Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition
The Encyclopædia Britannica, Eleventh Edition is a 29-volume reference work, an edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. It was developed during the encyclopaedia's transition from a British to an American publication; some of its articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time. This edition of the encyclopedia, containing 40,000 entries, is now in the public domain, many of its articles have been used as a basis for articles in Wikipedia. However, the outdated nature of some of its content makes its use as a source for modern scholarship problematic; some articles have special value and interest to modern scholars as cultural artifacts of the 19th and early 20th centuries. The 1911 eleventh edition was assembled with the management of American publisher Horace Everett Hooper. Hugh Chisholm, who had edited the previous edition, was appointed editor in chief, with Walter Alison Phillips as his principal assistant editor. Hooper bought the rights to the 25-volume 9th edition and persuaded the British newspaper The Times to issue its reprint, with eleven additional volumes as the tenth edition, published in 1902.
Hooper's association with The Times ceased in 1909, he negotiated with the Cambridge University Press to publish the 29-volume eleventh edition. Though it is perceived as a quintessentially British work, the eleventh edition had substantial American influences, not only in the increased amount of American and Canadian content, but in the efforts made to make it more popular. American marketing methods assisted sales; some 14% of the contributors were from North America, a New York office was established to coordinate their work. The initials of the encyclopedia's contributors appear at the end of selected articles or at the end of a section in the case of longer articles, such as that on China, a key is given in each volume to these initials; some articles were written by the best-known scholars of the time, such as Edmund Gosse, J. B. Bury, Algernon Charles Swinburne, John Muir, Peter Kropotkin, T. H. Huxley, James Hopwood Jeans and William Michael Rossetti. Among the lesser-known contributors were some who would become distinguished, such as Ernest Rutherford and Bertrand Russell.
Many articles were carried over from some with minimal updating. Some of the book-length articles were divided into smaller parts for easier reference, yet others much abridged; the best-known authors contributed only a single article or part of an article. Most of the work was done by British Museum scholars and other scholars; the 1911 edition was the first edition of the encyclopædia to include more than just a handful of female contributors, with 34 women contributing articles to the edition. The eleventh edition introduced a number of changes of the format of the Britannica, it was the first to be published complete, instead of the previous method of volumes being released as they were ready. The print type was subject to continual updating until publication, it was the first edition of Britannica to be issued with a comprehensive index volume in, added a categorical index, where like topics were listed. It was the first not to include long treatise-length articles. Though the overall length of the work was about the same as that of its predecessor, the number of articles had increased from 17,000 to 40,000.
It was the first edition of Britannica to include biographies of living people. Sixteen maps of the famous 9th edition of Stielers Handatlas were translated to English, converted to Imperial units, printed in Gotha, Germany by Justus Perthes and became part this edition. Editions only included Perthes' great maps as low quality reproductions. According to Coleman and Simmons, the content of the encyclopedia was distributed as follows: Hooper sold the rights to Sears Roebuck of Chicago in 1920, completing the Britannica's transition to becoming a American publication. In 1922, an additional three volumes, were published, covering the events of the intervening years, including World War I. These, together with a reprint of the eleventh edition, formed the twelfth edition of the work. A similar thirteenth edition, consisting of three volumes plus a reprint of the twelfth edition, was published in 1926, so the twelfth and thirteenth editions were related to the eleventh edition and shared much of the same content.
However, it became apparent that a more thorough update of the work was required. The fourteenth edition, published in 1929, was revised, with much text eliminated or abridged to make room for new topics; the eleventh edition was the basis of every version of the Encyclopædia Britannica until the new fifteenth edition was published in 1974, using modern information presentation. The eleventh edition's articles are still of value and interest to modern readers and scholars as a cultural artifact: the British Empire was at its maximum, imperialism was unchallenged, much of the world was still ruled by monarchs, the tragedy of the modern world wars was still in the future, they are an invaluable resource for topics omitted from modern encyclopedias for biography and the history of science and technology. As a literary text, the encyclopedia has value as an example of early 20th-century prose. For example, it employs literary devices, such as pathetic fallacy, which are not as common in modern reference texts.
In 1917, using the pseudonym of S. S. Van Dine, the US art critic and author Willard Huntington Wright published Misinforming a Nation, a 200+
Rudolf Swoboda the younger was a 19th-century Austrian painter, born in Vienna. He studied under Leopold Carl Müller, voyaged with him to Egypt in 1880, he was a well-known Orientalist. His sister was the portrait painter Josefine Swoboda well-known for her portraits of the British royal family. In 1886, Queen Victoria commissioned Swoboda to paint several of a group of Indian artisans, brought to Windsor as part of the Golden Jubilee preparations. Victoria liked the resulting paintings so much that she paid Swoboda's way to India to paint more of her Indian subjects. Swoboda painted many of the ordinary people of India in a grouping of small paintings which resulted. While in India, he stayed, part of the time, with John Lockwood Kipling, met his son Rudyard Kipling; the younger Kipling was unimpressed with Swoboda, writing to a friend about two "Austrian maniacs" who thought they were "almighty" artists aiming to "embrace the whole blazing East". Upon his return from India, he painted two portraits of Abdul Karim, Victoria's favourite Indian servant.
Most of these Indian paintings hang at Osborne House, once Victoria's residence on the Isle of Wight. List of Orientalist artists Orientalism Media related to Rudolf Swoboda at Wikimedia Commons
Urdu —or, more Modern Standard Urdu—is a Persianised standard register of the Hindustani language. It is the official national lingua franca of Pakistan. In India, it is one of the 22 official languages recognized in the Constitution of India, having official status in the six states of Jammu and Kashmir, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal, as well as the national capital territory of Delhi, it is a registered regional language of Nepal. Apart from specialized vocabulary, spoken Urdu is mutually intelligible with Standard Hindi, another recognized register of Hindustani; the Urdu variant of Hindustani received recognition and patronage under British rule when the British replaced the local official languages with English and Hindustani written in Nastaʿlīq script, as the official language in North and Northwestern India. Religious and political factors pushed for a distinction between Urdu and Hindi in India, leading to the Hindi–Urdu controversy. According to Nationalencyklopedin's 2010 estimates, Urdu is the 21st most spoken first language in the world, with 66 million speakers.
According to Ethnologue's 2017 estimates, along with standard Hindi and the languages of the Hindi belt, is the 3rd most spoken language in the world, with 329.1 million native speakers, 697.4 million total speakers. Urdu, like Hindi, is a form of Hindustani, it evolved from the medieval Apabhraṃśa register of the preceding Shauraseni language, a Middle Indo-Aryan language, the ancestor of other modern Indo-Aryan languages. Around 75% of Urdu words have their etymological roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit, 99% of Urdu verbs have their roots in Sanskrit and Prakrit; because Persian-speaking sultans ruled the Indian subcontinent for a number of years, Urdu was influenced by Persian and to a lesser extent, which have contributed to about 25% of Urdu's vocabulary. Although the word Urdu is derived from the Turkic word ordu or orda, from which English horde is derived, Turkic borrowings in Urdu are minimal and Urdu is not genetically related to the Turkic languages. Urdu words originating from Chagatai and Arabic were borrowed through Persian and hence are Persianized versions of the original words.
For instance, the Arabic ta' marbuta changes to te. Contrary to popular belief, Urdu did not borrow from the Turkish language, but from Chagatai, a Turkic language from Central Asia. Urdu and Turkish borrowed from Arabic and Persian, hence the similarity in pronunciation of many Urdu and Turkish words. Arabic influence in the region began with the late first-millennium Muslim conquests of the Indian subcontinent; the Persian language was introduced into the subcontinent a few centuries by various Persianized Central Asian Turkic and Afghan dynasties including that of Mahmud of Ghazni. The Turko-Afghan Delhi Sultanate established Persian as its official language, a policy continued by the Mughal Empire, which extended over most of northern South Asia from the 16th to 18th centuries and cemented Persian influence on the developing Hindustani; the name Urdu was first used by the poet Ghulam Hamadani Mushafi around 1780. From the 13th century until the end of the 18th century Urdu was known as Hindi.
The language was known by various other names such as Hindavi and Dehlavi. Hindustani in Persian script was used by Muslims and Hindus, but was current chiefly in Muslim-influenced society; the communal nature of the language lasted until it replaced Persian as the official language in 1837 and was made co-official, along with English. Hindustani was promoted in British India by British policies to counter the previous emphasis on Persian; this triggered a Hindu backlash in northwestern India, which argued that the language should be written in the native Devanagari script. This literary standard called "Hindi" replaced Urdu as the official language of Bihar in 1881, establishing a sectarian divide of "Urdu" for Muslims and "Hindi" for Hindus, a divide, formalized with the division of India and Pakistan after independence. There have been attempts to "purify" Urdu and Hindi, by purging Urdu of Sanskrit words, Hindi of Persian loanwords, new vocabulary draws from Persian and Arabic for Urdu and from Sanskrit for Hindi.
English has exerted a heavy influence on both as a co-official language. There are over 100 million native speakers of Urdu in India and Pakistan together: there were 52 million and 80.5 million Urdu speakers in India as per the 2001 and 2011 censuses respectively. However, a knowledge of Urdu allows one to speak with far more people than that, because Hindustani, of which Urdu is one variety, is the third most spoken language in the world, after Mandarin and English; because of the difficulty in distinguishing between Urdu and Hindi speakers in India and Pakistan, as well as estimating the number of people for whom Urdu is a second language, the estimated number of speakers is uncertain and controversial. Owing to interaction with other languages, Urdu has become localized wherever it is spoken, including in Pakistan. Urdu in Pakistan has undergone changes and has incorporated and borrowed many words from region
Munshi Abdur Rouf
Munshi Abdur Rouf was a Lance Nayek in the East Pakistan Rifles during the Bangladesh Liberation War. He enlisted in the East Pakistan Rifles on 8 May 1963, was attached with a regular infantry unit during the War of Liberation. Rouf died on 8 April 1971 at Burighat in Chittagong Hill Tracts after causing extensive damage to the Pakistani Army with his machine gun and forcing them to retreat, he was buried at Naniarchor Upazila in Rangamati District. He was awarded Bir Sreshtho, the highest recognition of bravery in Bangladesh. Munshi Abdur Rouf was born on 8 May 1943 at Salamatpur village under Boalmari thana in Faridpur District, his father Munshi Mehedi Hossain was an "Imam" at a local mosque and his mother was Mukidunnesa. He had two sisters, their names were Hazera. After his father's death in 1955, Rouf had to stop his education at the eighth grade, he joined the East Pakistan Rifles on 8 May 1963. He had to increase his age three years to get the job. After the preliminary training at the EPR camp at Chuadanga, Rouf went to West Pakistan to receive advanced training.
He was appointed to Comilla after 6 months. The East Bengal Regiment wanted to restrict the Pakistani Army from using the Rangamati-Mahalchari waterway. Thus, they camped at both of the Chengi Lakes at Burighat. Rouf was serving as a soldier in this company. To prevent the Pakistani Army from using the Rangamati-Mahalchari waterway, the Regiment constructed a camp at both sides. On 8 April 1971, the Pakistani Army attacked the Mukti Bahinis defensive position with 7 speed boats and 2 launches, their mission was to drive the Mukti Bahini away from the waterway of Mohalchari. Pakistani forces managed to disorient Mukti Bahini by firing heavily. In the meantime Pakistanis surrounded the freedom fighters and managed to isolate nearly 100 of them. Rouf realised the threat to the entire company. So, he crawled forward to his trench and continuously fired towards the enemies with his automatic machine gun; as a result, the Pakistanis dragged their launches back to a safer place and resumed firing from there.
A mortar hit Rouf directly and he was killed. Rouf's valiant effort helped his company to survive as his act saved nearly 150 soldiers of the Mukti Bahini on that day. Bangladesh Rifles College was renamed Bir Shrestha Munshi Abdur Rouf Public College in Pilkhana in 2014. A monument for Rouf was built by Engineering Construction Battalion at Shalbagan, midpoint of the Chittagong-Rangamati road, Sapchhari. A high school in Manikchari Muslim Para, Khagrachari has been named after him. A cricket stadium has been named is Sylhet after him. A college in Faridpur was named after him, nationalised by the Government
Dhanpat Rai Shrivastava, better known by his pen name Munshi Premchand, was an Indian writer famous for his modern Hindi-Urdu literature. He is one of the most celebrated writers of the Indian subcontinent, is regarded as one of the foremost Hindi writers of the early twentieth century, he began writing under the pen name "Nawab Rai", but subsequently switched to "Premchand". Munshi being an honorary prefix. A novel writer, story writer and dramatist, he has been referred to as the "Upanyas Samrat" by writers, his works include more than a dozen novels, around 250 short stories, several essays and translations of a number of foreign literary works into Hindi. Munshi Premchand was born on 31 July 1880 in Lamhi, a village located near Varanasi and was named Dhanpat Rai, his ancestors came from a large Kayastha family. His grandfather, Guru Sahai Rai was a patwari, his father Ajaib Rai was a post office clerk, his mother was Anandi Devi of Karauni village, his inspiration for the character Anandi in his Bade Ghar Ki Beti.
Dhanpat Rai was the fourth child of Ajaib Anandi. His uncle, Mahabir, a rich landowner, nicknamed him "Nawab". "Nawab Rai" was the first pen name chosen by Dhanpat Rai. When he was 7 years old, Dhanpat Rai began his education at a madrasa in Lalpur, located near Lamahi, he learnt Persian from a maulvi in the madrasa. When he was 8, his mother died after a long illness, his grandmother, who took the responsibility of raising him, died soon after. Premchand felt isolated, as his elder sister had been married, his father was always busy with work, his father, now posted at Gorakhpur, but Premchand received little affection from his stepmother. The stepmother became a recurring theme in Premchand's works; as a child, Dhanpat Rai sought solace in fiction, developed a fascination for books. He heard the stories from the Persian-language fantasy epic Tilism-e-Hoshruba at a tobacconist's shop, he took the job of selling books for a book wholesaler, thus getting the opportunity to read a lot of books. He learnt English at a missionary school, studied several works of fiction including George W. M. Reynolds's eight-volume The Mysteries of the Court of London.
He composed his first literary work at Gorakhpur, never published and is now lost. It was a farce on a bachelor; the character was based on Premchand's uncle, who used to scold him for being obsessed with reading fiction. After his father was posted to Jamniya in the mid-1890s, Dhanpat Rai enrolled at the Queen's College at Benares as a day scholar. In 1895, he was married at the age of 15; the match was arranged by his maternal step-grandfather. The girl was from a rich landlord family and was older than Premchand, who found her quarrelsome and not good-looking, his father died in 1897 after a long illness. He managed to pass the matriculation exam with second division. However, only the students with first division were given fee concession at the Queen's College, he sought admission at the Central Hindu College, but was unsuccessful because of his poor arithmetic skills. Thus, he had to discontinue his studies, he obtained an assignment to coach an advocate's son in Benares at a monthly salary of five rupees.
He used to reside in a mud-cell over the advocate's stables, used to send 60% of his salary back home. Premchand read a lot during these days. After racking up several debts, in 1899, he once went to a book shop to sell one of his collected books. There, he met the headmaster of a missionary school at Chunar, who offered him a job as a teacher, at a monthly salary of ₹ 18, he took up the job of tutoring a student at a monthly fees of ₹ 5. In 1900, Premchand secured a job as an assistant teacher at the Government District School, Bahraich, at a monthly salary of ₹ 20. Three months he was transferred to the District School in Pratapgarh, where he stayed in an administrator's bungalow and tutored his son. Dhanpat Rai first wrote under the pseudonym "Nawab Rai", his first short novel was Asrar e Ma'abid, which explores corruption among the temple priests and their sexual exploitation of poor women. The novel was published in a series in the Benares-based Urdu weekly Awaz-e-Khalk from 8 October 1903 to February 1905.
Literary critic Siegfried Schulz states that "his inexperience is quite evident in his first novel", not well-organized, lacks a good plot and features stereotyped characters. Prakash Chandra Gupta calls it an "immature work", which shows a tendency to "see life only white or black". From Pratapgarh, Dhanpat Rai was relocated to Allahabad for training, subsequently posted at Kanpur in 1905, he stayed in Kanpur for around four years, from May 1905 to June 1909. There he met Munshi Daya Narain Nigam, the editor of the Urdu magazine Zamana, in which he published several articles and stories. Premchand visited his village Lamahi during the summer vacation, but did not find the stay enjoyable because of a number of reasons, he did not find the weather of the atmosphere conducive for writing. Plus, he faced domestic trouble due to quarrels between his step-mother. Premchand angrily scolded his wife. Dismayed, she went to her father's house, Premchand displayed no interest in bringing her back. In
The Mughal Empire or Mogul Empire was an empire in the Indian subcontinent, founded in 1526. It was established and ruled by the Timurid dynasty, with Turco-Mongol Chagatai roots from Central Asia, claiming direct descent from both Genghis Khan and Timur, with significant Indian Rajput and Persian ancestry through marriage alliances; the dynasty was Indo-Persian in culture, combining Persianate culture with local Indian cultural influences visible in its court culture and administrative customs. The beginning of the empire is conventionally dated to the victory by its founder Babur over Ibrahim Lodi, the last ruler of the Delhi Sultanate, in the First Battle of Panipat. During the reign of Humayun, the successor of Babur, the empire was interrupted by the Sur Empire established by Sher Shah Suri; the "classic period" of the Mughal Empire began with the ascension of Akbar to the throne. Some Rajput kingdoms continued to pose a significant threat to the Mughal dominance of northwestern India, but most of them were subdued by Akbar.
All Mughal emperors were Muslims. The Mughal Empire did not try to intervene in native societies during most of its existence, rather co-opting and pacifying them through concilliatory administrative practices and a syncretic, inclusive ruling elite, leading to more systematic and uniform rule. Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, the Rajputs, the Pashtuns, the Hindu Jats and the Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule which, through collaboration or adversity, gave them both recognition and military experience. Internal dissatisfaction arose due to the weakness of the empire's administrative and economic systems, leading to its break-up and declarations of independence of its former provinces by the Nawab of Bengal, the Nawab of Awadh, the Nizam of Hyderabad and other small states. In 1739, the Mughals were crushingly defeated in the Battle of Karnal by the forces of Nader Shah, the founder of the Afsharid dynasty in Persia, Delhi was sacked and looted, drastically accelerating their decline.
By the mid-18th century, the Marathas had routed Mughal armies and won over several Mughal provinces from the Punjab to Bengal. During the following century Mughal power had become limited, the last emperor, Bahadur Shah II, had authority over only the city of Shahjahanabad. Bahadur issued a firman supporting the Indian Rebellion of 1857. Consequent to the rebellion's defeat he was tried by the British East India Company for treason and exiled to Rangoon; the last remnants of the empire were formally taken over by the British, the British Parliament passed the Government of India Act 1858 to enable the Crown formally to displace the rights of the East India Company and assume direct control of India in the form of the new British Raj. At its height, the Mughal Empire stretched from Kabul, Afghanistan in the west to Arakan, Myanmar in the east, from Kashmir in the north to the Deccan Plateau in the south, extending over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent, it was the third largest empire in the Indian subcontinent, spanning four million square kilometers at its zenith, 122% of the size of the modern Republic of India.
The maximum expansion was reached during the reign of Aurangzeb, who ruled over more than 150 million subjects, nearly 25% of the world's population at the time. The Mughal Empire ushered in a period of proto-industrialization, around the 17th century, Mughal India became the world's largest economic and manufacturing power, responsible for 25% of global industrial output until the 18th century; the Mughal Empire is considered "India's last golden age" and one of the three Islamic Gunpowder Empires. The reign of Shah Jahan represented the height of Mughal architecture, with famous monuments such as the Taj Mahal, Moti Masjid, Red Fort, Jama Masjid and Lahore Fort being constructed during his reign. Contemporaries referred to the empire founded by Babur as the Timurid empire, which reflected the heritage of his dynasty, this was the term preferred by the Mughals themselves; the Mughal designation for their own dynasty was Gurkani. The use of Mughal derived from the Arabic and Persian corruption of Mongol, it emphasised the Mongol origins of the Timurid dynasty.
The term remains disputed by Indologists. Similar terms had been used to refer to the empire, including "Mogul" and "Moghul". Babur's ancestors were distinguished from the classical Mongols insofar as they were oriented towards Persian rather than Turco-Mongol culture. Another name for the empire was Hindustan, documented in the Ain-i-Akbari, and, described as the closest to an official name for the empire. In the west, the term "Mughal" was used for the emperor, by extension, the empire as a whole; the Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a Central Asian ruler, descended from the Turco-Mongol conqueror Timur on his father's side and from Chagatai, the second son of the Mongol ruler Genghis Khan, on his mother's side. Ousted from his ancestral domains in C
Tiv is an ethno-linguistic group or ethnic nation in West Africa. The group constitutes 3.5% of Nigeria's total population, number about 6.5 million individuals throughout Nigeria and Cameroon. The Tiv language is spoken by about 7 million people in Nigeria with a few speakers in Cameroon. Most of the language's Nigerian speakers are found in Benue and Nasarawa States; the language is a branch of Benue–Congo and of the Niger–Congo phylum. In precolonial times, the Fulani ethnic group referred to the Tiv as "Munchi", a term not accepted by Tiv people, they depend on agricultural produce for life. The Tiv say, it is claimed that the Tiv wandered through southern, south-central and west-central Africa before arriving at the savannah lands of West African Sudan via the River Congo and Cameroon Mountains. "Coming down," as they put it, they met the Fulani, with whom they still recognize a joking relationship. The earliest recorded. In 1879 their occupation of the riverbanks was about the same as in 1950.
British occupying forces entered Tivland from the east in 1906, when they were called in to protect a Hausa and Jukun enclave that the Tiv had attacked. The Tiv said in 1950 that they had defeated this British force later invited the British in; the southern area was penetrated from the south. The Tiv came into contact with European culture during the colonial period. During November 1907 to spring 1908, an expedition of the Southern Nigeria Regiment led by Lieutenant-Colonel Hugh Trenchard came into contact with the Tiv. Trenchard brought gifts for the tribal chiefs. Subsequently, roads were built and trade links established between Europeans and the Tiv, but before construction of roads began, a missionary named Mary Slessor went throughout the region seeing to the people's needs. The Tiv national attire is the black-and-white-striped'Anger'; when the Tiv people arrived at their current location several centuries earlier, they discovered that the zebra they used to hunt for meat and skin, used for ceremonial attire, was not native to the area.
When they acquired the skill of the loom, they decided to honour their heritage by weaving a cloth with black-and-white stripes, reminiscent of the zebra skin. It was a simple cloth to be draped around the torso. Nowadays, it is made into elaborate robes, such as those worn by the traditional rulers and elders - from the Tor Tiv downwards; the black-and-white colour of the necklaces worn by the traditional rulers has been chosen to match the robes. Most Tiv have a developed sense of genealogy, with descent being reckoned patrilineally. Ancestry is traced to an ancient individual named Tiv, who had two sons. Ichongo and Ipusu are each divided into several major branches, which in turn are divided into smaller branches; the smallest branch, or minimal lineage, is the ipaven. Members of an ipaven tend to live together, the local kin-based community being called the "tar"; this form of social organisation, called a segmentary lineage, is seen in various parts of the world, but it is well known from African societies.
The Tiv are the best known example in West Africa of a society of segmentary lineage, as documented by Laura Bohannan and by Paul and Laura Bohannan. E. Evans-Pritchard; the Tiv had no chiefs nor councils. Leadership was based on age and affluence; the leaders' functions were to furnish safe conduct, arbitrate disputes within their lineages, sit on moots and lead their people in all external and internal affairs. These socio-political arrangements caused great frustration to British colonial attempts to subjugate the population and establish administration on the lower Benue; the strategy of indirect rule, which the British felt to be successful in controlling Hausa and Fulani populations in Northern Nigeria, was ineffective in a segmentary society like the Tiv. Colonial officers tried various approaches to administration, such as putting the Tiv under the control of the nearby Jukun, trying to exert control through the councils of elders; the British administration in 1934 divided the Tiv into Clans and Family Groups.
The British appointed native heads of these divisions as well. These administrative divisions are assuming a reality which they never had originally. Members of the Tiv group are found in many areas across the globe, such as the United States and United Kingdom. In these countries, they hold unions, known as MUT, where members can assemble and discuss issues concerning their people across the world, but back in Nigeria; the arm of the MUT serving the United States of America is known for instance. Before the introduction of printed material, radio and television, mass communication in Nigeria was done through the indigenous people with the use of traditional political systems of communication; the rulers and the chiefs governed their ethnic communities and communicated with them through various channels. Locally made musical instruments were traditionally used for ceremonial communication; the key instruments fo