Murder, She Wrote was an American crime drama television series starring Angela Lansbury as mystery writer and amateur detective Jessica Fletcher. The series aired for 12 seasons with 264 episodes from 1984 to 1996 on the CBS network, it was followed by four TV films. Among the most successful and longest-running television shows in history, it averaged more than 30 million viewers per week in its prime, was a staple of the CBS Sunday night lineup for a decade. In syndication, the series is still successful throughout the world. For her work on Murder, She Wrote, Lansbury was nominated for ten Golden Globes and 12 Emmy Awards, winning four Golden Globe awards, she holds the record for the most Golden Globe nominations and wins for Best Actress in a television drama series and the most Emmy nominations for Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series. The series received three Emmy nominations for Outstanding Drama Series, it was won twice. After the series finished in 1996, four TV movies were released between 1997 and 2003.
In 2009, a point-and-click video game was released for the PC platform, followed in 2012 by a sequel. A spin-off book series continues publication at present. Series producers Peter S. Fischer, Richard Levinson and William Link thought Lansbury would be perfect for the part of Jessica Fletcher but did not think that she would be interested in a television series. Earlier, she had acted in two film adaptations of Agatha Christie's mystery novels: as Salome Otterbourne in Death on the Nile and as Miss Marple in The Mirror Crack'd; when the latter film did poorly—despite an all star cast including Rock Hudson, Elizabeth Taylor, Kim Novak, Tony Curtis—the offer for Lansbury to reprise Miss Marple in three more films never materialized. When she made it known she would be available if the right project came along, the three creators sent her the script and immediately, Lansbury felt she could do something with the role of Jessica Fletcher. With Murder, She Wrote debuting on Sunday, September 30, 1984, the producers were able to parlay their "mystery writer/amateur detective" premise into a 12-year hit for CBS.
It made Lansbury, known for her motion picture and Broadway stage work, a household name for millions of television viewers. The title comes from Murder, She Said, the title of a 1961 film adaptation of Agatha Christie's Miss Marple novel 4:50 from Paddington; the show revolves around the day-to-day life of Jessica Fletcher, a widowed and retired English teacher, who becomes a successful mystery writer. Despite fame and fortune, Jessica remains a resident of Cabot Cove, a small coastal community in Maine, maintains her links with all of her old friends, never letting her success go to her head; the show starts with a preview of the episode's events, with Jessica stating: "Tonight on Murder, She Wrote..." Jessica invariably proves more perceptive than the official investigators of a case, who are always willing to arrest the most suspect. By piecing the clues together and asking astute questions, she always manages to trap the real murderer. Murder occurred with such regularity in her vicinity that the term "Cabot Cove syndrome" was coined to describe the constant appearance of dead bodies in remote locations.
Indeed, if Cabot Cove existed in real life, it would top the FBI's national crime statistics in numerous categories, with some analysis suggesting that the homicide rate in Cabot Cove exceeds that of the real-life murder capital of the world. Jessica's relationship with law enforcement officials varies from place to place. Both sheriffs of Cabot Cove resign themselves to having her meddle in their cases. However, most detectives and police officers do not want her anywhere near their crime scenes, until her accurate deductions convince them to listen to her; some are happy to have her assistance from the start because they are fans of her books. With time, she makes friends in many police departments across the U. S. as well as with a British police officer attached to Scotland Yard. At the start of season eight, more of the stories were set in New York City with Jessica moving into an apartment there part-time in order to teach criminology. In August 1988, Lansbury expressed weariness of her commitment to the series as she was not sure, at 63, that she could continue at the pace now required of her.
Thus, She Wrote went into its fifth season that fall with the distinct possibility that it would cease production at the end of it and the series finale would air in May 1989. A solution was worked on, which enabled Lansbury to continue but give her time to rest; this enabled some secondary characters to get significant stories. For the next two seasons, Lansbury reduced her appearances in several episodes, only appearing at the beginning and the end, to introduce stories starring several friends of Jessica, like PI Harry McGraw, reformed thief Dennis Stanton or MI5 agent Michael Hagarty; the "experiment" ended in 1991. The next year, Lansbury took on a more extensive role in production as she became one of the series' executive producers. By the end of the 1994–1995 season, She Wrote's 11th season, Lansbury again was considering retirement due to her advancing age. CBS, however would make the decision for her in what would prove to be a mistake; when the network released its schedule for the 1995–1996 season, it decided to go in a different direction for its Sunday night lineup and placed two sitcoms, the top 30 hit Cybill and t
A hazard analysis is used as the first step in a process used to assess risk. The result of a hazard analysis is the identification of different type of hazards. A hazard exists or not, it may in single existence or in combination with other hazards and conditions become an actual Functional Failure or Accident. The way this happens in one particular sequence is called a scenario; this scenario has a probability of occurrence. A system has many potential failure scenarios, it is assigned a classification, based on the worst case severity of the end condition. Risk is the combination of severity. Preliminary risk levels can be provided in the hazard analysis; the validation, more precise prediction and acceptance of risk is determined in the Risk assessment. The main goal of both is to provide the best selection of means of controlling or eliminating the risk; the term is used in several engineering specialties, including avionics, chemical process safety, safety engineering, reliability engineering and food safety.
A hazard is defined as a "Condition, event, or circumstance that could lead to or contribute to an unplanned or undesirable event." Does a single hazard cause an accident or a functional failure. More an accident or operational failure occurs as the result of a sequence of causes. A hazard analysis will consider system state, for example operating environment, as well as failures or malfunctions. While in some cases, safety or reliability risk can be eliminated, in most cases a certain degree of risk must be accepted. In order to quantify expected costs before the fact, the potential consequences and the probability of occurrence must be considered. Assessment of risk is made by combining the severity of consequence with the likelihood of occurrence in a matrix. Risks that fall into the "unacceptable" category must be mitigated by some means to reduce the level of safety risk. IEEE STD-1228-1994 Software Safety Plans prescribes industry best practices for conducting software safety hazard analyses to help ensure safety requirements and attributes are defined and specified for inclusion in software that commands, controls or monitors critical functions.
When software is involved in a system, the development and design assurance of that software is governed by DO-178B. The severity of consequence identified by the hazard analysis establishes the criticality level of the software. Software criticality levels range from A to E, corresponding to the severity of Catastrophic to No Safety Effect. Higher levels of rigor are required for level A and B software and corresponding functional tasks and work products is the system safety domain are used as objective evidence of meeting safety criteria and requirements. A leading edge commercial standard was promulgated based on decades of proven system safety processes in DoD and NASA. ANSI/GEIA-STD-0010-2009 is a demilitarized commercial best practice that uses proven holistic and tailored approaches for hazard prevention and control, it is centered around the hazard analysis and functional based safety process. Medical Device Risk Management - ISO 14971 Failure mode and effects analysis Fault tree analysis Hazard and operability study known as HAZOP Hazard Potential Case SWIFT Safety engineering – Engineering discipline which assures that engineered systems provide acceptable levels of safety Reliability engineering Occupational safety and health RTCA DO-178B RTCA DO-178C RTCA DO-254 SAE ARP4761 SAE ARP4754 MIL-STD-882 ANSI/GEIA-STD-0010-2009 IEEE STD 1228-1994 Software Safety Plans IEEE STD 1584-2002 IEEE Guide for Performing Arc Flash Hazard Calculations Center for Chemical Process Safety.
Guidelines for Hazard Evaluation Procedures, with Worked Examples. Wiley-American Institute Of Chemical Engineers. ISBN 0-8169-0491-X. Bahr, Nicholas J.. System Safety Engineering and Risk Assessment: A Practical Approach. Taylor & Francis Group. ISBN 1-56032-416-3. Kletz, Trevor. Hazop and Hazan. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0-85295-421-2. CFR, Title 29-Labor, Part 1910--Occupational Safety and Health Standards, § 1910.119 U. S. OSHA regulations regarding "Process safety management of hazardous chemicals". FAA Order 8040.4 establishes FAA safety risk management policy. The FAA publishes a System Safety Handbook that provides a good overview of the system safety process used by the agency. IEEE 1584-2002 Standard which provides guidelines for doing arc flash hazard assessment
Adam Best is a fictional character from the BBC soap opera EastEnders, played by David Proud, the first adult actor with a visible disability to appear in the soap. Both Proud and his character live with spina bifida; the character made his first appearance in the episode broadcast on 10 September 2009 and his last in the one broadcast on 19 July 2010. Adam's introduction to the show begins when Manda Best tells her boyfriend Minty Peterson that her son, Adam is on a summer holiday abroad but will return to the UK shortly due to his academic studies. Minty is reluctant when Manda suggests Adam stay with them as they don't have a spare room as they have a lodger Darren Miller. However, Manda makes arrangements for Adam to stay and he arrives on 10 September 2009, he forms a low opinion of Minty, takes a liking to Libby Fox, Darren's girlfriend. Libby is due to go to Oxford University, so they become friends, he returns texting Libby that he will see her there. Adam continues to be rude and hostile to Minty.
He is shocked to discover that Libby and Darren are engaged. He soon returns to Oxford but his car breaks down whilst he is in hospital for a routine health check. Not wanting to worry Manda, Adam phones Minty for assistance and Minty goes but confronts Adam about his rudeness. Adam tells Minty that he is wary of his mother's usual choice of men, as many have let her down in the past. However, he agrees to try to be more polite in future, he returns over Christmas and wonders why Libby is with Darren, thinking she cannot see beyond his wheelchair. Following the revelation that Darren is the father of Heather Trott's baby son, Adam teases Darren about Libby, he defends his mother when Minty is angry at her for not telling him about Heather. He continues to tease a distraught Darren after he spent the night on a bench, but Manda tells Adam he should know when someone is in need. Adam takes Darren to a party and agrees to look after him; the next day, Darren wonders. Adam tells him he should give her some space, Darren agrees, but Adam sends Libby a text message saying he is there for her if she needs a friend.
When Manda comes home one night in tears, she tells Adam. Adam and Libby find a letter that Sam Mitchell has sent him. Adam decides not to tell his mother but Libby says they should and she tells Manda about it. Manda decides to leave Walford. Adam returns to Oxford and when he comes back to Walford again, he and Libby are dating. Darren confronts him saying he has been bad-mouthing him for months, Adam hits back by saying that Libby makes up for being unattractive by being good in bed. Adam spots Libby in the cafe where Fatboy starts to flirt with her and after Libby leaves, Adam punches Fatboy. Adam is approached by Lucy Beale for help with her exams, she pays him for exam papers, but after Adam is annoyed by Libby's behaviour during a picnic, he tells Lucy he wants payment in kind, not money and demands a kiss as a down payment. Minty sees them kiss again but Adam tells him that Lucy is tactile. After Lucy's final exam, Adam demands sex but she refuses, saying she has played him at his own game and won.
Adam threatens to expose Lucy's tricks but Lucy says that anything would be better than having sex with him. Lucy tells her brother Peter that she was blackmailed by Adam, who confronts him and threatens to tell Libby. Adam says that it would not be a good idea as Libby is still coming to terms with the deaths of her parents Denise Wicks and Owen Turner. However, Libby is standing behind him and hears everything reveals it to a crowd that gathers after throwing his belongings out on the street, he accuses her of only dating him to make herself look good and says she will be trying to kill him next. He insults Denise, so Libby slaps him and tells him to leave. Adam gets in his car and drives away. Adam is the son of character Manda Best, played by Josie Lawrence. Both the character and the actor are wheelchair users, he was introduced as part of a series of measures by the BBC to raise the profile of disabled actors. He began filming in June 2009 and appeared on-screen from September 2009. Speaking of his casting, Proud said he is "delighted and honoured to be joining such a talented cast excited and looking forward to bringing the character to life."
The show's executive producer, Diederick Santer, said it was "about time" the show cast an adult actor with a disability, as up until Proud's casting, all disabilities in the show had been portrayed by children or able-bodied adults: "In recent years, we've had a number of regular and guest characters with disabilities, some of them children like Janet Mitchell and more Syd's son, Noah. We've told the story of Jean Slater who suffers from bipolar disorder, but this is the first time we've had a regular adult character with a visible disability played by an actor with a disability. It's about time."In an interview with magazine Disability Now, Proud said he was offered the part of Adam at the same time as wondering whether a regular part would come up: "It was spooky the way it all worked out." He went on to say "To move representation of disability in the media forward is something I take a lot of pride in. It is one of those lovely bonuses of doing what I do, you feel like if you do it right you're encour