Vassar College is a private, liberal arts college in the town of Poughkeepsie, New York. Founded in 1861 by Matthew Vassar, it was the second degree-granting institution of higher education for women in the United States following Elmira College, it became coeducational in 1969, now has a gender ratio at the national average. The school is one of the historic Seven Sisters, the first elite female colleges in the U. S. and has a historic relationship with Yale University, which suggested a merger with the college before coeducation at both institutions. The college offers B. A. degrees in more than 50 majors and features a flexible curriculum designed to promote a breadth of studies. Student groups at the college include theater and comedy organizations, acappella groups, club sports teams and service groups, a circus troupe. Vassar College's varsity sports teams, known as the Brewers, play in the NCAA's Division III as members of the Liberty League. Vassar tied for the 11th best liberal arts college in the nation in the 2018 annual ranking of U.
S. News & World Report, with admissions described as "most selective". For the freshman class entering fall 2017, the college had an acceptance rate of 22.8%. The total number of students attending the college is around 2,450; the Vassar campus comprises over 1,000 acres and more than 100 buildings, including two National Historic Landmarks and an additional National Historic Place. A designated arboretum, the campus features more than 200 species of trees, a native plant preserve, a 530-acre ecological preserve. Vassar was founded as a women's school under the name Vassar Female College in 1861, its first president was Milo P. Jewett, but after only a year, its founder, Matthew Vassar, had the word Female cut from the name, prompting some residents of the town of Poughkeepsie, New York to quip that its founder believed it might one day admit male students. The college became coeducational in 1969. Vassar was the second of the Seven Sisters colleges, higher education schools that were strictly for women, sister institutions to the Ivy League.
It was chartered by its namesake, brewer Matthew Vassar, in 1861 in the Hudson Valley, about 70 miles north of New York City. The first person appointed to the Vassar faculty was the astronomer Maria Mitchell, in 1865. Vassar adopted coeducation in 1969; however following World War II, Vassar accepted a small number of male students on the G. I. Bill; because Vassar's charter prohibited male matriculants, the graduates were given diplomas via the University of the State of New York. These were reissued under the Vassar title; the formal decision to become co-ed came after its trustees declined an offer to merge with Yale University, its sibling institution, in the wave of mergers between the all-male colleges of the Ivy League and their Seven Sisters counterparts. In its early years, Vassar was associated with the social elite of the Protestant establishment. E. Digby Baltzell writes that "upper-class WASP families educated their children at colleges such as Harvard, Princeton and Vassar." A select and elite few of Vassar's students were allowed entry into the school's secret society Delta Sigma Rho, started in 1922.
Before becoming President of the United States, Franklin Delano Roosevelt was a Trustee. 2,450 students attend Vassar, 98% live on campus. About 60% come from public high schools, 40% come from private schools. Vassar is 56% women and 44% men, at national average for national liberal arts colleges. Students are taught by more than 336 faculty members all holding the doctorate degree or its equivalent; the student-faculty ratio is 8:1, average class size, 17. In recent freshman classes, students of color constituted 32–38% of matriculants. International students from over 60 countries make up 8-10% of the student body. In May 2007, in keeping with its commitment to diverse and equitable education, Vassar returned to a need-blind admissions policy wherein students are admitted by their academic and personal qualities, without regard to financial status. Vassar president Frances D. Fergusson served for two decades, she retired in the spring of 2006, was succeeded by Catharine Bond Hill, former provost at Williams College, who served for 10 years until she departed in 2016.
Hill was replaced by Elizabeth Howe Bradley in 2017. Vassar's campus an arboretum, is 1,000 acres and has more than 100 buildings, ranging in style from Collegiate Gothic to International, with several buildings of architectural interest. At the center of campus stands Main Building, one of the best examples of Second Empire architecture in the United States; when it was opened, Main Building was the largest building in the U. S. in terms of floor space. It housed the entire college, including classrooms, museum and dining halls; the building was designed by Smithsonian architect James Renwick Jr. and was completed in 1865. It was preceded on campus by the original observatory. Both buildings are National Historic Landmarks. Rombout House was purchased by the college in 1915 and added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982. Many original brick buildings are scattered throughout the campus, but there are several modern and contemporary structures of architectural interest. Ferry House, a student cooperative, was designed by Marcel Breuer in 1951.
Noyes House was designed by Finnish-American architect Eero Saarinen. A good example of an attempt to use passive solar design can be seen in the Seeley G. Mudd Ch
Columbia University is a private Ivy League research university in Upper Manhattan, New York City. Established in 1754, Columbia is the oldest institution of higher education in New York and the fifth-oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, it is one of nine colonial colleges founded prior to the Declaration of Independence, seven of which belong to the Ivy League. It has been ranked by numerous major education publications as among the top ten universities in the world. Columbia was established as King's College by royal charter of George II of Great Britain in reaction to the founding of Princeton University in New Jersey, it was renamed Columbia College in 1784 following the Revolutionary War and in 1787 was placed under a private board of trustees headed by former students Alexander Hamilton and John Jay. In 1896, the campus was moved from Madison Avenue to its current location in Morningside Heights and renamed Columbia University. Columbia scientists and scholars have played an important role in the development of notable scientific fields and breakthroughs including: brain-computer interface.
The Columbia University Physics Department has been affiliated with 33 Nobel Prize winners as alumni, faculty or research staff, the third most of any American institution behind MIT and Harvard. In addition, 22 Nobel Prize winners in Physiology and Medicine have been affiliated with Columbia, the third most of any American institution; the university's research efforts include the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Goddard Institute for Space Studies and accelerator laboratories with major technology firms such as IBM. Columbia is one of the fourteen founding members of the Association of American Universities and was the first school in the United States to grant the M. D. degree. The university administers the Pulitzer Prize annually. Columbia is organized into twenty schools, including three undergraduate schools and numerous graduate schools, it maintains research centers outside of the United States known as Columbia Global Centers. In 2018, Columbia's undergraduate acceptance rate was 5.1%, making it one of the most selective colleges in the United States, the second most selective in the Ivy League after Harvard.
Columbia is ranked as the 3rd best university in the United States by U. S. News & World Report behind Princeton and Harvard. In athletics, the Lions field varsity teams in 29 sports as a member of the NCAA Division I Ivy League conference; the university's endowment stood at $10.9 billion in 2018, among the largest of any academic institution. As of 2018, Columbia's alumni and affiliates include: five Founding Fathers of the United States — among them an author of the United States Constitution and co-author of the Declaration of Independence. S. presidents. Discussions regarding the founding of a college in the Province of New York began as early as 1704, at which time Colonel Lewis Morris wrote to the Society for the Propagation of the Gospel in Foreign Parts, the missionary arm of the Church of England, persuading the society that New York City was an ideal community in which to establish a college. However, it was not until the founding of the College of New Jersey across the Hudson River in New Jersey that the City of New York considered founding a college.
In 1746, an act was passed by the general assembly of New York to raise funds for the foundation of a new college. In 1751, the assembly appointed a commission of ten New York residents, seven of whom were members of the Church of England, to direct the funds accrued by the state lottery towards the foundation of a college. Classes were held in July 1754 and were presided over by the college's first president, Dr. Samuel Johnson. Dr. Johnson was the only instructor of the college's first class, which consisted of a mere eight students. Instruction was held in a new schoolhouse adjoining Trinity Church, located on what is now lower Broadway in Manhattan; the college was founded on October 31, 1754, as King's College by royal charter of King George II, making it the oldest institution of higher learning in the state of New York and the fifth oldest in the United States. In 1763, Dr. Johnson was succeeded in the presidency by Myles Cooper, a graduate of The Queen's College, an ardent Tory. In the charged political climate of the American Revolution, his chief opponent in discussions at the college was an undergraduate of the class of 1777, Alexander Hamilton.
The American Revolutionary War broke out in 1776, was catastrophic for the operation of King's College, which suspended instruction for eight years beginning in 1776 with the arrival of the Continental Army. The suspension continued through the military occupation of New York City by British troops until their departure in 1783; the college's library was looted and its sole building requisitioned for use as a military hospital first by American and British forces. Loyalists were forced to abandon their King's College in New York, seized by the rebels and renamed Columbia College; the Loyalists, led by Bishop Charles Inglis fled to Windsor, Nova Scotia, where the
A siddur is a Jewish prayer book, containing a set order of daily prayers. The word siddur comes from the Hebrew root ס־ד־ר meaning "order"; the earliest parts of Jewish prayer book are the Shema Yisrael, the Priestly Blessing, which are in the Torah. A set of eighteen blessings called the Shemoneh Esreh or the Amidah, is traditionally ascribed to the Great Assembly in the time of Ezra, at the end of the Biblical period; the name Shemoneh Esreh "eighteen", is a historical anachronism, since it now contains nineteen blessings. It was only near the end of the Second Temple period that the eighteen prayers of the weekday Amidah became standardized. At that time their precise wording and order was not yet fixed, varied from locale to locale. Many modern scholars believe. According to the Talmud, soon after the destruction of the Temple in Jerusalem a formal version of the Amidah was adopted at a rabbinical council in Yavne, under the leadership of Rabban Gamaliel II and his colleagues. However, the precise wording was still left open.
The order, general ideas and closing lines were fixed. Most of the wording was left to the individual reader, it was not until several centuries that the prayers began to be formally fixed. By the Middle Ages the texts of the prayers were nearly fixed, in the form in which they are still used today; the siddur was printed by Soncino in Italy as early as 1486, though a siddur was first mass-distributed only in 1865. The siddur began appearing in the vernacular as early as 1538; the first English translation was published in London in 1738 by an author writing under the pseudonym Gamaliel ben Pedahzur. Readings from the Torah and the Nevi'im form part of the prayer services. To this framework various Jewish sages added, from time to time, various prayers, for festivals numerous hymns; the earliest existing codification of the prayerbook was drawn up by Rav Amram Gaon of Sura, about 850 CE. Half a century Rav Saadia Gaon of Sura, composed a siddur, in which the rubrical matter is in Arabic; these were the basis of Simcha ben Samuel's Machzor Vitry, based on the ideas of his teacher, Rashi.
Another formulation of the prayers was that appended by Maimonides to the laws of prayer in his Mishneh Torah: this forms the basis of the Yemenite liturgy, has had some influence on other rites. From this point forward all Jewish prayerbooks had contents. Two authoritative versions of the Ashkenazi siddur were those of Shabbetai Sofer in the 16th century and Seligman Baer in the 19th century. There are differences among, amongst others, the Sephardic, Chasidic, Bené Roma or Italkim and Persian-, Kurdish-, Bukharian-, Georgian-, Mountain Jewish-, Ethiopian- and Cochin-Jewish liturgies. Most of these are slight differences in the wording of the prayers. In some cases, the order of the preparation for the Amidah is drastically different, reflecting the different halakhic and kabbalistic formulae that the various scholars relied on in assembling their siddurim, as well as the minhagim, or customs, or their locales; some forms of the Sephardi rite are considered to be overtly kabbalistic, depending on how far they reflect the ritual of Isaac Luria.
This is because the Tetragrammaton appears with varying vowel points beneath the letters and different Names of God appear in small print within the final hei of the Tetragrammaton. In some editions, there is a Psalm in the preparations for the Amidah, printed in the outline of a menorah, the worshipper meditates on this shape as he recites the psalm; the Ashkenazi rite is more common than the Sephardi rite in America. While Nusach Ashkenaz does contain some kabbalistic elements, such as acrostics and allusions to the sefirot, these are not seen unless the reader is initiated, it is notable that although many other traditions avoid using the poem Anim Zemiroth on the Sabbath, for fear that its holiness would be less appreciated due to the frequency of the Sabbath, the poem is sung by Ashkenazi congregations before concluding the Sabbath Musaf service with the daily psalm. The ark is opened for the duration of the song. Hasidim, though ethnically Ashkenazi use liturgies with varying degrees of Sephardic influence, such as Nusach Sefard and Nusach Ari, in order to follow the order of the prayers set by Rabbi Isaac Luria called "Ari HaKadosh", or "The Holy Lion".
Although the Ari himself was born Ashkenazi, he borr
Octavio Paz Lozano was a Mexican poet and diplomat. For his body of work, he was awarded the 1981 Miguel de Cervantes Prize, the 1982 Neustadt International Prize for Literature, the 1990 Nobel Prize in Literature. Born March 31, 1914, Octavio Paz was introduced to literature early in his life through the influence of his grandfather's library, filled with classic Mexican and European literature. During the 1920s, he discovered Gerardo Diego, Juan Ramón Jiménez, Antonio Machado, Spanish writers who had a great influence on his early writings; as a teenager in 1931, Paz published his first poems, including "Cabellera". Two years at the age of 19, he published Luna Silvestre, a collection of poems. In 1932, with some friends, he funded Barandal. In 1937 at the age of 23, Paz abandoned his law studies and left Mexico City for Yucatán to work at a school in Mérida, set up for the sons of peasants and workers. There, he began working on the first of his long, ambitious poems, "Entre la piedra y la flor".
Influenced by the work of T. S. Eliot, it explores the situation of the Mexican peasant under the domineering landlords of the day. In 1937, Paz was invited to the Second International Writers Congress in Defense of Culture in Spain during the country's civil war. Upon his return to Mexico, Paz co-funded a literary journal, Taller in 1938, wrote for the magazine until 1941. In 1937 he married Elena Garro, considered one of Mexico's finest writers, they had met in 1935. They had one daughter and were divorced in 1959. In 1943, Paz received a Guggenheim fellowship and used it to study at the University of California at Berkeley in the United States. Two years he entered the Mexican diplomatic service, was assigned for a time to New York City. In 1945, he was sent to Paris; the New York Times described it as "an analysis of modern Mexico and the Mexican personality in which he described his fellow countrymen as instinctive nihilists who hide behind masks of solitude and ceremoniousness." In 1952, he travelled to India for the first time.
That same year, he went to Tokyo, as chargé d'affaires. He next was assigned to Switzerland, he returned to Mexico City in 1954, where he wrote his great poem "Piedra de sol" in 1957, published Libertad bajo palabra, a compilation of his poetry up to that time. He was sent again to Paris in 1959. In 1962, he was named Mexico's ambassador to India. In India, Paz completed several works, including Ladera este. While in India, he met numerous writers of a group known as the Hungry Generation and had a profound influence on them. In 1965, he married Marie-José Tramini, a French woman who would be his wife for the rest of his life. In October 1968, he resigned from the diplomatic service in protest of the Mexican government's massacre of student demonstrators in Tlatelolco. After staying in Paris for refuge, he returned to Mexico in 1969, he founded his magazine Plural with a group of liberal Latin American writers. From 1969 to 1970 he was Simón Bolívar Professor at Cambridge University, he was a visiting lecturer during the late 1960s and the A. D. White Professor-at-Large from 1972 to 1974 at Cornell University.
In 1974 he lectured at Harvard University as Charles Eliot Norton Lecturer. His book Los hijos. After the Mexican government closed Plural in 1975, Paz founded another cultural magazine, he was editor of that until his death in 1998. He won the 1977 Jerusalem Prize for literature on the theme of individual freedom. In 1980, he was awarded an honorary doctorate from Harvard, in 1982, he won the Neustadt Prize. Once good friends with novelist Carlos Fuentes, Paz became estranged from him in the 1980s in a disagreement over the Sandinistas, whom Paz opposed and Fuentes supported. In 1988, Paz's magazine Vuelta published criticism of Fuentes by Enrique Krauze, resulting in estrangement between Paz and Fuentes, who had long been friends. A collection of Paz's poems was published in 1990. In 1990, he was awarded the Nobel Prize for Literature, he died of cancer on April 1998, in Mexico City. Guillermo Sheridan, named by Paz as director of the Octavio Paz Foundation in 1998, published a book, Poeta con paisaje with several biographical essays about the poet's life up to 1998, when he died.
"The poetry of Octavio Paz", wrote the critic Ramón Xirau, "does not hesitate between language and silence. A prolific author and poet, Paz published scores of works during his lifetime, many of which have been translated into other languages, his poetry has been translated into English by Samuel Beckett, Charles Tomlinson, Elizabeth Bishop, Muriel Rukeyser and Mark Strand. His early poetry was influenced by Marxism and existentialism, as well as religions such as Buddhism and Hinduism, his poem, "Piedra de sol", written in 1957, was praised as a "magnificent" example of surrealist poetry in the presentation speech of his Nobel Prize. His poetry dealt with love and eroticism, the nature of time, Buddhism, he wrote poetry about his other passion, modern painting, dedicating poems to the work of Balthus, Joan Miró, Marcel Duchamp, Antoni Tàpies, Robert Rauschenberg, Roberto Matta. As an essayist Paz wrote on topics such as Mexican politics and economics
The Daily Worker was a newspaper published in New York City by the Communist Party USA, a Comintern-affiliated organization. Publication began in 1924. While it reflected the prevailing views of the party, attempts were made to reflect a broader spectrum of left-wing opinion. At its peak, the newspaper achieved a circulation of 35,000. Contributors to its pages included Robert Minor and Fred Ellis, Lester Rodney, David Karr, Richard Wright, John L. Spivak, Peter Fryer, Woody Guthrie and Louis F. Budenz; the origins of the Daily Worker begin with the weekly Ohio Socialist published by the Socialist Party of Ohio in Cleveland from 1917 to November 1919. The Ohio party joined the nascent Communist Labor Party of America at the 1919 Emergency National Convention; the Ohio Socialist only used whole numbers. Its final issue was #94 November 19, 1919; the Toiler continued this numbering though a typographical error made its debut issue #85 November 26, 1919. Beginning sometime in 1921 the volume number IV was added reflecting the publications fourth year in print, though its issue numbers continued the whole number scheme.
The final edition of the Toiler was Vol IV #207 January 28, 1922. The Worker continued the Toilers numbering during its run Vol. IV #208 February 2, 1922 to Vol. VI #310 January 12, 1924; the first edition of Daily worker was numbered Vol. I #311; the Ohio Socialist became Toiler in November 1919. In 1920, with the CLP going underground, Toiler became the party's "aboveground" newspaper published by "The Toiler Publishing Association." It remained as the Cleveland aboveground publication of the CLP and its successors until February 1922. In December 1921 the "aboveground" Workers Party of America was founded and the Toiler merged with Workers Council of the Workers' Council of the United States to found the six page weekly The Worker; this became the Daily Worker beginning January 13, 1924. In 1927, the newspaper moved from Chicago to New York. In politics, the Daily Worker adhered to a Stalinist party line from the time of Joseph Stalin's rise to power in the Soviet Union; the paper maintained a series of correspondents in Moscow, including Vern Smith in the mid-1930s, who invariably depicted Soviet reality in the most favorable possible light.
The paper upheld the verdicts of the Moscow trials, criticized at the time outside the USSR as show trials, exposed as having used fabricated evidence and extorted confessions. The Daily Worker's editorials criticized all opponents of Stalinist socialism, including other communists, such as Leon Trotsky, assassinated at Stalin's order in 1940. Beginning in the Popular Front period of the 1930s, when the party proclaimed that "Communism is Twentieth Century Americanism" and characterized itself as the heirs to the tradition of Washington and Lincoln, the paper broadened its coverage of the arts and entertainment. In 1935 it established a sports page, with contributions from David Karr, the page was edited and written by Lester Rodney; the paper's sports coverage combined enthusiasm for baseball with the usual Marxist social critique of capitalist society and bourgeois attitudes. It advocated the desegregation of professional sports; the Daily Worker had constant distribution problems. Many newsstands and stores would not carry the paper.
The revelations of Soviet MVD spy rings inside the U. S. government, the 1945 revelations of former Daily Worker managing editor Louis F. Budenz, a self-admitted recruiter of agents for the Soviet NKVD, combined with the resultant intense anti-communism of the 1950s caused a large drop in the paper's circulation; the membership of the American Communist Party had fallen to around 20,000 in 1956, when Khrushchev's speech to the 20th Congress of the CPSU on the personality cult of Stalin became known. The paper printed articles in support for the early stages of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution, a popular revolt by the Hungarian people against continued domination by the Soviet Union, which subsequently installed a puppet regime, the János Kádár government, in Budapest and had begun to persecute its political opponents; the Daily Worker's editor, John Gates opened the paper for discussion of the topic, a novel event for a party-line newspaper, one appeared to promise further liberalization and dialogue inside the Communist Party in the United States.
Despite widespread dissension in the CPUSA, the paper endorsed Moscow's suppression of the Hungarian uprising. In the disruptions that followed, about half of the remaining party membership left the party, including Gates and many staff members of the Daily Worker. Owing to reduced operating income associated with a reduced membership, the CPUSA was forced to cease publication of a daily paper, with the final issue of the Daily Worker appearing on January 13, 1958. After a short hiatus, the party published a weekend paper called The Worker from 1958 until 1968. A Tuesday edition called The Midweek Worker was added in 1961 and continued until 1968, when production was accelerated. According to ex-CIA agent Philip Agee, a large number of subscribers during this period were CIA agents or front companies linked to the CIA. Agee claimed that the CIA's funding in this manner prevented the Worker from having to cease publication. In 1968 the Communist Party resumed publication of a New York daily paper, now titled The Daily World.
In 1986, the paper merged with the party's West Coast weekly paper, the People's World, less hewed to the Moscow political line as the New York party organization and paper had been. The new People’s Daily World published from 1987 until 1991, when daily publication was abandone
Stephen Vincent Benét
Stephen Vincent Benét was an American poet, short story writer, novelist. He is best known for his book-length narrative poem of the American Civil War John Brown's Body, for which he won a Pulitzer Prize in 1929, for the short stories "The Devil and Daniel Webster" and "By the Waters of Babylon". In 2009, The Library of America selected his story "The King of the Cats" for inclusion in its two-century retrospective of American Fantastic Tales edited by Peter Straub. Benét was born in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania to James Walker Benét, a colonel in the United States Army, his grandfather and namesake led the Army Ordnance Corps from 1874 to 1891 as a brigadier general and served in the Civil War. His paternal uncle Laurence Vincent Benét was an ensign in the United States Navy during the Spanish–American War and manufactured the French-Hotchkiss machine gun. At about age ten, Benét was sent to the Hitchcock Military Academy, he graduated from Summerville Academy in Augusta, GA and from Yale University, where he was "the power behind the Yale Lit", according to Thornton Wilder, a fellow member of the Elizabethan Club.
He edited and contributed light verse to the campus humor magazine The Yale Record. He published his first book at age 17 and was awarded an M. A. in English upon submission of his third volume of poetry in lieu of a thesis. He was a part-time contributor to the early Time magazine. In 1920-21, Benét went to France on a Yale traveling fellowship. Carr was a writer and poet, they collaborated on some works. Benét helped solidify the place of the Yale Series of Younger Poets Competition and the Yale University Press during his decade-long judgeship of the competition, he published the first volumes of James Agee, Muriel Rukeyser, Jeremy Ingalls, Margaret Walker. He was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1931. Benét's fantasy short story "The Daniel Webster" won an O. Henry Award, he furnished the material for a one-act opera by Douglas Moore. The story was filmed in 1941 and shown under the title All That Money Can Buy, he wrote the sequel "Daniel Webster and the Sea Serpent", in which Daniel Webster encounters Leviathan.
Benét died of a heart attack in New York City on March 13, 1943 at age 44. He was buried in Evergreen Cemetery in Stonington, where he had owned the historic Amos Palmer House. On April 17, 1943, NBC broadcast a special tribute to his life and works which included a performance by Helen Hayes, he was awarded a posthumous Pulitzer Prize in 1944 for Western Star, an unfinished narrative poem on the settling of the United States. Dee Brown's Bury My Heart at Wounded Knee takes its title from the final phrase of Benét's poem "American Names"; the full quotation appears at the beginning of Brown's book: Benét adapted the Roman myth of the rape of the Sabine Women into the story "The Sobbin' Women". It was adapted as the movie musical Seven Brides for Seven Brothers, his play John Brown's Body was staged on Broadway in 1953 in a three-person dramatic reading featuring Tyrone Power, Judith Anderson, Raymond Massey, directed by Charles Laughton. The book was included in Life Magazine's list of the 100 outstanding books of 1924–44.
Five Men and Pompey, a series of dramatic portraits, Poetry, 1915 The Drug-Shop, or, Endymion in Edmonstoun, 1917 Young Adventure: A book of Poems, 1918 Heavens and Earth, 1920 The Beginnings of Wisdom: A Novel, 1921 Young People's Pride: A Novel, 1922 Jean Huguenot: A Novel, 1923 The Ballad of William Sycamore: A Poem, 1923 King David: A two-hundred-line ballad in six parts, 1923 Nerves, 1924 That Awful Mrs. Eaton, 1924 Tiger Joy: A Book of Poems, 1925 The Mountain Whippoorwill: How Hill-Billy Jim Won the Great Fiddler's Prize: A Poem. 1925 Spanish Bayonet, 1926 John Brown's Body, 1928 The Barefoot Saint: A Short Story, 1929 The Litter of Rose Leaves: A Short Story, 1930 Abraham Lincoln, 1930 Ballads and Poems, 1915–1930, 1931 A Book of Americans, 1933 James Shore's Daughter: A Novel, 1934 The Burning City, 1936 The Magic of Poetry and the Poet's Art, 1936 The Devil and Daniel Webster, 1936 By the Waters of Babylon, 1937 The Headless Horseman: one-act play, 1937 Thirteen O'Clock, 1937 We Aren't Superstitious, 1937 Johnny Pye and the Fool Killer: A Short Story, 1938 Tales Before Midnight: Collection of Short Stories, 1939 The Ballad of the Duke's Mercy, 1939 Elementals, 1940–41 Freedom's Hard-Bought Thing, 1941 Listen to the People, 1941 A Summons to the Free, 1941 Cheers for Miss Bishop, 1941 The Devil and Daniel Webster, 1941 Selected Works, 1942 Short Stories, 1942 Nightmare at Noon: Short Poem, 1942 A Child is Born, 1942 They Burned the Books, 1942 They Burned the Books, 1942 These works were published posthumously: Western Star, 1943 Twenty Five Short Stories, 1943 America, 1944 O'Halloran's Luck and Other Short Stories, 1944 We Stand United, 1945 The Bishop's Beggar, 1946 The Last Circle, 1946 Selected Stories, 1947 From the Earth to the Moon, 1958 Bleiler, Everett.
The Checklist of Fantastic Literature. Chicago: Shasta Publishers. Pp. 46–47. Fenton, Charles A.. Stephen Vincent Benét: The Life and Times of an American Man of Letters, 1898–1943. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press. ISBN 0-313-20200-1. Works by Stephen Vinc
Thomas Harriot spelled Harriott, Hariot or Heriot, was an English astronomer, mathematician and translator who made advances within the scientific field. Thomas Harriot was recognized for his contributions in astronomy and navigational techniques. Harriot worked with John White to create advanced maps for navigation. While Harriot worked extensively on numerous papers on the subjects of astronomy and navigation the amount of work, published was sparse. So sparse, that the only publication, produced by Harriot was “the briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia.” The premise of the book includes descriptions of English settlements and financial issues in Virginia at the time. He is sometimes credited with the introduction of the potato to the British Isles. Harriot was the first person to make a drawing of the Moon through a telescope, on 26 July 1609, over four months before Galileo. After graduating from St Mary Hall, Harriot travelled to the Americas, accompanying the 1585 expedition to Roanoke island funded by Sir Walter Raleigh and led by Sir Ralph Lane.
Harriot was a vital member of the venture, having learned and translating the Carolina Algonquian language from two Native Americans: Wanchese and Manteo. On his return to England, he worked for the 9th Earl of Northumberland. At the Earl's house, he became a prolific mathematician and astronomer to whom the theory of refraction is attributed. Born in 1560 in Oxford, Thomas Harriot attended St Mary Hall, Oxford, his name appears in the hall's registry dating from 1577. Harriot started to study navigation shortly after receiving a bachelor's degree from Oxford University; the study of navigation that Harriot studied concentrated on the idea of the open seas and how to cross to the New World from the Atlantic Ocean. He used instruments such as sextants to aide his studies of navigation. After educating himself by incorporating ideals from his astronomic and nautical studies, Harriot taught other captains his navigational techniques in Raleigh, his findings were recorded in the Articon but was never found.
After his graduation from Oxford in 1580, Harriot was first hired by Sir Walter Raleigh as a mathematics tutor. Prior to his expedition with Raleigh, Harriot wrote a treatise on navigation, he made efforts to communicate with Manteo and Wanchese, two Native Americans, brought to England. Harriot devised a phonetic alphabet to transcribe their Carolina Algonquian language. Harriot and Manteo spent many days in one another's company. In addition, he recorded the sense of awe with which the Native Americans viewed European technology: "Many things they sawe with us...as mathematical instruments, sea compasses... spring clocks that seemed to goe of themselves - and many other things we had - were so strange unto them, so farre exceeded their capacities to comprehend the reason and meanes how they should be made and done, that they thought they were rather the works of gods than men."He made only one expedition, around 1585-86, spent some time in the New World visiting Roanoke Island off the coast of North Carolina, expanding his knowledge by improving his understanding of the Carolina Algonquian language.
As the only Englishman who had learned Algonquin prior to the voyage, Harriot was vital to the success of the expedition. Hariot smoked tobacco before Raleigh, may have taught him to do so, his account of the voyage, named A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia, was published in 1588. The True Report contains an early account of the Native American population encountered by the expedition, he wrote: "Whereby it may be hoped, if means of good government be used, that they may in short time be brought to civility and the embracing of true religion." At the same time, his views of Native Americans' industry and capacity to learn were largely ignored in favour of the parts of the "True Report" about extractable minerals and resources. As a scientific adviser during the voyage, Harriot was asked by Raleigh to find the most efficient way to stack cannonballs on the deck of the ship, his ensuing theory about the close-packing of spheres shows a striking resemblance to atomism and modern atomic theory, which he was accused of believing.
His correspondence about optics with Johannes Kepler, in which he described some of his ideas influenced Kepler's conjecture. Harriot was employed for many years by Henry Percy, 9th Earl of Northumberland, with whom he resided at Syon House, run by Henry Percy's cousin Thomas Percy. Harriot's sponsors began to fall from favour: Raleigh was the first, Harriot's other patron Henry Percy, the Earl of Northumberland, was imprisoned in 1605 in connection with the Gunpowder Plot as he was connected to one of the conspirators, Thomas Percy. Around 1605, Harriot was imprisoned for a minimal amount of time due to the crimes involved with the Ninth Earl of Northumberland and the attempted assassination of King James I of England, known as the Jesuit Treason. While this was occurring, Harriot continued his work involving astronomy and in 1607, Harriot used his notes from the observations of the Halley's Comet to elaborate on his understanding of its orbit. Soon after in 1609 and 1610 Harriot turned his attention towards the physical aspects of the moon and