Florida. Gainesville, Florida. 1997. EBook ISBN 978-0-8130-2298-7. ISBN 978-0-8130-1540-8. At Netlbrary. Online. April 23, 2008. Thursby, Mary Agnes. Succession of Justices of Supreme Court of Florida Online. June 26, 2008

Unni Robbins II House

The Unni Robbins II House is a historic house at 1092 Main Street in Newington, Connecticut. Built in 1792, it is a well-preserved example of Georgian architecture, notable for its fine interior, it is notable for its long association with locally prominent families. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2005; the Unni Robbins II House is located in central Newington, south of the town center, on the east side of Main Street just south of Robbins Avenue. It is a 2-1/2 story wood frame structure, with a side gable roof, central chimney, clapboarded exterior, it is set high with a fenced embankment separating the two. The main facade is five bays wide, with a center entrance framed by simple moulding; the interior follows a center chimney plan typical of mid-18th century houses, including a winding staircase in the entry vestibule. Interior walls are finished in plaster, with paneled fireplace walls and doors, crown moulding at the ceiling; the main parlor includes a builtin cabinet.

The house was built in 1792 for Unni Robbins II, a descendant of one of Connecticut's early 17th-century settlers, John Robbins. Its Georgian character is conservative, considering many more urbanized settings were seeing Federal style housing at the time of its construction; the Robbinses were early settlers of the Newington area, until 1871 part of Wethersfield, Unni III and his brother David Lowry Robbins were among the town's wealthiest landowners. Unni III's son Henry reunited many Robbins family holdings, operating them as a gentleman farmer; the house was sold out of the family in 2001. Enoch Kelsey House, next door to the south National Register of Historic Places listings in Hartford County, Connecticut

Tolkien tourism

Tolkien tourism is a phenomenon of fans of The Lord of the Rings fictional universe travelling to sites of film- and book-related significance. It is notable in New Zealand, site of the movie trilogy by Peter Jackson, where it is credited as having raised the annual tourism numbers; the three films based on the novel The Lord of the Rings by J. R. R. Tolkien were shot in various locations throughout New Zealand, many of these locations have been preserved and altered to encourage the tourism that makes up a significant portion of the country’s economy. On some Lord of the Rings film location tours, tourists are provided time to indulge in cosplay, dress as characters from the books or films. New Zealand is in a unique position to capitalize on its scenery. Tolkien tourist attention is less geared towards visiting New Zealand's national parks and more focused on scenery, used as back drops in movies. For example, Mount Olympus, dramatic pillars of rock carved out by nature and time, sits in Kahurangi National Park near Nelson in a remote corner of the South Island.

Since it featured in The Fellowship of the Ring, the first of The Lord of the Rings trilogy, Mount Olympus has become a spot for Tolkien tourists. Mount Sunday, in a remote area west of the Canterbury plains, served as the location of Edoras. Although no traces of the filming remain, complete day tour packages to it are available from Christchurch. Film NZ—the national film promotion board—advertises that New Zealand offers an English-speaking nonunion work force, along with a kaleidoscope of urban and rural landscapes. "Experience New Zealand, Home of Middle Earth," urges Tourism New Zealand's Web site, once tourists get there, they are invited to find film locations around New Zealand with a free "Middle Earth map." New Zealand is negotiating with Peter Jackson and New Line Cinema, the films' producers, to construct a permanent Lord of the Rings museum for some of the 40,000 props and costumes now warehoused in New Zealand. Jan Howard Finder, the science fiction writer, has organized special hostel-based tours of New Zealand to see places filmed in Lord of the Rings.

The annual tourist influx to New Zealand grew 40%, from 1.7 million in 2000 to 2.4 million in 2006, which some have attributed to be to a large degree due to The Lord of the Rings phenomenon. 6% of international visitors cited the film as a reason for traveling to the country. "You can argue that Lord of the Rings was the best unpaid advertisement that New Zealand has had", said Bruce Lahood, United States and Canadian regional manager for Tourism New Zealand. An article published by The New York Times contradicts Lahood, stating that New Zealand subsidized the movie trilogy with $150 million. Many experts and New Zealanders hoped for a renewed Tolkien effect because The Hobbit was filmed in New Zealand. Whether or not this was vitally important to New Zealand's tourism industry was a big debating point during short-lived fears that industrial disputes could make the film production occur outside of the country; the government of New Zealand saw some criticism for increasing movie subsidies and creating laws tailored for US movie companies out of fear of losing the production.

Some have subsequently called the price $25 million that New Zealand had to pay to retain the movie'extortionate' and argued that the discussion had occurred in a climate of'hyperbole and hysteria'. An higher price of at least $109 million has been cited. Tolkien tourism has existed to a lesser extent independent from the Jackson movies. Most notable are the following destinations: Oxford, United Kingdom: aside from the colleges where Tolkien taught, the pubs he and the Inklings frequented and his former homes, The Tolkien Society organizes the Oxonmoot in one of the colleges September each year. In 1992 the centennial was celebrated in Oxford. Birmingham, United Kingdom: in 2005, The Tolkien Society hosted Tolkien 2005 at Aston University in the city where Tolkien lived and taught for many years to celebrate The Lord of the Rings 50th anniversary. Bloemfontein, Free State, South Africa: Tolkien was born in Bloemfontein on 3 January 1892; the Bank of Africa building site has been recovered, the grave of Tolkien's father has been recovered and a new tombstone erected.

In addition, the Anglican church where Tolkien was baptized still stands, inclusive of the baptism font. Tolkien's father's last will and testament can be read at one of the municipal offices; the National Afrikaans Literary Museum has a number of copies of Die Smid van Groot-Wootton, the only book by Tolkien translated in Afrikaans. Impact on popular culture of the Lord of the Rings