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Murder is the unlawful killing of another human without justification or valid excuse the unlawful killing of another human with malice aforethought. This state of mind may, depending upon the jurisdiction, distinguish murder from other forms of unlawful homicide, such as manslaughter. Manslaughter is killing committed in the absence of malice, brought about by reasonable provocation, or diminished capacity. Involuntary manslaughter, where it is recognized, is a killing that lacks all but the most attenuated guilty intent, recklessness. Most societies consider murder to be an serious crime, thus that a person convicted of murder should receive harsh punishments for the purposes of retribution, rehabilitation, or incapacitation. In most countries, a person convicted of murder faces a long-term prison sentence a life sentence; the modern English word "murder" descends from the Proto-Indo-European "mrtró" which meant "to die". The Middle English mordre is a noun from Old French murdre. Middle English mordre is a verb from the Middle English noun.

In many countries, in news reports, out of concern for being accused of defamation, journalists are careful not to identify a suspect as a murderer until the suspect is convicted of homicide. After arrest, for example, journalists may instead write that the person was "arrested on suspicion of murder", or, after a prosecutor files charges, as an "accused murderer"; the eighteenth-century English jurist William Blackstone, in his Commentaries on the Laws of England set out the common law definition of murder, which by this definition occurs when a person, of sound memory and discretion, unlawfully kills any reasonable creature in being and under the king's peace, with malice aforethought, either express or implied. The elements of common law murder are: unlawful killing through criminal act or omission of a human by another human with malice aforethought. Unlawful – This distinguishes murder from killings that are done within the boundaries of law, such as capital punishment, justified self-defense, or the killing of enemy combatants by lawful combatants as well as causing collateral damage to non-combatants during a war.

Killing – At common law life ended with cardiopulmonary arrest – the total and irreversible cessation of blood circulation and respiration. With advances in medical technology courts have adopted irreversible cessation of all brain function as marking the end of life. Сriminal act or omission – Killing can be committed by an act or an omission. Of a human -- This element presents the issue of. At common law, a fetus was not a human being. Life began when the fetus took its first breath. By another human – In early common law, suicide was considered murder; the requirement that the person killed be someone other than the perpetrator excluded suicide from the definition of murder. With malice aforethought – Originally malice aforethought carried its everyday meaning – a deliberate and premeditated killing of another motivated by ill will. Murder required that an appreciable time pass between the formation and execution of the intent to kill; the courts broadened the scope of murder by eliminating the requirement of actual premeditation and deliberation as well as true malice.

All, required for malice aforethought to exist is that the perpetrator act with one of the four states of mind that constitutes "malice". The four states of mind recognized as constituting "malice" are: Under state of mind, intent to kill, the deadly weapon rule applies. Thus, if the defendant intentionally uses a deadly weapon or instrument against the victim, such use authorizes a permissive inference of intent to kill. In other words, "intent follows the bullet". Examples of deadly weapons and instruments include but are not limited to guns, deadly toxins or chemicals or gases and vehicles when intentionally used to harm one or more victims. Under state of mind, an "abandoned and malignant heart", the killing must result from the defendant's conduct involving a reckless indifference to human life and a conscious disregard of an unreasonable risk of death or serious bodily injury. In Australian jurisdictions, the unreasonable risk must amount to a foreseen probability of death, as opposed to possibility.

Under state of mind, the felony-murder doctrine, the felony committed must be an inherently dangerous felony, such as burglary, rape, robbery or kidnapping. The underlying felony cannot be a lesser included offense such as assault, otherwise all criminal homicides would be murder as all are felonies. In Spanish criminal law, murder takes place when any of these requirements concur: Treachery, price or reward or viciousness. After the last reform of the Spanish Criminal Code, in force since July 1, 2015, another circumstance that turns homicide into murder is the desire to facilitate the commission of another crime or to prevent it from being discovered; as with most legal terms, the precise definition of murder varies between jurisdictions and is codified in some form of legislation. When the legal distinction between murder and manslaughter is clear, it is not unknown for a jury to find a murder defendant guilty of the lesser offense; the jury might sympathize with the defendant, the jury may wish to protect the defendant from a sentence of life impri

Helen Waddell

Helen Jane Waddell was an Irish poet and playwright. She was a recipient of the Benson Medal, she was born in Tokyo, the tenth and youngest child of Hugh Waddell, a Presbyterian minister and missionary, lecturing in the Imperial University. She spent the first eleven years of her life in Japan before her family returned to Belfast, her mother died shortly afterwards, her father remarried. Hugh Waddell himself left his younger children in the care of their stepmother. Following the marriage of her elder sister Meg, Helen was left at home to care for Mrs Waddell, whose health was deteriorating. Waddell was educated at Victoria College for Girls and Queen's University Belfast, where she studied under Professor Gregory Smith, graduating in 1911, she followed her BA with first class honours in English with a master's degree, in 1919 enrolled in Somerville College, Oxford, to study for her doctorate. A travelling scholarship from Lady Margaret Hall in 1923 allowed her to conduct research in Paris, it was at this time that she met Maude Clarke.

She is best known for bringing to light the history of the medieval goliards in her 1927 book The Wandering Scholars, translating their Latin poetry in the companion volume Medieval Latin Lyrics. A second anthology, More Latin Lyrics, was compiled in the 1940s but not published until after her death, her other works range in subject matter. For example, she wrote plays, her first play was The Spoiled Buddha, performed at the Opera House, Belfast, by the Ulster Literary Society. Her The Abbe Prevost was staged in 1935, her historical novel Peter Abelard was published in 1933. It was critically well became a bestseller, she wrote many articles for the Evening Standard, the Manchester Guardian and The Nation, did lecturing and broadcasting. Waddell was the assistant editor of The Nineteenth Century magazine. Among her circle of friends in London, where she was vice-president of the Irish Literary Society, were W. B. Yeats, Virginia Woolf, Rose Macaulay, Max Beerbohm and George William Russell, her personal and professional friendship with Siegfried Sassoon made the latter's wife suspicious.

Although she never married, she had close relationships with several older men, including her publisher, Otto Kyllmann of Constable. Waddell received honorary degrees from Columbia, Durham and St. Andrews and won the Benson Medal of the Royal Society of Literature. A serious debilitating neurological disease put an end to her writing career in 1950, she was buried in Magherally churchyard, County Down, Northern Ireland. A prize-winning biography of her by the Benedictine nun Dame Felicitas Corrigan was published in 1986. Peter Abelard The Spoiled Buddha The Abbé Prévost. Lyrics from the Chinese The Wandering Scholars Medieval Latin Lyrics Beasts and Saints The Desert Fathers For Better Factory Laws Pamphlet Poetry in the Dark Ages "The eighth W. P. Ker Memorial Lecture delivered in the University of Glasgow, 28th October, 1947" Stories from Holy Writ More Latin Lyrics: From Virgil to Milton Between Two Eternities Short biography and "blue plaque" at the Ulster History Circle Famous Faces from Belfast at Belfast Safaris – short biographies of Waddell and others Works by or about Helen Waddell at Internet Archive Works by Helen Waddell at LibriVox Helen Waddell: Poems at Black Cat Poems Helen Waddell entry in the Banbridge District Online by Banbridge District Council Helen Waddell papers at the Genesis Project in the UK "Archival material relating to Helen Waddell".

UK National Archives. Helen Waddell Papers at Queen's University Belfast Helen Waddell at Library of Congress Authorities, with 62 catalogue records

Everytime We Touch (album)

Everytime We Touch is the first album by German Eurodance trio Cascada. It was released to European digital stores through 2007. Recording sessions for the album took place from autumn 2004 to January 2006, most of, recorded after the third single from the album "Everytime We Touch" rose to popularity; the entire album was produced by Yanou and DJ Manian, containing of up-tempo Eurodance tracks, many of which are covers of hit songs from the 1980s and 1990s of the synthpop and rock genres. Musically, the album is composed of dance tracks with thick Euro synths, trance beats that clock in at over 140 beats per minute and Europop lyrics. Lyrically, the album is composed of songs about dance floor euphoria. Critical reception of the album has been mixed, with many critics disliking the repetitive beats and what they saw as filler. Most critics did admire, its chart success for a dance album in the tough US music market; the album has sold about 2 million copies worldwide. There was a total of seven singles released from the album.

"Miracle" and "Everytime We Touch" were released in America and were the only singles that received gold and platinum certifications. Along with "Truly, Deeply", these singles attained notable chart success internationally, peaking in the top ten in countries like the United Kingdom and Sweden. ""A Neverending Dream" and "How Do You Do!" Achieved minor chart success in Ireland, the United Kingdom and Austria respectively. Sharon Mawer from Allmusic gave the album a mixed review and said the album's songs were for "dancing to" in a "club with lights flashing and people all around" but said that "after an hour of the same repetitive beat, one's senses can become a little jaded." Dom Passantino from Stylus Magazine gave the album a C+ and said the album had "a lot of filler" and called "Everytime We Touch" unoriginal. Ken Barnes of USA Today, awarded the album 3 out of 4 stars and said that "you couldn't ask for a more insanely infectious concoction." The album was accidentally released on iTunes for digital download on 11 February 2006, ten days before its scheduled release, in what was said to be a computer error.

The album entered the Billboard 200 at number 67. It has gone on to sell over 100,000 copies in the US. In the United Kingdom, the album entered the charts at #6, it went on to peak at #2. It spent 28 weeks in the UK Albums Top 75, 35 weeks in the Ireland Albums Top 75; the album went on achieving Platinum Certification. "Everytime We Touch" – 3:10 "A Neverending Dream" – 3:23 "Bad Boy" – 3:13 "How Do You Do!" – 2:52 "Another You" – 3:38 "Miracle" – 3:39 "Can't Stop the Rain" – 3:29 "Kids in America" – 3:01 "Love Again" – 3:28 "One More Night" – 3:44 "Truly Madly Deeply" – 4:13 "Ready for Love" – 3:24 "Wouldn't It Be Good" – 3:28 "Everytime We Touch" – 3:17 "A Neverending Dream" – 4:57 "A Neverending Dream" – 5:59 "Everytime We Touch" – 5:32 "Everytime We Touch" – 5:41 "How Do You Do!" – 5:32 "How Do You Do!" – 5:29 "Bad Boy" – 6:16 "Bad Boy" – 5:57 "Miracle" – 6:09 "Miracle" – 6:22 Includes all 14 tracks from the first release in rearranged order along with the following two remixes: "Truly Madly Deeply" – 2:57 "Everytime We Touch" – 3:15 Includes all 14 tracks from the first release in rearranged order along with the following remixes: "Everytime We Touch" – 5:32 "How Do You Do!"

– 5:05 "A Neverending Dream" – 4:58 "A Neverending Dream" – 6:10 "A Neverending Dream" – 5:59 Web Release: Zoo Digital: Cat: ZDS 088 Everytime We Touch – 3:17 Ready For Love – 3:23 Miracle – 3:38 How Do You Do – 3:15 Can't Stop The Rain – 3:28 Truly Madly Deeply – 2:55 Wouldn't It Be Good – 3:27 Bad Boy – 3:11 Another You – 3:37 A Neverending Dream – 3:22 Love Again – 3:27 Kids In America – 3:00 One More Night – 3:42 Truly Madly Deeply – 4:11 Everytime We Touch – 3:15 Everytime We Touch – 5:31 Everytime We Touch – 5:41 Everytime We Touch – 6:15 Everytime We Touch – 5:51 Ready For Love – 4:54 Ready For Love – 5:23 Miracle – 6:08 Miracle – 6:54 Miracle – 6:46 Miracle – 6:21 How Do You Do – 5:04 How Do You Do – 7:05 How Do You Do – 5:30 Can't Stop The Rain – 5:03 Can't Stop The Rain – 7:16 Truly Madly Deeply – 4:32 Truly Madly Deeply – 6:00 Truly Madly Deeply – 8:32 Truly Madly Deeply – 4:33 Wouldn't It Be Good – 5:07 Bad Boy – 6:15 Bad Boy – 5:54 A Neverending Dream – 4:56 A Neverending Dream – 5:58 A Neverending Dream – 6:26 A Neverending Dream – 6:09 Love Again – 5:29 Love Again – 6:23 Kids In America – 4:18 One More Night – 5:32 Frank Ehrlich – management Natalie Horlervocals Rebecca Meek – design Yann "Yanou" Peifer – mixing Manuel "Manian" Reuter – mixing Joe Yannece – mastering Armin Zedler – photography

Congenital fourth nerve palsy

For acquired fourth nerve palsy, see fourth nerve palsy. Congenital fourth nerve palsy is a condition present at birth characterized by a vertical misalignment of the eyes due to a weakness or paralysis of the superior oblique muscle. Other names for fourth nerve palsy include superior oblique trochlear nerve palsy; when looking to the right/left the nerve/muscle isn't strong enough or is too long and the eye drifts up. Though present from birth, symptoms of congenital fourth cranial nerve palsy may start as subtle and increase with age. Hence, diagnosis by a healthcare practitioner may not be made until childhood or adulthood. Young children adopt a compensatory head position in order to compensate for the underacting superior oblique muscle, or have a tendency to close one eye whilst reading; the characteristic head tilt is away from the affected side to reduce eye strain and prevent double vision. Old photographs may reveal the presence of a consistent head tilt from an early age. Most people with congenital CN IV palsy have facial asymmetry due to the chronic head tilt.

Other compensatory measures for congenital fourth nerve palsy are development of large vertical fusional amplitudes and lack of subjective symptoms of torsion in the presence of great ocular rotation. Congenital fourth nerve palsy may remain undetected until adulthood, when intermittent diplopia may arise, due to decompensated ability to overcome the vertical deviation; until this occurs, many ophthalmologists and optometrists may miss the other symptoms. Reduced vertical fusional reserves result from fatigue or the effects of old age. Diplopia from congenital fourth nerve palsy has been reported to manifest transiently during pregnancy. Congenital fourth nerve palsy may become evident following cataract surgery once binocular vision is restored after a long period of progressive monocular visual loss and accompanying vergence decompensation. People may complain of neck pain, after years of chronic head tilting, but this is encountered in children. Congenital fourth nerve palsy can affect reading comprehension due to the increased vertical fusional demands and head tilting required to maintain single vision and prevent vertical diplopia.

Some people find they lose their place while reading, find a marker or using a finger to guide them helpful. A three step test is useful to determine whether the symptoms conform to the pattern of a fourth nerve palsy; the cause of congenital fourth nerve palsy is unclear in most cases. It may be neurogenic in origin, due to a dysgenesis of the CN IV nucleus or nerve, but a clinically similar palsy may result from absence or mechanical dysfunction of the superior oblique tendon. Unilateral, congenital fourth nerve palsies can occur bilaterally. Bilateral congenital fourth nerve palsy may be unmasked only after corrective surgery of one eye for what was thought to be a unilateral palsy; the fourth cranial nerve innervates the superior oblique muscle for each eye. The superior oblique muscle is one of the six extraocular muscles; the superior oblique muscle intorts the eye, with secondary actions of depression and abduction. When this muscle’s function is diminished due to a fourth cranial nerve palsy, the affected eye will extort, deviate upward, and, to a smaller extent, drift inward.

Congenital fourth cranial nerve palsy can be treated with strabismus surgery, where muscle attachment sites on the globe are modified to realign the eyes. Some eye doctors prefer conservative or no management of congenital fourth nerve palsy. Other eye doctors recommend surgery early in a patient's life to prevent the compensatory torticollis and facial asymmetry that develop with age. Prism lenses set to make minor optical changes in the vertical alignment may be prescribed instead of or after surgery to fine-tune the correction. Prism lenses do not address torsional misalignment and this may limit their use in certain cases. An additional consideration of prism lenses is. Prism lenses reduce vertical fusional demands by allowing the eyes to rest in their vertically misaligned state; when they are removed the patient may experience vertical diplopia they find hard to resolve due to the rested state of their eyes. Cases of congenital fourth nerve palsy vary in magnitude and way they affect the motion of the superior oblique muscle.

Therefore different surgeries are available dependent upon the type of misalignment. Sometimes surgery on more than one eye muscle is required. In some simpler, unilateral cases a single surgery may suffice. In these cases the main problem is that the inferior oblique muscle of the same eye acts unopposed by the weakened superior oblique muscle, pulling the eye up. An example of a safe and effective procedure is a disinsertion of the inferior oblique muscle to allow it to reattach itself further down the globe of the eye; this acts to allow the eye to move back into a more neutral alignment. In all cases of congenital fourth nerve palsy, it is important to see an experienced strabismologist about management/treatment options. A strabismologist is an ophthalmologist specialising in eye movement disorders. A Cochrane Systematic Review compared several surgical treatments in people with fourth nerve palsy. While there was not enough high-quality evidence to recommend the best surgical treatment, all four types

St. George's Church (Sultan-Saly)

The Saint George's Church is an Armenian Apostolic church in Sultan-Saly village, Myasnikovsky District, Rostov Oblast, Russia. At the end of the eighteenth century, Catherine II issued a decree on the resettlement of Armenians from the Crimea to the Azov Sea region. In 1779, thousands of Armenians arrived to the new place of residence and founded the villages of Chaltyr, Bolshiye Saly, Sultan Saly and Nesvetay; the village of Sultan Saly was founded in 1779, the village church of Saint George church was built in 1795. In 1848 the church was dilapidated and its parishioners appealed to the consistory for permission to collect donations for renovation. Harutyun Khalivov, the mayor of Novo-Nakhichevan was in charge of fund collection company. Parishioners decided that instead of repairing the church it would be better to build a new one considering the fact that in 1849 the church was looted. Construction of a new church was finished in 1850. In 1854, it was decided to improve the newly rebuilt church.

In 1858, permission for rebuilding was given by authorities. In March 1864 the old church was arbitrarily demolished by parishioners, in 1867 a new church was reconstructed and consecrated. In 1872 a parish school was opened. In 1908 it had 126 students; the church building was damaged on October 28, 1896, when the dome with a cross was destroyed during a violent storm. Under Soviet rule, in 1930, the church was closed; the church was damaged from shelling during World War II. The square prayer hall, covered with a dome on pandatas with a small lantern, is united by three-door openings in the eastern part with a semicircular altar apse, in the western part it joins with a rectangular vaulted porch. To the porch adjoins a three-tiered bell tower. Вартанян В.Г. Казаров С.С. Армянская-Апостольская Церковь на Дону // Ростов н/Д. 2001 Е.И. Халпахчьян О. X. Архитектура Нахичевани-на-Дону // Ер. 1988 Шахазиз Е. Новый Нахичеван и новонахичеванцы / Перевод с армянского Ш. М. Шагиняна // Ростов-на-Дону, 1999 Российская и Ново-Нахичеванская епархия Армянской Апостольской Церкви.

Исторический путь. М. 2013 St. George's Church in Sultan-Saly St. George's Church Armenian churches on the Don

Michael Sachs

Michael Yechiel Sachs was a German rabbi from Groß-Glogau, Silesia. He was one of the first Jewish graduates from the modern universities, earning a Ph. D. degree in 1836. He was appointed Rabbi in Prague in 1836, in Berlin in 1844, he took the conservative side against the Reform agitation, so opposed the introduction of the organ into the Synagogue that he retired from the Rabbinate rather than acquiesce. Sachs was one of the greatest preachers of his age, published two volumes of Sermons, he co-operated with Leopold Zunz in a new translation of the Bible. Sachs is best remembered for his work on Religiöse Poesie der Juden in Spanien, he turned his poetic gifts to admirable account in his translation of the Festival Prayers, a new feature of, the metrical rendering of the medieval Hebrew hymns. Another popular work by Sachs contains poetic paraphrases of Rabbinic legends. Sachs, Die religiöse Poesie der Juden in Spanien, Berlin: Veit, 1845. Sachs, Stimmen vom Jordan und Euphrat: ein Buch fürs Haus, Frankfurt upon Main: Kauffmann, 1891 Sachs, Predigten, edited by David Rosin from the bequest of Sachs, Berlin: Gerschel, 1866-1869.

Sachs, Beiträge zur Sprach- und Alterthumsforschung: aus jüdischen Quellen: 2 parts, Berlin: Veit, 1852 and 1854. This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Israel. "Sachs, Michael". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. Cambridge University Press