Multan, is a Pakistani city located in Punjab province. Multan is Pakistans 5th most populous city, and is the premier-centre for southern Punjab province, Multan is located on the banks of the Chenab River, and is at the heart of Pakistans Seraiki-speaking regions. Multans history stretches back into antiquity, the ancient city was site of the renowned Multan Sun Temple, and was besieged by Alexander the Great during the Mallian Campaign. Multan was one of the most important trading centres of medieval Islamic India, the city, along with the nearby city of Uch, is renowned for its large collection of Sufi shrines dating from that era. The origin of Multans name is unclear and it has been postulated that Multan derives its name from the Sanskrit word for the pre-Islamic Hindu Multan Sun Temple, called Mulasthana. Hukm Chand in the 19th century suggested that the city was named after an ancient Hindu tribe that was named Mul, the Multan region has been continuously inhabited for at least 5,000 years.
The region is home to archaeological sites dating to the era of the Early Harappan period of the Indus Valley Civilisation. According to Hindu mythology, Multan was founded by the Hindu sage Kashyapa, according to the Persian historian Firishta, the city was founded by a great grandson of Noah. Hindu mythology asserts Multan as the capital of the Trigarta Kingdom at the time of the Kurukshetra War that is central the Hindu epic poem, ancient Multan was the centre of a solar-worshipping cult that was based at the ancient Multan Sun Temple. While the cult was dedicated to the Hindu Sun God Surya, the Sun Temple was mentioned by Greek Admiral Skylax, who passed through the area in 515 BCE. The temple is mentioned in the 400s BCE by the Greek historian. Multan is believed to have been the Malli capital that was conquered by Alexander the Great in 326 BCE as part of the Mallian Campaign, during the siege of the citys citadel, Alexander leaped into the inner area of the citadel, where he killed the Mallians leader.
Alexander was wounded by an arrow that had penetrated his lung, leaving him severely injured, during Alexanders era, Multan was located on an island in the Ravi river, which has since shifted course numerous times throughout the centuries. In the mid-5th century CE, the city was attacked by a group of Hephthalite nomads led by Toramana, by the mid 600s CE, Multan had been conquered by the Chach of Alor, of the Hindu Rai dynasty. After his conquest of Sindh, Muhammad bin Qasim in 712 CE captured Multan from the local ruler Chach of Alor following a two-month siege, following bin Qasims conquest, the citys subjects remained mostly non-Muslim for the next few centuries. By the mid-800s, the Banu Munabbih, who claimed descent from the Prophet Muhammads Quraysh tribe came to rule Multan, and established the Amirate of Banu Munabbih, which ruled for the next century. During this era, the Multan Sun Temple was noted by the 10th century Arab geographer Al-Muqaddasi to have located in a most populous part of the city.
The Hindu temple was noted to have accrued the Muslim rulers large tax revenues, during this time, the citys Arabic nickname was Faraj Bayt al-Dhahab, reflecting the importance of the temple to the citys economy
Jahanara Begum Sahib was a Mughal princess and the eldest daughter of Emperor Shah Jahan from his wife, Mumtaz Mahal. She was the sister of her fathers successor and the sixth Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb. Jahanaras early education was entrusted to Sati al-Nisa Khanam, the sister to Jahangirs poet laureate, Sati al-Nisa Khanam was known for her knowledge of the Quran and Persian literature as well as for her knowledge of etiquette and medicine. She served as principal lady-in-waiting for Mumtaz Mahal, Jahanaras mother, many of the women in the royal household were accomplished at reading and writing poetry and painting. They played chess and hunted outdoors. The women had access to Akbars library, full of books on world religions and Persian and she was engaged in her daily game of chess with her father Shah Jahan when they first learned of Mumtaz Mahals difficulty with labor. Jaharnara rushed to her mothers side but could do nothing to save her, upon the death of Mumtaz in 1631, aged 17, took the place of her mother as First Lady of the Empire, despite her father having three other wives.
Her father frequently took her advice and entrusted her with charge of the Imperial Seal, in 1644 when Aurangzeb angered his father Shah Jahan, d office Jahanara interceded on Aurangzebs behalf and convinced Shah Jahan to pardon him and restore his rank. Shah Jahans fondness for his daughter was reflected in the titles that he bestowed upon her. Her power was such that, unlike the imperial princesses, she was allowed to live in her own palace. In March 1644, just days after her birthday, Jahanara suffered serious burns to her body. Shah Jahan ordered that vast sums of alms be given to the poor, prisoners be released, Aurangzeb and Shiastah Khan returned to Delhi to see her. Accounts differ as to what happened, some say Jahanaras garments, doused in fragrant perfume oils, caught fire. Others accounts assert that the princesss favorite dancing-womans dress caught fire, during her illness, Shah Jahan, was so concerned for the welfare of his favourite daughter, that he made only brief appearances at his daily durbar in the diwan-i-am.
Royal physicians failed to heal Jahanaras burns, a year after the accident, Jahanara had fully recovered. After the accident, the princess went on a pilgrimage to Moinuddin Chishti’s shrine in Ajmer, after her recovery, Shah Jahan gave Jahanara rare gems and jewellery and bestowed upon her the revenues of the port of Surat. She visited Ajmer, following the set by her great-grandfather Akbar. In honor of his coronation,6 February 1628, Shah Jahan awarded his wife Mumtaz Mahal, Jahanaras mother,100,000 ashrafis,600,000 rupees, Jahanara received 100,000 ashrafis,400,000 rupees and an annual grant of 600,000. Upon Mumtaz Mahals death her personal fortune was divided by Shah Jahan between Jahanara Begum and the rest of Mumtaz Mahals surviving children, the pargana of Panipat was granted to her
Rohtas Fort, India
The Rohtasgarh Fort or Rohtas Fort is one of the most ancient forts of India located in a small town of Rohtas in Bihar. The culture of the Sone Valley is best symbolized by the Rohtas Fort which is a testimony of strength, the majestic fort lies in utter state of ruins reminiscent of its great past, frequented few times by the naxalites and the police patrol parties. Proximity to the affected areas has rendered the fort quiet inaccessible in recent times. Rohtasgarh is situated on the course of the river Son, 24° 57′ N. It takes around two hours from Sasaram to reach the foot of the hill over which is the Rohtas fort. It can be reached easily from town, dehri on sone town has very good road network through which one can easily reach Rohtasfort via Rasoolpur. The fort is situated at about 1500 feet above sea level, the 2000 odd limestone steps were probably meant for elephants. For the visitor they are exhausting climb of an hour and a half, at the end of the climb, one reaches the boundary wall of the fort. A dilapidated gate with a cupola can be there, which is the first of many gates provided for well-guarded entrances to the fort.
From here one has to walk another mile or so before the ruins of Rohtas can be seen, a 1223 CE inscription suggests that Rohtasgarh was in possession of one Shri Pratapa. The inscription states that he defeated a Yavana army, the Yavana here probably refers to a Muslim general, F. Kielhorn identified Shri Pratapa as a member of the Khayaravala dynasty, whose inscriptions have been found at other locations in the Rohtas district. The members of this dynasty ruled the Japila territory as feudatories, according to historian Roma Niyogi, the Khayaravalas are probably represented by the modern Kharwars. The Hindu kings of Rohtas constructed a road through the leading from the foothill to the plateau, did the fortifications on the jungle roads. The main fortifications at the Raja Ghat and the Katauthiya Ghat can still be seen, except from the matrix for making seals belonging to the 7th century AD king Sasanka, all other artifacts are from the time of Sher Shah Suri and onwards. In 1539 AD, the Fort of Rohtas passed out of the hands of the Hindu kings into those of Sher Shah Suri, Sher Shah Suri had just lost the Fort at Chunar in a fight with the Mughal emperor Humayun and was desperate to gain a foothold for himself.
Sher Shah requested the ruler of Rohtas that he wanted to leave his women and treasure in the safety of the fort, the king agreed and the first few palanquins had women and children. But the ones contained fierce Afghan soldiers, who captured Rohtas, during the Sher Shahs reign 10000-armed men guarded the fort. Haibat Khan, a soldier of Sher Shah built the Jami Masjid in 1543 AD. It is made of sandstone and comprises three domes
Islam is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion which professes that there is only one and incomparable God and that Muhammad is the last messenger of God. It is the worlds second-largest religion and the major religion in the world, with over 1.7 billion followers or 23% of the global population. Islam teaches that God is merciful, all-powerful, and unique, and He has guided mankind through revealed scriptures, natural signs, and a line of prophets sealed by Muhammad. The primary scriptures of Islam are the Quran, viewed by Muslims as the word of God. Muslims believe that Islam is the original and universal version of a faith that was revealed many times before through prophets including Adam, Abraham, Moses. As for the Quran, Muslims consider it to be the unaltered, certain religious rites and customs are observed by the Muslims in their family and social life, while social responsibilities to parents and neighbors have been defined. Besides, the Quran and the sunnah of Muhammad prescribe a comprehensive body of moral guidelines for Muslims to be followed in their personal, political, Islam began in the early 7th century.
Originating in Mecca, it spread in the Arabian Peninsula. The expansion of the Muslim world involved various caliphates and empires, most Muslims are of one of two denominations, Sunni or Shia. Islam is the dominant religion in the Middle East, North Africa, sizable Muslim communities are found in Horn of Africa, China, Mainland Southeast Asia, Northern Borneo and the Americas. Converts and immigrant communities are found in almost every part of the world, Islam is a verbal noun originating from the triliteral root s-l-m which forms a large class of words mostly relating to concepts of wholeness, submission and peace. In a religious context it means voluntary submission to God, Islām is the verbal noun of Form IV of the root, and means submission or surrender. Muslim, the word for an adherent of Islam, is the active participle of the verb form. The word sometimes has connotations in its various occurrences in the Quran. In some verses, there is stress on the quality of Islam as a state, Whomsoever God desires to guide.
Other verses connect Islām and dīn, Today, I have perfected your religion for you, I have completed My blessing upon you, still others describe Islam as an action of returning to God—more than just a verbal affirmation of faith. In the Hadith of Gabriel, islām is presented as one part of a triad that includes imān, Islam was historically called Muhammadanism in Anglophone societies. This term has fallen out of use and is said to be offensive because it suggests that a human being rather than God is central to Muslims religion
Ahmedabad is the largest city and former capital of Gujarat, which is a state in India. It is the headquarters of the Ahmedabad district and the seat of the Gujarat High Court. With a population of more than 6.3 million and a population of 7.8 million, it is the sixth largest city. Ahmedabad is located on the banks of the Sabarmati River,30 km from the state capital Gandhinagar, Ahmedabad has emerged as an important economic and industrial hub in India. It is the second largest producer of cotton in India, Cricket is a popular sport in Ahmedabad, which houses the 54, 000-seat Sardar Patel Stadium. The effects of liberalisation of the Indian economy have energised the citys economy towards tertiary sector such as commerce. Ahmedabads increasing population has resulted in an increase in the construction, in 2010, it was ranked third in Forbess list of fastest growing cities of the decade. In 2012, The Times of India chose Ahmedabad as Indias best city to live in, as of 2014, Ahmedabads estimated gross domestic product was $119 billion.
Ahmedabad has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a city under PM Narendra Modis flagship Smart Cities Mission. The area around Ahmedabad has been inhabited since the 15th century, at that time, the Chaulukya ruler of Anhilwara, waged a successful war against the Bhil king of Ashaval, and established a city called Karnavati on the banks of the Sabarmati. Solanki rule lasted until the 13th century, when Gujarat came under the control of the Vaghela dynasty of Dholka, Gujarat subsequently came under the control of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century. This area finally came under the control of his grandson Sultan Ahmed Shah in 1411 A. D, according to other sources, he named it after himself. Ahmed Shah I laid the foundation of the city on 26 February 1411 at Manek Burj and he chose it as the new capital on 4 March 1411. In 1487, Mahmud Begada, the grandson of Ahmed Shah, fortified the city with an outer wall 10 km in circumference and consisting of twelve gates,189 bastions and over 6,000 battlements.
In 1535 Humayun briefly occupied Ahmedabad after capturing Champaner when the ruler of Gujarat, Bahadur Shah, Ahmedabad was reoccupied by the Muzaffarid dynasty until 1573 when Gujarat was conquered by the Mughal emperor Akbar. During the Mughal reign, Ahmedabad became one of the Empires thriving centres of trade, mainly in textiles, the Mughal ruler Shahjahan spent the prime of his life in the city, sponsoring the construction of the Moti Shahi Mahal in Shahibaug. The Deccan Famine of 1630–32 affected the city, as did famines in 1650 and 1686, Ahmedabad remained the provincial headquarters of the Mughals until 1758, when they surrendered the city to the Marathas. During the period of Maratha Empire governance, the city became the centre of a conflict between two Maratha clans, the Peshwa of Poona and the Gaekwad of Baroda
Dara Shikoh, known as Dara Shukoh M20 March 1615 –30 August 1659 Julian/9 September 1659 Gregorian) was the eldest son and the heir-apparent of the fifth Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan. His name ″دارا شكوه″ in Persian means as magnificent as Dara, the course of the history of the Indian subcontinent, had Dara Shikoh prevailed over Aurangzeb, has been a matter of some conjecture among historians. Dara Shikoh was born Taragarh fort Ajmer on 28 October 1615, when he was 12, his grandfather, Emperor Jahangir and his father succeeded as emperor. Daras siblings included his elder sister Jahanara Begum and their youngers siblings Shah Shuja, Roshanara Begum, Murad Bakhsh, Aurangzeb became the sixth Mughal Emperor. On 1 February 1633, Dara Shikoh married his first cousin, Nadira Banu Begum, by all accounts, it was an extremely happy and successful marriage. Both Dara Shikoh and Nadira were devoted to other, so much so that Dara Shikoh never contracted any other marriage after marrying Nadira. The couple had eight children, of two sons and two daughters survived to adulthood.
As was common for all Mughal sons, Dara Shikoh was appointed as a commander at an early age, receiving an appointment as commander of 12. On 10 September 1642, Shah Jahan formally confirmed Dara Shikoh as his heir, granting him the title of Shahzada-e-Buland Iqbal and promoting him to command of 20, in 1645, he was appointed as subahdar of Allahabad. He was promoted to a command of 30, 000-foot and 20,000 horse on 18 April 1648, as his fathers health began to decline, Dara Shikoh received a series of increasingly prominent commands. He was appointed Governor of Multan and Kabul on 16 August 1652 and he was promoted to command of 40, 000-foot and 20,000 horse on 21 January 1656, and to command of 50, 000-foot and 40,000 horse on 16 September 1657. Shah Shuja was the first to make his move, declaring himself Mughal Emperor in Bengal, Murad Baksh allied himself with Aurangzeb. At the end of 1657, Dara Shikoh was appointed Governor of the province of Bihar, subsequently Aurangzeb took over Agra fort and deposed emperor Shah Jahan on 8 June 1658.
After the defeat, Dara Shikoh retreated from Agra to Delhi and his next destination was Multan and to Thatta. He occupied Surat and advanced towards Ajmer, after this defeat he fled to Sindh and sought refuge under Malik Jiwan, an Afghan chieftain, whose life had on more than one occasion been saved by the Mughal prince from the wrath of Shah Jahan. However, the treacherous Junaid betrayed Dara Shikoh and turned him over to Aurangzebs army on 10 June 1659, after death the remains of Dara Shikoh were buried in an unindentified grave in Humayans tomb in Delhi. Dara Shikoh is widely renowned as a paragon of the harmonious coexistence of heterodox traditions on the Indian subcontinent. He was a champion of mystical religious speculation and a poetic diviner of syncretic cultural interaction among people of all faiths
Abu'l-Hasan Asaf Khan
Asaf Khan was the elder brother of empress Nur Jahan, the consort of Shah Jahans father, Jahangir. His other daughter Parwar Khanam was married to Mohtashim Khan, the son of Mughal Emperor Jahangirs foster brother Qutubuddin Koka and her mausoleum is located in Sheikhpur, Budaun. Mirza Abul Hasan Asaf Khan was appointed Governor of Lahore by Emperor Jahangir in 1625. Asaf Khan enjoyed an even more elevated than in the preceding reign and retained it until 1632. His tomb was built in Shahdara Bagh by Shah Jahan in Lahore, Pakistan
Jodhpur State was a princely state in the Marwar region from 1250 to 1949. Its capital was the city of Jodhpur since 1450, covering an area of 90,554 km2, Jodhpur State was the largest state under the Rajputana Agency. Its last ruler signed the accession to join the Indian Union on 7 April 1949, the rulers of the Indian princely state of Jodhpur were of an ancient dynasty established in the 8th century. However, the fortunes were made by Rao Jodha, first of the rulers of the Rathore dynasty in Jodhpur in 1459. The state was incorporated into the Mughal Empire during the reign of the Emperor Akbar, during the late 17th century it was under the strict control of the Emperor Aurangzeb, but the ruling house of Rathore was allowed to remain semi-autonomous in their territory. Following Indian independence in 1947 Maharaja Hanwant Singh, the last ruler of Jodhpur state and he even briefly considered acceding to Pakistan, for Jodhpur shared a border with the new nation and he had been personally given assurance of access to sea ports in Pakistan by Muhammad Ali Jinnah.
Finally, he agreed to the accession of his state to the new Dominion of India, silver Shaded Rows signify the Mughal Empire. Yellow Shaded Rows signify the British Indian Empire Jiliya or Abhaypura was a Princely Thikana of the State of Jodhpur, political integration of India Marwar region Naubat Khan Jodhpur, Published by,1933. Maharaja Man Singh of Jodhpur and His Times, by Padmaja Sharma, Published by Shiva Lal Agarwala,1972. The Administration of Jodhpur State, 1800–1947 A. D. by Nirmala M. Upadhyaya, Marwar under Jaswant Singh, Jodhpur hukumat ri bahi, by Satish Chandra, Raghubir Sinh, Ghanshyam Datt Sharma. Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, Desert Kingdoms, by Kishore Singh, the House of Marwar, The Story of Jodhpur, by Dhananajaya Singh. Modern Indian Kingship, Legitimacy & Power in Jodhpur, Published by James Currey Limited,2003. Jodhpur and the Later Mughals, AD 1707–1752, by R. S. Sangwan, media related to Jodhpur State at Wikimedia Commons The Maharaja Gaj Singh II Of Marwar-Jodhpur, Official website Jodhpur History and Genealogy at RoyalArk
The Deccan Plateau is a large plateau in southern India. It rises to 100 metres in the north, and to more than 1 kilometre in the south and it extends over eight Indian states and encompasses a wide range of habitats, covering most of central and southern India. It is separated from the Gangetic plain to the north by the Satpura and Vindhya Ranges, the name Deccan is an anglicised form of the Prakrit word dakkhin, itself derived from the Sanskrit word dákṣiṇa, as the Deccan Plateau is located in southern part of Indian subcontinent. The Deccan region has historically lacked an enduring geo-political centre, and has been defined in various ways, geographers have attempted to define it using indices such as rainfall, soil type or physical features. When considering physical features, it is taken to be the bounded by the Narmada River, the Eastern Ghats. The 16th century historian Firishta defined Deccan as the inhabited by the native speakers of Kannada, Marathi. Richard M. Eaton settled on this linguistic definition, the Western Ghats mountain range is very tall and blocks the moisture from the southwest monsoon from reaching the Deccan Plateau, so the region receives very little rainfall.
The eastern Deccan Plateau is at an elevation spanning the southeastern coast of India. Its forests are relatively dry but serve to retain the rain to form streams that feed into rivers that flow into basins. Most Deccan plateau rivers flow south, most of the central plateau is drained by the Tungabhadra River, Krishna River and its tributaries, including the Bhima River, which run east. The climate of the region varies from semi-arid in the north to tropical in most of the region with distinct wet, rain falls during the monsoon season from about June to October. March to June can be dry and hot, with temperatures regularly exceeding 40 °C. The name derives from the Sanskrit daksina, the plateau is bounded on the east and west by the Ghats, while its northern extremity is the Vindhya Range. The Deccans average elevation is about 2,000 feet, sloping generally eastward, its rivers, the Godavari, Krishna. The plateaus climate is drier than that on the coasts and is arid in places, having once constituted a segment of the ancient continent of Gondwanaland, this land is the oldest and most stable in India.
The average height of the Western Ghats, which run along the Arabian Sea, anaimudi Peak in Kerala, with a height of 2,695 m above sea level, is the highest peak of peninsular India. In the Nilgiris lie Ootacamund, the hill station of southern India. The western coastal plain is uneven and swift rivers flow through it that forms beautiful lagoons and backwaters, the east coast is wide with deltas formed by the rivers Godavari and Kaveri
Gwalior is a major city in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh and one of the Counter-magnet cities. Located 319 kilometres south of Delhi, the city of India. The city and its fortress have been ruled by several historic northern Indian kingdoms, from the Tomars in the 13th century, it was passed on to the Mughal Empire, to the Maratha in 1754, followed by the Scindia in 18th century. Besides being the headquarters of Gwalior district and Gwalior division. Several administrative and judicial organisations and boards have their state, Gwalior was the winter capital of the state of Madhya Bharat which became a part of the larger state of Madhya Pradesh. Prior to Indian independence on 15 August 1947, Gwalior remained a state of the British Raj with the Scindia as the local rulers. High rocky hills surround the city from all sides, on the north it just forms the border of the Ganga- Yamuna Drainage Basin, the city however is situated in the valley between the hills. Gwaliors metropolitan area includes Lashkar Gwalior, Morar Gwalior, Gwalior was one of the major sites of rebellion during the 1857 uprising.
Post-independence, Gwalior has emerged as an important tourist attraction in central India while many industries, before the end of the 20th century it became a million plus agglomeration and now it is a metropolitan city in central India. Gwalior is surrounded by industrial and commercial zones of neighbouring districts on all three main directions, a 2016 report of the World Health Organization found Gwalior to be the second-most air-polluted city in the world and the most polluted city in India. Gwalior has been selected as one of the hundred Indian cities to be developed as a city under PM Narendra Modis flagship Smart Cities Mission. According to local tradition, Gwalior owes its name to a sage of former times, Suraj Sen, a prince of the gurjar-pratihar clan of the eighth century, is said to have lost his way in the forest. On a secluded hill, he met an old man, the sage Gwalipa, upon asking the sage for some drinking water, he was led to a pond, where the waters not only quenched his thirst but cured him of leprosy.
Suraj Sen built a palace inside the fort, which was named Gwalior after the sage, after being founded by Maharaj Suraj Sen, Gwalior Fort saw many different rulers ruling the city and suburbs around it. Gwalior became a prominent place for religious practices and other disciplines coming up during that time in the country, during the 6th century BC Gwalior was ruled by the Nanda dynasty of Pataliputra. During the first century AD, Gwalior came under Naga Dynasty, from the carving found at Pawaya, it has been discovered that the kushanas ruled the city till the 3rd century AD. After that, it came under the Guptas till 467 AD, during the 5th century, The Kannauj of Gurar-Pratihara Dynasty ruled Gwalior and played a prominent role in shaping its history. From 700–740 AD Gwalior became the capital of Kannauj, a Magnificent Sun Temple was created at the fort hill during that period
Agra is a city on the banks of the river Yamuna in the northern state of Uttar Pradesh, India. It is 378 kilometres west of the capital, Lucknow,206 kilometres south of the national capital New Delhi and 125 kilometres north of Gwalior. Agra is one of the most populous cities in Uttar Pradesh, Agra is a major tourist destination because of its many splendid Mughal-era buildings, most notably the Tāj Mahal, Agra Fort and Fatehpūr Sikrī, all three of which are UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Agra falls within the Braj cultural region, the city was first mentioned in the epic Mahābhārata, where it was called Agrevaṇa. Legend ascribes the founding of the city to Raja Badal Singh, the 11th century Persian poet Masūd Sad Salmān writes of a desperate assault on the fortress of Agra, held by the Shāhī King Jayapala, by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. It was mentioned for the first time in 1080 AD when a Ghaznavide force captured it, Sultan Sikandar Lodī was the first to move his capital from Delhi to Agra in 1506.
He governed the country from here and Agra assumed the importance of the second capital. He died in 1517 and his son, Ibrāhīm Lodī, remained in there for nine more years and several palaces, wells. Finally being defeated at the Battle of Panipat in 1526, between 1540 and 1556, beginning with Sher Shah Suri ruled the area. It achieved fame as the capital of the Mughal Empire from 1556 to 1658, Agra features a semiarid climate that borders on a humid subtropical climate. The city features mild winters and dry summers and a monsoon season, however the monsoons, though substantial in Agra, are not quite as heavy as the monsoon in other parts of India. This is a factor in Agra featuring a semiarid climate as opposed to a humid subtropical climate. As of 2011 India census, Agra city has a population of 1,585,704, the urban agglomeration of Agra has a population of 1,760,285. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%, Agra city has an average literacy rate of 73. 11%, lower than the national average of 74%.
Literacy rate of males is considerably higher than that of women, the sex ratio in the city was 875 females per thousand males while child sex ratio stood at 857. Agra district literacy rate is 62. 56%, Agra is dominated by Yadavs and Jats. According to the 2011 census, Agra district has a population of 4,380,793 and this gives it a ranking of 41st in India. The district has a density of 1,084 inhabitants per square kilometre