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Murano is a series of islands linked by bridges in the Venetian Lagoon, northern Italy. It lies about 1.5 kilometres north of Venice and measures about 1.5 km across with a population of just over 5,000. It is famous for its glass making, it was once an independent comune, but is now a frazione of the comune of Venice. Murano was settled by the Romans and from the sixth century by people from Altinum and Oderzo. At first, the island prospered through its production of salt, it was a centre for trade through the port it controlled on Sant'Erasmo. From the eleventh century, it began to decline, it had a Grand Council, like that of Venice, but from the thirteenth century, Murano was governed by a podestà from Venice. Unlike the other islands in the Lagoon, Murano minted its own coins. Early in the second millennium hermits of the Camaldolese Order occupied one of the islands, seeking a place of solitude for their way of life. There they founded the Monastery of St. Michael; this monastery became a great center of printing.

The famous cartographer, Fra Mauro, whose maps were crucial to the European exploration of the world, was a monk of this community. The monastery was suppressed in 1810 by French forces under Napoleon, in the course of their conquest of the Italian peninsula, the monks were expelled in 1814; the grounds became Venice's major cemetery. In 1291, all the glassmakers in Venice were required to move to Murano. In the following century, exports began, the island became famous for glass beads and mirrors. Aventurine glass was invented on the island, for a while Murano was the main producer of glass in Europe; the island became known for chandeliers. Although decline set in during the eighteenth century, glassmaking is still the island's main industry. In the fifteenth century, the island became popular as a resort for Venetians, palaces were built, but this declined; the countryside of the island was known for its orchards and vegetable gardens until the nineteenth century, when more housing was built.

Attractions on the island include the Church of Santa Maria e San Donato, the church of San Pietro Martire with the chapel of the Ballarin family built in 1506 and artworks by Giovanni Bellini, the Palazzo da Mula. Glass-related attractions include the many glassworks, some Mediaeval and most open to the public, the Murano Glass Museum, housed in the large Palazzo Giustinian. Murano's reputation as a center for glassmaking was born when the Venetian Republic, fearing fire and the destruction of the city's wooden buildings, ordered glassmakers to move their furnaces to Murano in 1291. Murano glass is still associated with Venetian glass. Murano's glassmakers were soon numbered among the island's most prominent citizens. By the fourteenth century, glassmakers were allowed to wear swords, enjoyed immunity from prosecution by the Venetian state and found their daughters married into Venice's most affluent families. While benefiting from certain statutory privileges, glassmakers were forbidden to leave the Republic.

However, many of them took the risks associated with migration and established glass furnaces in surrounding cities and farther afield — sometimes in England and the Netherlands. Murano's glassmakers held a monopoly on high-quality glassmaking for centuries, developing or refining many technologies including optically clear glass, enamelled glass, glass with threads of gold, multicolored glass, milk glass, imitation gemstones made of glass. Today, the artisans of Murano still employ these centuries-old techniques, crafting everything from contemporary art glass and glass jewellery to Murano glass chandeliers and wine stoppers. Venice kept protecting the secret of the production of glass and of crystal but, notwithstanding it, the Republic lost its monopoly at the end of the sixteenth century, because of some glass makers who let the secret be known in many European countries. Today, Murano is home to the Museo del Vetro or Murano Glass Museum in the Palazzo Giustinian, which holds displays on the history of glassmaking as well as glass samples ranging from Egyptian times through the present day.

Some of the companies that own historical glass factories in Murano are among the most important brands of glass in the world. These companies include Venini, Alessandro Mandruzzato Ferro Murano, Barovier & Toso, Simone Cenedese and Seguso. To protect the original Murano Glass art from foreign markets, the most famous Glass Factories of this island have a trademark that certifies glass made products on the island of Murano; the oldest Murano glass factory, still active today is that of Pauly & C. – Compagnia Venezia Murano, founded in 1866. As part of a broader view of protection and enhancement of typical and traditional Veneto product manufacturing and marketing, the Veneto Region protects and promotes the designation of origin of artistic glassworks created on the island of Murano, since glasswork is an inherent part of Venetian historical and cultural heritage; the "Vetro Artistico Murano" trademark and registered at the European Office for Harmonisation in Alicante, no. 00481812, has been established and is regulated by Regional Law no.

70, 1994. In the seventeenth century, the Murano-born Simone Giuseppe Belotti became Royal Architect to the King of Poland and took part in designing some of Warsaw's most important landmarks; the palace he built for himself was named after hi

The Edw. Malley Co.

The Edw. Malley Co. abbreviated Malley's, was a prestigious department store in Downtown New Haven, from 1852 to 1982. Company produced postcards promoted the establishment as "The Metropolitan Store of Connecticut". In 2007, it was ranked among the "landmark consumer paradises" of New Haven's past, along with Macy's, Shartenberg's Department Store, Grant's; the second site was regarded as "a crucial appendage" to the success of the Chapel Square Mall. In 1848, Edward Malley started displaying merchandise in the front room of his aunt Rhoda Mallory's house on North Front Street in Fair Haven, he traveled throughout New England, opening up stores and moving on. The business started out as Malley & Co. a dry goods store, in 1852. It was located directly across from the New Haven Green, at 65 Chapel Street. Malley rented a 15- by 20-foot store for $75 a year, using $250 in cash and a credit line of $550 to stock his store. With such limited space, Malley hung goods from wires strung across the room and used barrels topped with planks as counters.

The store made deliveries by way of a mule named Maude who pulled a cart through the streets of New Haven. By 1856, the premises had been "greatly enlarged", which Malley attributed to liberal advertising without regard to expense, it was described that October as "the largest and busiest store of its kind in the state". At that time, it employed about 100 people, had four show windows, a 75-foot front, 120-foot depth, was three stories tall; the building was further improved in 1866. Malley partnered with one William Neeley, changed the store to William Neeley Co. in 1868. The store caught fire in 1875, was destroyed by a second fire in 1882, with a loss estimated at $175,000; the store was rebuilt, in 1893, renamed Malley-Neeley Co.. The name was changed a final time to The Edw. Malley Co. in 1898, enlarged in 1899 as a nine-story Beaux-Arts style building. It continued to remodel and improve, adding New England's first self-leveling elevator in 1923, escalators in 1958. A 1938 travel book said of Malley's, "Young shoppers are fascinated by the big cage of live birds in the children's department."It was demolished and relocated two blocks south at 2 Church Street when the now-defunct Chapel Square Mall was constructed on the original site in the early 1960s.

The second location, which opened October 25, 1962, measured 266,000 square feet and had three levels above ground and two below. It was connected by a walkway on the second floor to Macy's, across the street, which was, in turn, connected by bridge to the Chapel Square Mall, leading to the New Haven Green. Features included a branch post office and a fix-it shop, a gourmet shop, bakery, 300-seat restaurant, beauty salon, photographic studio and watch repair service, shoe repair. Live radio could be heard playing. During this period, Malley's offered. Malley's brought its bird cage along to the second location. A former shopper wrote about the store's features: "Toys, Candy, a Soda Fountain, Fur Salon, Beauty Salon, Bridal Registry, but most on the 2nd floor, by the blue elevators, across from the Photo Studio and down the aisle from the Restaurant, in the Children's Shoe department was a big beautiful bird cage, about 8 feet tall and 4 feet wide."With business doing well, The Edw. Malley Co. announced plans on March 18, 1970 to build its first branch store, a full-line department store in a proposed shopping mall in Hamden.

The project was blocked by residents and nearby retailers, tied up in court for about a dozen years never built. Malley's was a family business until 1971, when Edward Malley died, it was sold to developer Richard Stevens, the man responsible for construction of the 1962 building. Urban parking garage stigma resulted from the 1973 murder of Penny Serra in the adjoining Temple Street parking garage, area business declined. After that, the store was purchased in 1978 by The Outlet Company for $100 plus assumption of Malley's indebtedness. In 1979, an outside retailer, Bargain Mart, began renting 3,456 square feet of ground floor space from Malley's. Local businessman G. Harold Welch rented the building from 11 people who were collectively known as the Malley heirs. Though buying and selling the department store business, he retained control of the land and rented to The Outlet Company. Malley's was sold again in 1980 to United Department Stores when The Outlet decided to focus only on broadcasting.

UDS itself went bankrupt in 1981, resulting in the store's closure in February 1982. Malley's Auto Center and Bargain Mart remained open for several years. A court-ordered probate auction in November 1985 was given to high-bidder Mordecai Lipkis of Brooklyn, New York. After a search for tenants, Lipkis entered a partnership and made the purchase with Joseph Gindi and Ceasar Salama for $4.15 million plus $3.35 million on back taxes and carrying costs in December 1986. New Haven planned to use the land as part of the aborted University Place mall; when the mall developers' offer to buy the property for $8.5 million didn't materialize, Lipkis fought a lengthy battle with the city to open an indoor flea market, Ceasar's Department Store. Ceasar's featured vendors at 140 out of 167 rented booths, including a Hyundai automobile dealership; the department store opened November 3, 1988, closed in late April 1989. Lipkis' further efforts to use the space included courting retailer ABC Carpet, in 1992 proposing "New Haven Medical Center", a facility with physical therapy, urgent care, AIDS care, an in vitro fertilization clinic.

Still, the building remained empty, in 1994 a water main burst on the third f

501st Combat Support Group

The 501st Combat Support Group is an inactive United States Air Force organization. It was last active as part of the 501st Tactical Missile Wing at RAF Greenham Common, where it provided support for the wing and tenant organizations as the host organization for Greenham Common; the group was activated as the 501st Air Service Group, a support group, at the end of World War II and continued this mission with the American occupation forces in Germany through the beginning of the Berlin Airlift, when it was inactivated as United States Air Forces Europe implemented the wing base organization system. In 1982 the group was consolidated with the 501st Base Headquarters and Air Base Squadron, a Second Air Force unit that provided base support at Great Bend Army Air Field, Kansas from 1943 to 1944; the group was activated once again in 1953 as the 501st Air Defense Group, when Air Defense Command established it as the headquarters for a dispersed fighter-interceptor squadron and the medical, aircraft maintenance, administrative squadrons supporting it.

It was replaced in 1955 when ADC transferred its mission and personnel to the 56th Fighter Group in a project that replaced air defense groups commanding fighter squadrons with fighter groups with distinguished records during World War II. The earliest predecessor of the 501st Combat Support Group was the 501st Base Headquarters and Air Base Squadron, organized in 1943 as the headquarters for Great Bend Army Air Field, Kansas, a World War II heavy bombardment training base. Great Bend was one of the original bases where Boeing B-29 Superfortress units received their training before deploying to the China Burma India Theater. However, the Army Air Forces found that standard military units, based on inflexible tables of organization were proving themselves less well adapted to the training mission. Accordingly, a more functional system was adopted in which each base was organized into a separate numbered unit; this resulted in the 501st, along with other units at Great Bend, being disbanded and its personnel and functions transferred to the 243d AAF Base Unit.

The 501st Air Service Group was established toward the end of World War II to provide support for flying units in Germany and Austria from 1945 to 1948 as part of a reorganization of AAF support groups in which the AAF replaced service groups that included personnel from other branches of the Army and supported two combat groups with air service groups including only Air Corps units. It was designed to support a single combat group, its 919th Air Engineering Squadron provided maintenance, beyond the capability of the combat group, its 743rd Air Materiel Squadron handled all supply matters, its Headquarters & Base Services Squadron provided other support. The group moved to Wiesbaden Air Base, where it replaced the 97th Airdrome Squadron as the primary support unit for the airfield, it supported the Berlin Airlift before inactivation in 1948. It was replaced by elements of the 7150th AF Composite Wing in the Air Force wing base reorganization in 1948. Which was adopted to unify control at air bases The group was disbanded in 1948.

During the Cold War, the group was reconstituted, redesignated as the 501st Air Defense Group, activated by Air Defense Command at O'Hare International Airport on 16 February 1953 with responsibility for air defense in the Great Lakes area. It was assigned the 62d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, stationed at O'Hare, flying North American F-86 Sabres as its operational component; the 62d had been assigned directly to the 4706th Defense Wing prior to the activation og the 501st Group. The group replaced the 83rd Air Base Squadron as USAF active duty host organization at O'Hare, it was assigned three squadrons to perform its support responsibilities. The group added a second operational unit, the 42d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron, activated at O'Hare eight days after the group headquarters, Flew F-86s. In March 1953, the 62d Squadron converted to newer radar equipped and Mighty Mouse rocket armed F-86Ds; the group was inactivated and replaced by the 56th Fighter Group in 1955 as part of ADC's Project Arrow, designed to bring back on the active list the fighter units which had compiled memorable records in the two world wars.

In the early 1980s USAF began deploying Ground Launched Cruise Missiles in the European theater. The 501st Tactical Missile Wing was organized at RAF Greenham Common as the first USAF wing equipped with the BGM-109 Tomahawk missile; the 501st group was redesignated the 501st Combat Support Group and activated as the headquarters for organizations supporting the wing and hosted all USAF organizations at Greenham Common. As the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty was implemented, the USAF withdrew its missiles from Europe and the wing and group were inactivated. 501st Base Headquarters and Air Base Squadron Constituted as the 501st Base Headquarters and Air Base SquadronActivated on 26 January 1943 Disbanded on 1 April 1944Reconstituted on 11 January 1982 and consolidated with the 501st Air Defense Group as the 501st Combat Support Group501st Combat Support Group Constituted as the 501st Air Service Group on 16 December 1944Activated on 1 June 1945 Inactivated on 1 July 1948 Disbanded on 8 October 1948Reconstituted and redesignated 501st Air Defense Group on 21 January 1953Activated on 16 February 1953 Inactivated on 18 August 1955Redesignated 501st Combat Support Group on 11 January 1982 and consolidated with the 501st Base Headquarters and Air Base SquadronActivated on 1 October 1982 Inactivated on 31 May 1991 Second Air Force, 26 January 1943 – 1 April 1944 Unknown 1 June

Court of Appeals of the Philippines

The Court of Appeals is the second-highest judicial court in the Philippines, next to the Supreme Court. The Court of Appeals consists of 68 Associate Justices. Pursuant to the Constitution, the Court of Appeals "reviews not only the decisions and orders of the Regional Trial Courts nationwide but those of the Court of Tax Appeals, as well as the awards, final orders or resolutions of, or authorized by twenty-one quasi-judicial agencies exercising quasi-judicial functions mentioned in Rule 43 of the 1997 Rules of Civil Procedure, plus the National Amnesty Commission and the Office of the Ombudsman. Under Republic Act No. 9282, which elevated the Court of Tax Appeals to the same level of the Court of Appeals, en banc decisions of the Court of Tax Appeals are now subject to review by the Supreme Court instead of the Court of Appeals. Added to the formidable list are the decisions and resolutions of the National Labor Relations Commission which are now reviewable by the Court of Appeals, instead of a direct recourse to the Supreme Court, via petition for certiorari under Rule 65".

The Court of Appeals building is located at Ma. Orosa Street, Ermita in Manila, on the grounds of the University of the Philippines Manila. Organized on February 1, 1936, the Court of Appeals was composed of Justice Pedro Concepcion, as the first Presiding Judge, ten Appellate Judges appointed by the President with the consent of the Commission on Appointments of the National Assembly, it had exclusive appellate jurisdiction of all cases not falling under the original and exclusive appellate jurisdiction of the seven -man Supreme Court. Its decisions in those cases were final, except when the Supreme Court upon petition for certiorari on questions of law required that the case be certified to it for review, it had original jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus, injunction, habeas corpus and all other auxiliary writs in aid of its appellate jurisdiction. The Court sat either en banc or in two divisions, one of six and another of five Judges; the appellate Judges had the same qualifications as those provided by the Constitution for Supreme Court Justices.

In March 1938, the appellate Judges were named Justices and their number increased from eleven to fifteen, with three divisions of 5 under Commonwealth Act No. 259. On December 24, 1941, the membership of the Court was further increased to nineteen Justices under Executive Order No. 395. The Court functioned during the Japanese occupation, 1941–44, but in March 1945, due to abnormal conditions at the time, the Court was abolished by President Sergio Osmeña through Executive Order No. 37. The end of World War II restored the democratic processes in the country. On October 4, 1946, Republic Act No. 52 was passed recreating the Court with a Presiding Justice and fourteen Associate Justices. They composed 5 divisions of 3 Justices each. On August 23, 1956, the Court membership was expanded to 18 Justices per Republic Act No. 1605. The number was hiked to 24 Justices as decreed by Republic Act No. 5204 approved on June 15, 1968. Ten years the unabated swelling of its dockets called for a much bigger Court of 45 Justices under Presidential Decree No. 1482 of June 10, 1978.

Came the Judiciary Reorganization on January 17, 1983 through Executive Order No. 864 of President Marcos. The Court was renamed its membership enlarged to 51 Justices. However, only thirty-seven Justices were appointed. On July 28, 1986, President Aquino issued Executive Order No.33 restoring the original name of the Court of Appeals with a Presiding Justice and fifty Associate Justices. On February 23, 1995, Republic Act No. 7902 was passed expanding the jurisdiction of the Court effective March 18, 1995. On December 30, 1996, Republic Act No. 8246 created six more divisions in the Court, thereby increasing its membership from fifty-one to sixty-nine Justices. These additional divisions – 3 for Visayas and 3 for Mindanao paved the way for the appellate court's regionalization; the Court in the Visayas sits in Cebu City while Cagayan de Oro City is home to the Court for Mindanao. On August 18, 2007, Atty. Briccio Joseph Boholst, President of Integrated Bar of the Philippines — Cebu City Chapter, opposed the abolition of the Court in Cebu City, for it will cause inconvenience for both litigants and lawyers.

Supreme Court Associate Justice Ruben Reyes was tasked to investigate and submit recommendation to the High Tribunal because of the alleged massive graft and corruption of justices in the issuance of temporary restraining orders. On February 1, 2018, the Court celebrated its 82nd Anniversary; the current President of the Association of The Court of Appeals Employees is Edwin S. Avanceña. Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines Court of Tax Appeals of the Philippines Sandiganbayan Philippines Political history of the Philippines Constitution of the Philippines SourcesHistory of the Court of Appeals Philippines: Gov. Ph: About the Philippines – Justice category The Philippines Court of Appeals – Official website

K. Ludwig Pfeiffer

K. Ludwig Pfeiffer is a German scholar in literary and cultural studies, born on February 23, 1944 in Neustadt an der Aisch, Middle Franconia, Germany. Besides his own publications, he is the editor and co-editor of 14 volumes in various research disciplines. From 1963 to 1967 he studied philosophy and French literature and language at Würzburg University to which he added German literature after his first state exam in 1967. Again at Würzburg University in 1973, he took his PhD with a dissertation on the problems of literary interpretation and adapting perspectives of the theory of language and philosophy of science. In 1977, he took his Habilitation at Konstanz University with a book written from the point of view of a theory of consciousness, on the functional history of the 19th century English novel the novels of George Meredith. Pfeiffer’s scholarly development is marked by the adjustment and relocation of literary studies in broader media and cultural contexts. These, in turn, are re-examined in anthropological terms.

In 1978, he became Professor of English at the Ruhr University Bochum, in 1979 Professor of English and Comparative Literature at the University of Siegen. Since 2007 he has been at Jacobs University Bremen; as Visiting Professor and Fellow he has taught and pursued research at US-American, Japanese and German universities. Sprachtheorie, Wissenschaftstheorie und das Problem der Textinterpretation. Amsterdam: Rodopi, 1974. Wissenschaft als Sujet im modernen englischen Roman. Konstanz: Universitätsverlag, 1979. Bilder der Realität und die Realität der Bilder: Verbrauchte Formen in den Romanen George Merediths. Munich: Fink, 1981. Das Mediale und das Imaginäre: Dimensionen kulturanthropologischer Medientheorie. Frankfurt/Main: Suhrkamp, 1999; the Protoliterary: Steps towards an Anthropology of Culture. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2002. Von der Materialität der Kommunikation zur Medienanthropologie: Aufsätze zur Methodologie der Literatur- und Kulturwissenschaften, 1977-2009. Edited by Ingo Berensmeyer and Nicola Glaubitz.

Heidelberg: Carl Winter, 2009. Fiktion und Tatsächlichkeit. Momente und Modelle funktionaler Textgeschichte. Hamburg: Shoebox House, 2015. With up-to-date CV and publication list Short CV and research profile Short research profile K. Ludwig Pfeiffer in the German National Library's catalog

George Bogislaus Staƫl von Holstein

George Bogislaus Staël von Holstein was a Swedish baron and field marshal. He was the Governor of Malmöhus County from 1754 to 1763. George Bosiglaus Staël von Holstein was born on 6 December 1685, the son of Lt. Col. Johan Staël von Holstein and Julia Helena von der Pahlen, he was a member of the Staël von Holstein noble house which had only joined the Swedish nobility. During his captivity in Russia he married the Countess Ingeborg Christina Horn af Rantzien in 1710, a daughter of the Field Marshal Henning Rudolf Horn von Rantzien, taken captive with his daughters by the Russians during the Great Northern War. In 1722 Staël von Holstein planned a marriage with Sofia Elisabeth Ridderschantz. However, the marriage was broken off because his wife Ingeborg from Russia, where she had been held captive to that point, returned. In 1731 Staël von Holstein was raised to the rank of baron. In 1761 his first wife died, Staël married Sofia Elisabeth Ridderschantz. Anna Helena Juliana, the daughter of George Bogislaus Staël von Holstein, died at the age of five.

With her this branch of the Staël von Holstein noble family died out. Staël von Holstein began his military career on 20 February 1700 as a volunteer in the Swedish household guard, he was promoted to Unteroffizier in the artillery. Staël von Holstein became a cornet in the Dragoon regiment of the province Ingria, under the command of Otto Vellingk, he participated in the campaign in Livonia against the Saxon armies. He was promoted to Lieutenant in 1702 and a year to Captain in the infantry regiment of Adam de la Gardie; this regiment was used in 1704 to free the besieged city of Narva from Russian troops. In April he was appointed commander of the grenadier company of this regiment; the Swedish attack failed and Staël von Holstein was captured. He was held captive in prison camps in Siberia and in the region of Moscow. Staël von Holstein succeeded in being exchanged for a Russian officer in 1711, his wife, her sisters and his father-in-law were not allowed to leave Russia, however. After his return Staël von Holstein was under the direct command of the Swedish King Charles XII, in exile in Bender and was dispatched by him to the Skaraborg regiment.

In 1713 Staël von Holstein was promoted to Lieutenant Colonel and in 1715 he invaded Schonen with the Skaraborg regiment. Two years he was appointed colonel. In 1718 he participated with his regiment in the campaign against Norway and took part in the Siege of Frederiksten. In 1719 the Skaraborg regiment was garrisoned in Göteborg; the attack of the Danish captain Peter Wessel Tordenskiold on the fortress of Nya Elfsborg was repulsed by his commander Johan Abraham Lillie with all his forces. The artillery division of the Skaraborg regiment began a counter-attack on the Danish navy on 24 July, they were so taken by surprise by artillery fire from land that the fleet withdrew and repulsed the attack. In 1720 Staël parted from the Swedish army and served in the following years under Duke Karl Friedrich von Holstein, he was a major commander in his bodyguard. In 1733 Staël von Holstein was appointed commandant of Kalmar Castle. A year he was governor of Kalmar. Staël was appointed major-general in 1734.

In 1742 he was the leader of the political group the Caps. In 1743 Staël von Holstein was promoted to lieutenant general, he was a Knight in the Royal Order of the Seraphim. In 1754 he was appointed governor of Malmöhus län and commandant of Malmö, he remained in this position until his death. In 1737 Staël built a textile factory in Kalmar. In 1742 he founded the glasswork company Kosta Glasbruk together with the governor of Kronobergs län, Anders Koskull Kosta. Staël bought in the province of Halland a large property as a family seat; this was situated in the neighborhood of Vapnö and is still in the property of his family