Norwalk is a U. S. city located in southwestern Connecticut, in southern Fairfield County, on the northern shore of Long Island Sound. Norwalk lies within both the New York metropolitan area as well as the Bridgeport metropolitan area. Norwalk was settled in 1649, is the sixth most populous city in Connecticut. According to the 2010 United States Census it has had a population of 85,603. Norwalk was settled in 1649, incorporated September 1651, named after the Algonquin word noyank, meaning "point of land", or more from the native American name "Naramauke."The Battle of Norwalk took place during the Revolutionary War, lead to the burning of most of the town. In 1836, the borough of Norwalk was created. In 1853, the first train disaster in the United States happened over the Norwalk River. During the 19th and early 20th century, Norwalk was a major railroad stop for the New York, New Haven, Hartford Railroad; the city of South Norwalk and the remaining parts of the town of Norwalk were both combined in 1910 to form the current city.
The Ku Klux Klan had a brief presence in Norwalk during the 1920s, but fell apart due to internal issues. In 1955, multiple hurricanes hit thje city. During the 1970s, efforts were taken to preserve South Norwalk, resulting in the creation of the Washington Street Historic District. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 36.3 square miles, of which, 22.8 square miles of it is land and 13.5 square miles of it is water. Norwalk's topography is dominated by its coastline along Long Island Sound, the Norwalk River and its eastern and western banks, the Norwalk Islands; the highest elevation is 282 feet above sea level, at the summit of Middle Clapboard Hill in West Norwalk. As of the census of 2010, there were 85,603 people, 35,415 households, 21,630 families residing in the city; the population density was 2,358.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 35,415 housing units at an average density of 975.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 68.7% White, 14.2% African American, 0.4% Native American, 4.8% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 9.0% from other races, 2.8% from two or more races.
Hispanic or Latino of any race were 24.3% of the population. There were 35,415 households out of which 27.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.1% were married couples living together, 11.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 38.4% were non-families. 33.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size in the city was 2.55 and the average family size was 3.16. The population's spread gives 22% under the age of 18, with 7.3% from 18 to 24, 31.7% from 25 to 44, 31.2% from 45 to 64, 12.8% aged 65 years or older. The median age is 40 years. For every 100 females, there are 96.2 males. The median income for a household in the city was $76,161, the median income for a family was $103,032; the per capita income for the city was $43,303. About 5.7% of families and 8.4% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.2% of those under age 18 and 8.2% of those age 65 or over.
Pepperidge Farm, Frontier Communications, Booking Holdings have headquarters in Norwalk. St. George Greek Orthodox Festival, held in late August, the festival features Greek delicacies, Pontic Greek dance exhibitions and a large carnival. Round Hill Highland Games: a festival of Scottish culture and athletic events, was started in 1923 in Greenwich, CT but interrupted during World War II restarted in 1952, has been held in Norwalk's Cranbury Park on or around July 4 for a number of years. In 2006, the 83rd annual event attracted 4,000 people to hear bagpipes and watch the caber toss, the hammer throw, other events. Games for children are offered. Food and Scottish items are offered for sale. Organizers say. Beth Israel Synagogue AKA Canaan Institutional Baptist Church Saint Jerome Church Saint Joseph Church Saint Ladislaus Church Saint Mary Church Saint Matthew Church St. Philip Church Saint Thomas the Apostle ChurchTemple Shalom Temple Beth- El The City of Norwalk has six taxing districts; the First, Second and Sixth taxing districts are political entities with their respective voters electing officers, holding annual business meetings, approving budgets and to consider other matters, as specified in each of their charters.
Election of Taxing District Commissioners and Treasurers by voters from the 1st, 2nd, 3rd, 6th districts take place in odd numbered years. The Fourth and Fifth districts are not counted as separate governments as they constitute the city proper; each taxing district has its own property tax rate reflecting the mix of services each receives from the city. Secondly, municipal elections of Mayor, Common Council, Board of Education and other positions are held in odd numbered years at thirteen polling places within five voting districts around the city. Voting districts are not the same for state and federal elections which are held on numbered years at twelve polling locations Norwalk's municipal government is a Weak-mayor form of a Mayor-Council government with the mayor of Norwalk elected by its voters; the city's charter gives certain administrative powers to the Council and others jointly to the Council and Mayor. The Common Counc
New London, Connecticut
New London is a seaport city and a port of entry on the northeast coast of the United States, located at the mouth of the Thames River in New London County, Connecticut. It was one of the world's three busiest whaling ports for several decades beginning in the early 19th century, along with Nantucket and New Bedford, Massachusetts; the wealth that whaling brought into the city furnished the capital to fund much of the city's present architecture. The city subsequently became home to other shipping and manufacturing industries, but it has lost most of its industrial heart. New London is home to the United States Coast Guard Academy, Connecticut College, Mitchell College, The Williams School; the Coast Guard Station New London and New London Harbor is home port to the Coast Guard Cutter Chinook and the Coast Guard's tall ship Eagle. The city had a population of 27,620 at the 2010 census; the Norwich-New London metropolitan area includes 274,055 people. The area was called Nameaug by the Pequot Indians.
John Winthrop, Jr. founded the first English settlement here in 1646, making it about the 13th town settled in Connecticut. Inhabitants informally referred as Pequot after the tribe. In the 1650s, the colonists wanted to give the town the official name of London after London, but the Connecticut General Assembly wanted to name it Faire Harbour; the citizens protested, declaring that they would prefer it to be called Nameaug if it couldn't be named London. The legislature relented, the town was named New London on March 10, 1658; the harbor was considered to be the best deep water harbor on Long Island Sound, New London became a base of American naval operations during the American Revolutionary War. Famous New Londoners during the American Revolution include Nathan Hale, William Coit, Richard Douglass and Nathaniel Shaw, Gen. Samuel Parsons, printer Timothy Green, Bishop Samuel Seabury. New London was raided and much of it burned to the ground on September 6, 1781 in the Battle of Groton Heights by Norwich native Benedict Arnold in an attempt to destroy the Revolutionary privateer fleet and supplies of goods and naval stores within the city.
It is noted that this raid on New London and Groton was intended to divert General George Washington and the French Army under Rochambeau from their march on Yorktown, Virginia. The main defensive fort for New London was Fort Griswold, located across the Thames River in Groton, it was well known to Arnold, who sold its secrets to the British fleet so that they could avoid its artillery fire. The British overran New London's Fort Trumbull, while other soldiers moved in to attack Ft. Griswold across the river, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel William Ledyard; the British suffered great casualties at Ft. Griswold before the Americans were forced to surrender—whereupon the British stormed into and slaughtered most of the militia who defended it, including Colonel Ledyard. All told, more than 52 British soldiers and 83 militia were killed, more than 142 British and 39 militia were wounded, many mortally. New London suffered over 6 militia killed and 24 wounded, while Arnold and the British and Hessian raiding party suffered an equal amount.
Connecticut's independent legislature made New London one of the first two cities brought from de facto to formalized incorporations in its January session of 1784, along with New Haven. During the War of 1812, torpedoes were employed in attempts to destroy British vessels and protect American harbors. In fact, a submarine-deployed torpedo was used in an unsuccessful attempt to destroy HMS Ramillies while in New London's harbor; this prompted British Capt. Hardy to warn the Americans to cease efforts with the use of any "torpedo boat" in this "cruel and unheard-of warfare", or he would "order every house near the shore to be destroyed."For several decades beginning in the early 19th century, New London was one of the three busiest whaling ports in the world, along with Nantucket and New Bedford, Massachusetts. The wealth that whaling brought into the city furnished the capital to fund much of the city's present architecture; the New Haven and New London Railroad connected New London by rail to New Haven and points beyond by the 1850s.
The Springfield and New London Railroad connected New London to Springfield, Massachusetts by the 1870s. Several military installations have been part of New London's history, including the United States Coast Guard Academy and Coast Guard Station New London. Most of these military installations have been located at Fort Trumbull; the first Fort Trumbull was an earthwork built 1775-1777. The second Fort Trumbull was built 1839-1852 and still stands. By 1910, the fort's defensive function had been superseded by the new forts of the Endicott Program located on Fishers Island; the fort became the Revenue Cutter Academy. The Revenue Cutter Service was merged into the United States Coast Guard in 1915, the Academy relocated to its current site in 1932. During World War II, the Merchant Marine Officers Training School was located at Fort Trumbull. From 1950 to 1990, Fort Trumbull was the location for the Naval Underwater Sound Laboratory, which developed sonar and related systems for US Navy submarines.
In 1990, the Sound Laboratory was merged with the Naval Underwater Systems Center in Newport, Rhode Island, the New London facility was closed in 1996. The Naval Submarine Base New London is physically located in Groton, but submarines were stationed in New London from 1951 to 1991; the submarine tender Fulton and Submarine Squadron 10 were at State Pier in New London during this time. Squadron Ten was composed of eight to ten submarines and was the first al
Denmark the Kingdom of Denmark, is a Nordic country and the southernmost of the Scandinavian nations. Denmark lies southwest of Sweden and south of Norway, is bordered to the south by Germany; the Kingdom of Denmark comprises two autonomous constituent countries in the North Atlantic Ocean: the Faroe Islands and Greenland. Denmark proper consists of a peninsula, an archipelago of 443 named islands, with the largest being Zealand and the North Jutlandic Island; the islands are characterised by flat, arable land and sandy coasts, low elevation and a temperate climate. Denmark has a total area of 42,924 km2, land area of 42,394 km2, the total area including Greenland and the Faroe Islands is 2,210,579 km2, a population of 5.8 million. The unified kingdom of Denmark emerged in the 10th century as a proficient seafaring nation in the struggle for control of the Baltic Sea. Denmark and Norway were ruled together under one sovereign ruler in the Kalmar Union, established in 1397 and ending with Swedish secession in 1523.
The areas of Denmark and Norway remained under the same monarch until Denmark -- Norway. Beginning in the 17th century, there were several devastating wars with the Swedish Empire, ending with large cessions of territory to Sweden. After the Napoleonic Wars, Norway was ceded to Sweden, while Denmark kept the Faroe Islands and Iceland. In the 19th century there was a surge of nationalist movements, which were defeated in the 1864 Second Schleswig War. Denmark remained neutral during World War I. In April 1940, a German invasion saw brief military skirmishes while the Danish resistance movement was active from 1943 until the German surrender in May 1945. An industrialised exporter of agricultural produce in the second half of the 19th century, Denmark introduced social and labour-market reforms in the early 20th century that created the basis for the present welfare state model with a developed mixed economy; the Constitution of Denmark was signed on 5 June 1849, ending the absolute monarchy, which had begun in 1660.
It establishes a constitutional monarchy organised as a parliamentary democracy. The government and national parliament are seated in Copenhagen, the nation's capital, largest city, main commercial centre. Denmark exercises hegemonic influence in the Danish Realm, devolving powers to handle internal affairs. Home rule was established in the Faroe Islands in 1948. Denmark negotiated certain opt-outs, it is among the founding members of NATO, the Nordic Council, the OECD, OSCE, the United Nations. Denmark is considered to be one of the most economically and developed countries in the world. Danes enjoy a high standard of living and the country ranks in some metrics of national performance, including education, health care, protection of civil liberties, democratic governance and human development; the country ranks as having the world's highest social mobility, a high level of income equality, is among the countries with the lowest perceived levels of corruption in the world, the eleventh-most developed in the world, has one of the world's highest per capita incomes, one of the world's highest personal income tax rates.
The etymology of the word Denmark, the relationship between Danes and Denmark and the unifying of Denmark as one kingdom, is a subject which attracts debate. This is centered on the prefix "Dan" and whether it refers to the Dani or a historical person Dan and the exact meaning of the -"mark" ending. Most handbooks derive the first part of the word, the name of the people, from a word meaning "flat land", related to German Tenne "threshing floor", English den "cave"; the -mark is believed to mean woodland or borderland, with probable references to the border forests in south Schleswig. The first recorded use of the word Danmark within Denmark itself is found on the two Jelling stones, which are runestones believed to have been erected by Gorm the Old and Harald Bluetooth; the larger stone of the two is popularly cited as Denmark's "baptismal certificate", though both use the word "Denmark", in the form of accusative ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚢᚱᚴ tanmaurk on the large stone, genitive ᛏᛅᚾᛘᛅᚱᚴᛅᚱ "tanmarkar" on the small stone.
The inhabitants of Denmark are there called "Danes", in the accusative. The earliest archaeological findings in Denmark date back to the Eem interglacial period from 130,000–110,000 BC. Denmark has been inhabited since around 12,500 BC and agriculture has been evident since 3900 BC; the Nordic Bronze Age in Denmark was marked by burial mounds, which left an abundance of findings including lurs and the Sun Chariot. During the Pre-Roman Iron Age, native groups began migrating south, the first tribal Danes came to the country between the Pre-Roman and the Germanic Iron Age, in the Roman Iron Age; the Roman provinces maintained trade routes and relations with native tribes in Denmark, Roman coins have been found in Denmark. Evidence of strong Celtic cultural influence dates from this period in Denmark and much of North-West Europe and is among other things reflected in the finding of the Gundestrup cauldron; the tribal Danes came from the east Danish islands and Scania and spoke an early form of North Germanic.
Historians believe that before their arrival, most of Jutland and the nearest islands were settled by tribal J
A tree chipper or woodchipper is a machine used for reducing wood into smaller woodchips. They are portable, being mounted on wheels on frames suitable for towing behind a truck or van. Power is provided by an internal combustion engine from 3 horsepower to 1,000 horsepower. There are high power chipper models mounted on trucks and powered by a separate engine; these models also have a hydraulic crane. Tree chippers are made of a hopper with a collar, the chipper mechanism itself, an optional collection bin for the chips. A tree limb is started into the chipping mechanism; the chips exit through a chute and can be directed into a truck-mounted container or onto the ground. Typical output is chips on the order of 1 inch to 2 inches across in size; the resulting wood chips have various uses such as being spread as a ground cover or being fed into a digester during papermaking. Most woodchippers rely on energy stored in a heavy flywheel to do their work; the chipping blades are mounted on the face of the flywheel, the flywheel is accelerated by an electric motor or internal combustion engine.
Large woodchippers are equipped with grooved rollers in the throat of their feed funnels. Once a branch has been gripped by the rollers, the rollers transport the branch to the chipping blades at a steady rate; these rollers are a safety feature and are reversible for situations where a branch gets caught on clothing. The woodchipper was invented by Peter Jensen in 1884, the "Marke Angeln" woodchipper soon became the core business of his company, which produced and repaired communal- and woodworking-machinery. Shredders that make use of high-torque low-speed grinding rollers are growing in popularity for residential use; these shredders are driven with an electric motor and are quiet, dust free, self-feeding. Some of these machines are equipped with an anti-jamming feature; the original chipper design employs a steel disk with knives mounted upon it as the chipping mechanism. This technology dates back to an invention by German Heinrich Wigger, for which he obtained a patent in 1922. In this design, reversible hydraulically powered wheels draw the material from the hopper towards the disk, mounted perpendicularly to the incoming material.
As the disk spins, the knives cut the material into chips. These are thrown out the chute by flanges on the drum; this design is not as energy-efficient as the drum-style design, but produces chips of more uniform shape and size. Most chippers used by commercial tree care companies are disk-type. Consumer-grade disk-style chippers have a material diameter capacity of 6 to 18 inches. Industrial-grade chippers are available with discs as large as 160 inches in diameter, requiring 4,000 to 5,000 horsepower. One application of industrial disk chippers is to produce the wood chips used in the manufacture of particle board. Newer chippers employ mechanisms consisting of a large steel drum powered by a motor by means of a belt; the drum spins towards the output chute. The drum serves as the feed mechanism, drawing the material through as it chips it, it is colloquially known as a "chuck-and-duck" chipper, due to the immediate speed attained by material dropped into the drum. Chippers of this type have many drawbacks and safety issues.
If an operator becomes snagged on material being fed into the machine, injury or death is likely. Chippers of this type are very loud; the chips produced may be large, if thin material is inserted, it may be cut into slivers rather than chips, since the drum is directly driven by the engine, materials that are too large or long may stall the engine while remaining stuck in the drum. Much larger machines for wood processing exist. "Whole tree chippers" and "Recyclers", which can handle material diameters of 2 feet to 6 feet may employ drums, disks, or a combination of both. The largest machines used in wood processing called "Tub Grinders", may handle a material diameter of 8 feet or greater, use carbide tipped flail hammers to pulverize wood rather than cut it; these machines have 200 horsepower to 1,000 horsepower. Some are so heavy. Smaller models can be towed by a medium duty truck. Although chippers vary in size and capacity, the blades processing the wood are similar in construction, they are rectangular in shape and are 4 inches to 1.5 inches across by 6 inches to 12 inches long.
They vary in thickness from about 1.5 inches to 2 inches. Chipper blades are made from high grade steel and contain a minimum of 8% chromium for hardness. Thirty-one people were killed in woodchipper accidents between 1992 and 2002 in the US, according to a 2005 report by the Journal of the American Medical Association. Chipper/Shredder Safety, Kansas State University
Hawleyville is an unincorporated community in Fairfield County in the Town of Newtown, Connecticut about 1 mile outside the Incorporated Borough of Newtown. Hawleyville is named after the family of Glover Hawley; this was a condition Hawley included in the sale of land to the Housatonic Railroad Company in the nineteenth century. Hawleyville emerged as a railroad center, causing Newtown's population to grow to over 4,000 circa 1881; the railroads included the New York and New England Railroad and the Hawleyville Branch of the Danbury and Norwalk Railroad. As of 2018, the Housatonic Railroad Company owns a lumber distribution and bulk transfer facility in Hawleyville. Hawleyville gained a sewer system in 2001, subsequently expanded upon in 2016, it utilizes the nearby Danbury, Connecticut sewage plant. The area is served by Rescue. List of Principal Communities in Connecticut Hawleyville on Google Maps
Hattertown is a village in the town of Newtown, listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Hattertown Historic District and includes a smaller local historic district. Hattertown takes its name from the hat-manufacturing trade around which the village grew in the early 19th century. "Hatting" was a major economic activity in western Connecticut in the 19th century, having started in Danbury in about 1780. Hats were made from felt formed from animal fur; as hat production increased, the manufacturing activity spread from Danbury to surrounding areas where the supply of fur-bearing animals such as muskrat and beaver had not yet been depleted. A small village existed at the site of Hattertown before 1821, when the Taylor and Benedict families arrived there and began hat production. Hattertown was to become one of the few places in the region where an entire village was directly involved in the hat trade. Hatting in the village was a cottage industry in which hat producers made rough-formed hats for sale to wholesalers in Danbury or "front shops" in New York City where they would be finished.
Hatting continued in Hattertown until at least 1856, but it was in decline by the 1840s as fur processing and hat forming were becoming mechanized and the local supply of fur-bearing animals was depleted. The Hattertown Historic District is centered on the Hattertown Green, which dates from the late 19th century and is bound by Hattertown Road, Hi Barlow Road, Gregory Lane, the intersections of Castle Meadow Road and Aunt Park Lane; the historic district is listed on the National Register of Historic Places and includes a local historic district subject to requirements administered by the Hattertown Historic District Commission. Eleven historic residences are contributing properties of the National Register historic district, ranging in age from c.1750 to c.1850. There are several secondary structures from the same time period, such as barns and privies that contribute to the architectural significance of the area. A schoolhouse from c.1780, now the Gregory Orchard's District School, was on the green and was moved in 1975 to its present location adjacent to the Morgan House.
National Register of Historic Places listings in Fairfield County, Connecticut Hattertown Historic District Commission
A chainsaw is a portable, mechanical saw which cuts with a set of teeth attached to a rotating chain that runs along a guide bar. It is used in activities such as tree felling, bucking, cutting firebreaks in wildland fire suppression and harvesting of firewood. Chainsaws with specially designed bar and chain combinations have been developed as tools for use in chainsaw art and chainsaw mills. Specialized chainsaws are used for cutting concrete. Chainsaws are sometimes used for cutting ice, for example for ice sculpture and in Finland for winter swimming. Someone who uses a saw is a sawyer; the origin is debated, but a chainsaw-like tool was made around 1830 by the German orthopaedist Bernhard Heine. This instrument, the osteotome, had links of a chain carrying small cutting teeth with the edges set at an angle; as the name implies, this was used to cut bone. The prototype of the chain saw familiar today in the timber industry was pioneered in the late 18th century by two Scottish doctors, John Aitken and James Jeffray, for symphysiotomy and excision of diseased bone respectively.
The chain hand saw, a fine serrated link chain which cut on the concave side, was invented around 1783-1785. It was illustrated in Aitken's Principles of Midwifery or Puerperal Medicine and used by him in his dissecting room. Jeffray claimed to have conceived the idea of the chain saw independently about that time but it was 1790 before he was able to have it produced. In 1806, Jeffray published Cases of the Excision of Carious Joints by H. Park and P. F. Moreau with Observations by James Jeffray M. D. In this communication he translated Moreau's paper of 1803. Park and Moreau described successful excision of diseased joints the knee and elbow. Jeffray explained that the chain saw would allow a smaller wound and protect the adjacent neurovascular bundle. Symphysiotomy had too many complications for most obstetricians but Jeffray's ideas became accepted after the development of anaesthetics. Mechanised versions of the chain saw were developed but in the 19th Century, it was superseded in surgery by the Gigli twisted wire saw.
For much of the 19th century, the chain saw was a useful surgical instrument. The earliest patent for a practical "endless chain saw" was granted to Samuel J. Bens of San Francisco on January 17, 1905, his intent being to fell giant redwoods. The first portable chainsaw was patented in 1918 by Canadian millwright James Shand. After he allowed his rights to lapse in 1930 his invention was further developed by what became the German company Festo in 1933; the company now operates as Festool producing portable power tools. Other important contributors to the modern chainsaw are Andreas Stihl. In 1927, Emil Lerp, the founder of Dolmar, developed the world's first gasoline-powered chainsaw and mass-produced them. World War II interrupted the supply of German chain saws to North America, so new manufacturers sprang up including Industrial Engineering Ltd in 1947, the forerunner of Pioneer Saws. Ltd and part of Outboard Marine Corporation, the oldest manufacturer of chainsaws in North America. McCulloch in North America started to produce chainsaws in 1948.
The early models were two-person devices with long bars. Chainsaws were so heavy that they had wheels like dragsaws. Other outfits used driven lines from a wheeled power unit to drive the cutting bar. After World War II, improvements in aluminum and engine design lightened chainsaws to the point where one person could carry them. In some areas the skidder crews have been replaced by harvester. Chainsaws have entirely replaced simple man-powered saws in forestry, they come in many sizes, from small electric saws intended for home and garden use, to large "lumberjack" saws. Members of military engineer units are trained to use chainsaws as are firefighters to fight forest fires and to ventilate structure fires. There are three main types of chainsaw sharpeners - Handheld File, Electric Chain Saw and Bar Mounted. A chainsaw consists of several parts: Chainsaw engines are traditionally either a two-stroke gasoline internal combustion engine or an electric motor driven by a battery or electric power cord.
Combustion engines today are supplied through a traditional carburetor or an electronically adjustable carburetor. The traditional carburetor needs to be adjusted, i. e. when operating in high or low altitudes, or their fuel oil-to-gasoline ratios must be adjusted to run properly. Electrically influenced; these systems are provided by most large chain saw producers. Husqvarna calls its "Autotune," and it is standard on most saws of the 5XX saw series. To reduce user fatigue problems, traditional carburetors can be de-vibrated or they can be heated as well. Many saws offer a Summer mode of operation. Winter mode applies in temperatures below 0 °C / 32 °F where inside the cover a hole is opened leaving warm air to the air filter and carburetor to prevent icing. In warmer environment the hole is closed and both units are not ventilated with warm air. To ensure clean air supply to the carburetor, chainsaw producers offer different filters with fine or less fine mesh. In clean surrounding air a less fine filter can be used, in dusty environment the other.
The fine filter keeps the air clean to its o