Edwards Air Force Base
Edwards Air Force Base is a United States Air Force installation located in Kern County in southern California, about 22 miles northeast of Lancaster and 15 miles east of Rosamond. It is the home of the Air Force Test Center, Air Force Test Pilot School, NASA's Armstrong Flight Research Center, it is the Air Force Materiel Command center for conducting and supporting research and development of flight, as well as testing and evaluating aerospace systems from concept to combat. It hosts many test activities conducted by America's commercial aerospace industry. Known as Muroc Air Force Base, Edwards AFB is named in honor of Captain Glen Edwards. During World War II, he flew A-20 Havoc light attack bombers in the North African campaign on 50 hazardous, low-level missions against German tanks, troops, bridges and other tactical targets. Edwards became a test pilot in 1943 and spent much of his time at Muroc Army Air Field, on California's high desert, testing wide varieties of experimental prototype aircraft.
He died in the crash of a Northrop YB-49 flying wing near Muroc AFB on 5 June 1948. The base is next to Rogers Dry Lake, an endorheic desert salt pan whose hard dry lake surface provides a natural extension to Edwards' runways; this large landing area, combined with excellent year-round weather, makes the base good for flight testing. The lake is a National Historic Landmark; the base has helped develop every aircraft purchased by the Air Force since World War II. Every United States military aircraft since the 1950s has been at least tested at Edwards, it has been the site of many aviation breakthroughs. Notable occurrences at Edwards include Chuck Yeager's flight that broke the sound barrier in the Bell X-1, test flights of the North American X-15, the first landings of the Space Shuttle, the 1986 around-the-world flight of the Rutan Voyager; the 412th Test Wing plans, conducts and reports on all flight and ground testing of aircraft, weapons and components as well as modeling and simulation for the U.
S. Air Force; the Wing oversees the base's day-to-day operations and provides support for military, federal civilian, contract personnel assigned to Edwards AFB. Planes assigned to the 412th carry the tail code: ED. U. S. Air Force Test Pilot School: Part of the 412th Test Wing, USAF TPS is where the Air Force's top pilots and engineers learn how to conduct flight tests and generate the data needed to carry out test missions; the comprehensive curriculum of Test Pilot School is fundamental to the success of flight test and evaluation. 412th Operations Group: The 412th OG flies an average of 90 aircraft with upwards of 30 aircraft designs. It performs an annual average including more than 1,900 test missions, its squadrons include: 411th Flight Test Squadron: 416th Flight Test Squadron: 419th Flight Test Squadron: 445th Flight Test Squadron: 461st Flight Test Squadron: 412th Flight Test Squadron: 418th Flight Test Squadron: 452d Flight Test Squadron: 412th Test Management Division 412th Test Management Group 412th Electronic Warfare Group 412th Engineering DivisionThe Engineering Division and the Electronic Warfare Group provide the central components in conducting the Test and Evaluation mission of the 412 TW.
They provide the tools and equipment for the core disciplines of aircraft structures, propulsion and electronic warfare evaluation of the latest weapon system technologies. They host the core facilities that enable flight test and ground test—the Range Division, Benefield Anechoic Facility, Integrated Flight Avionics Systems Test Facility and the Air Force Electronic Warfare Evaluation Simulator; the Project and Resource Management Divisions provide the foundation for the successful program management of test missions. 412th Civil Engineer Division 412th Maintenance Group 412th Medical Group 412th Mission Support Group There are a vast array of organizations at Edwards that do not fall under the 412th Test Wing. They are known as Associate Units; these units do everything from providing an on-base grocery store to testing state-of-the-art rockets. The 31st Test and Evaluation Squadron provides Air Combat Command personnel to support combined test and evaluation on Air Force weapons systems. Established in 1917, it is one of the oldest units of the United States Air Force.
The "Desert Pirates" are part of the 53d Test and Evaluation Group, Nellis AFB, Nevada and the 53d Wing, Eglin AFB, Florida. It provides the Air Force Operational Test and Evaluation Center, Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, Air Force Materiel Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, with test team members who have an operational perspective to perform test and evaluation on Combat Air Force systems; the 31st is staffed with a mixture of operations and engineering experts who plan and conduct tests, evaluate effectiveness and suitability, influence system design. The squadron's personnel are integrated into the B-1, B-2, B-52, Global Hawk, MQ-9 and F-35 Joint Strike Fighter programs, their results and conclusions support Department of Defense acquisition and employment decisions. An Air Force Materiel Command named unit assigned to Kirtland AFB, New Mexico, AFOTEC Detachment 1 is responsible for accomplishing Block 2 and 3 Initial Operational Test and Evaluation of the F-35 Lightning II for the US Air Force, United States Navy, United States Marine Corps, United Kingdom Ministry of Defense, the Royal Netherlands Air Force.
Aerospace engineering is the primary field of engineering concerned with the development of aircraft and spacecraft. It has two major and overlapping branches: astronautical engineering. Avionics engineering deals with the electronics side of aerospace engineering. Aeronautical engineering was the original term for the field; as flight technology advanced to include craft operating in outer space, the broader term "aerospace engineering" has come into common use. Aerospace engineering the astronautics branch is colloquially referred to as "rocket science". Flight vehicles are subjected to demanding conditions such as those caused by changes in atmospheric pressure and temperature, with structural loads applied upon vehicle components, they are the products of various technological and engineering disciplines including aerodynamics, avionics, materials science, structural analysis and manufacturing. The interaction between these technologies is known as aerospace engineering; because of the complexity and number of disciplines involved, aerospace engineering is carried out by teams of engineers, each having their own specialized area of expertise.
The origin of aerospace engineering can be traced back to the aviation pioneers around the late 19th to early 20th centuries, although the work of Sir George Cayley dates from the last decade of the 18th to mid-19th century. One of the most important people in the history of aeronautics, Cayley was a pioneer in aeronautical engineering and is credited as the first person to separate the forces of lift and drag, which are in effect on any flight vehicle. Early knowledge of aeronautical engineering was empirical with some concepts and skills imported from other branches of engineering. Scientists understood some key elements of aerospace engineering, like fluid dynamics, in the 18th century. Many years after the successful flights by the Wright brothers, the 1910s saw the development of aeronautical engineering through the design of World War I military aircraft. Between World Wars I and II, great leaps were made in Aeronautical Engineering; the advent of mainstream civil aviation accelerated this process.
Notable airplanes of this era include the Curtiss JN 4, the Farman F.60 Goliath, Fokker trimotor. Notable military airplanes of this period include the Mitsubishi A6M Zero, the Supermarine Spitfire and the Messerschmitt Bf 109 from Japan, Great Britain, Germany respectively. A significant development in Aerospace engineering came with the first Jet engine-powered airplane, the Messerschmitt Me 262 which entered service in 1944 towards the end of the second World War; the first definition of aerospace engineering appeared in February 1958. The definition considered the Earth's atmosphere and the outer space as a single realm, thereby encompassing both aircraft and spacecraft under a newly coined word aerospace. In response to the USSR launching the first satellite, Sputnik into space on October 4, 1957, U. S. aerospace engineers launched the first American satellite on January 31, 1958. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration was founded in 1958 as a response to the Cold War. In 1969, Apollo 11, the first manned space mission to the moon took place.
It saw three astronauts enter orbit around the Moon, with two, Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin, visiting the lunar surface. The third astronaut, Michael Collins, stayed in orbit to rendezvous with Armstrong and Aldrin after their visit to the lunar surface; some of the elements of aerospace engineering are: Radar cross-section – the study of vehicle signature apparent to Radar remote sensing. Fluid mechanics – the study of fluid flow around objects. Aerodynamics concerning the flow of air over bodies such as wings or through objects such as wind tunnels. Astrodynamics – the study of orbital mechanics including prediction of orbital elements when given a select few variables. While few schools in the United States teach this at the undergraduate level, several have graduate programs covering this topic. Statics and Dynamics – the study of movement, moments in mechanical systems. Mathematics – in particular, differential equations, linear algebra. Electrotechnology – the study of electronics within engineering.
Propulsion – the energy to move a vehicle through the air is provided by internal combustion engines, jet engines and turbomachinery, or rockets. A more recent addition to this module is ion propulsion. Control engineering – the study of mathematical modeling of the dynamic behavior of systems and designing them using feedback signals, so that their dynamic behavior is desirable; this applies to the dynamic behavior of aircraft, propulsion systems, subsystems that exist on aerospace vehicles. Aircraft structures – design of the physical configuration of the craft to withstand the forces encountered during flight. Aerospace engineering aims to keep structures lightweight and low-cost while maintaining structural integrity. Materials science – related to structures, aerospace engineering studies the materials of which the aerospace structures are to be built. New materials with specific properties are invented, or existing ones are modified to improve their performance. Solid mechanics – Closely related to material science is solid mechanics which deals with stress and strain analysis of the components of the vehicle.
Nowadays there are several Finite Element programs such as MSC
Augustus De Morgan
Augustus De Morgan was a British mathematician and logician. He formulated De Morgan's laws and introduced the term mathematical induction, making its idea rigorous. Augustus De Morgan was born in Madurai, India in 1806, his father was Lieut.-Colonel John De Morgan, who held various appointments in the service of the East India Company. His mother, Elizabeth Dodson, was a descendant of James Dodson, who computed a table of anti-logarithms, that is, the numbers corresponding to exact logarithms. Augustus De Morgan became blind in one eye; the family moved to England. As his father and grandfather had both been born in India, De Morgan used to say that he was neither English, nor Scottish, nor Irish, but a Briton "unattached", using the technical term applied to an undergraduate of Oxford or Cambridge, not a member of any one of the Colleges; when De Morgan was ten years old his father died. Mrs De Morgan resided at various places in the southwest of England, her son received his elementary education at various schools of no great account.
His mathematical talents went unnoticed until he was fourteen, when a family-friend discovered him making an elaborate drawing of a figure in Euclid with ruler and compasses. She explained the aim of Euclid to Augustus, gave him an initiation into demonstration, he received his secondary education from Mr Parsons, a fellow of Oriel College, who appreciated classics better than mathematics. His mother was an active and ardent member of the Church of England, desired that her son should become a clergyman, but by this time De Morgan had begun to show his non-conforming disposition, he became an atheist. There is a word in our language with which I shall not confuse this subject, both on account of the dishonourable use, made of it, as an imputation thrown by one sect upon another, of the variety of significations attached to it. I shall use the word Anti-Deism to signify the opinion that there does not exist a Creator who made and sustains the Universe. In 1823, at the age of sixteen, he entered Trinity College, where he came under the influence of George Peacock and William Whewell, who became his lifelong friends.
His college tutor was John Philips Higman, FRS. At college he was prominent in the musical clubs, his love of knowledge for its own sake interfered with training for the great mathematical race. This entitled him to the degree of Bachelor of Arts. To the signing of any such test De Morgan felt a strong objection, although he had been brought up in the Church of England. In about 1875 theological tests for academic degrees were abolished in the Universities of Oxford and Cambridge; as no career was open to him at his own university, he decided to go to the Bar, took up residence in London. About this time the movement for founding London University took shape; the two ancient universities of Oxford and Cambridge were so guarded by theological tests that no Jew or Dissenter outside the Church of England could enter as a student, still less be appointed to any office. A body of liberal-minded men resolved to meet the difficulty by establishing in London a University on the principle of religious neutrality.
De Morgan 22 years of age, was appointed professor of mathematics. His introductory lecture "On the study of mathematics" is a discourse upon mental education of permanent value, has been reprinted in the United States; the London University was a new institution, the relations of the Council of management, the Senate of professors and the body of students were not well defined. A dispute arose between the professor of anatomy and his students, in consequence of the action taken by the Council, several professors resigned, headed by De Morgan. Another professor of mathematics was appointed, who drowned a few years later. De Morgan had shown himself a prince of teachers: he was invited to return to his chair, which thereafter became the continuous centre of his labours for thirty years; the same body of reformers—headed by Lord Brougham, a Scotsman eminent both in science and politics who had instituted the London University—founded about the same time a Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge.
Its object was to spread scientific and other knowledge by means of cheap and written treatises by the best writers of the time. One of its most voluminous and effective writers was De Morgan, he wrote a great work on The Differential and Integral Calculus, published by the Society. When De Morgan came to reside in London he found a congenial friend in William Frend, notwithstanding his mathematical heresy about negative quantities. Both were arithmeticians and actuaries, their religious views were somewhat similar. Frend lived in what was a suburb of London, in a country-house occupied by Daniel Defoe and Isaac Watts. De Morgan with his flute was a welcome visitor; the London University of which De Morgan was a professor was a different institution from the University of London. The University of London was founded about ten years by the Government for the purpose of granting degrees after
The chimpanzee known as the common chimpanzee, robust chimpanzee, or "chimp", is a species of great ape, with four confirmed subspecies and a fifth proposed subspecies. The chimpanzee, along with the related bonobo, are classified in the genus Pan. Evidence from fossils and DNA sequencing shows that Pan is a sister taxon to the human lineage and are humans' closest living relatives; the chimpanzee is covered in coarse black hair, but has a bare face, toes, palms of the hands, soles of the feet. It is more robust than the bonobo, measuring about 63 to 94 cm, its gestation period is eight months. The infant is weaned at about three years old, but maintains a close relationship with its mother for several more years, it lives in groups which range in size from 15 to 150 members, although individuals travel and forage in much smaller groups during the day. The species lives in a male-dominated, strict hierarchy, which means disputes can be settled without the need for violence. Nearly all chimpanzee populations have been recorded using tools, modifying sticks, rocks and leaves and using them for acquiring honey, ants and water.
The species has been found creating sharpened sticks to spear small mammals. The chimpanzee is listed on the IUCN Red List as an endangered species. Between 170,000 and 300,000 individuals are estimated across its range in the forests and savannahs of West and Central Africa; the biggest threats to the chimpanzee are habitat loss and disease. Chimpanzees appear in Western popular culture as stereotyped clown-figures, have featured in entertainments such as chimpanzees' tea parties, circus acts and stage shows, they are sometimes kept as pets, though their strength and aggressiveness makes them dangerous in this role. Some hundreds have been kept in laboratories for research in America. Many attempts have been made to teach languages such as American Sign Language to chimpanzees, with limited success; the English name "chimpanzee" is first recorded in 1738. It is derived from Vili ci-mpenze or Tshiluba language chimpenze, with a meaning of "mockman" or just "ape"; the colloquialism "chimp" was most coined some time in the late 1870s.
The first great ape known to Western science in the 17th century was the "Orang-Outang", the local Malay name being recorded in Java by the Dutch physician Jacobus Bontius. In 1641, the Dutch anatomist Nicolaes Tulp applied the name to a chimpanzee or bonobo brought to the Netherlands from Angola. Another Dutch anatomist, Peter Camper, dissected specimens from Central Africa and Southeast Asia in the 1770s, noting the differences between the African and Asian apes; the German naturalist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach classified the common chimpanzee as Simia troglodytes by 1775. The name troglodytes was taken from a mythical race of cave-dwellers. Another German naturalist, Lorenz Oken, coined the genus Pan, from the Greek god, in 1816. Despite a large number of Homo fossil finds, chimpanzee fossils were not described until 2005. Existing chimpanzee populations in West and Central Africa do not overlap with the major human fossil sites in East Africa, but chimpanzee fossils have now been reported from Kenya.
This indicates that both humans and members of the Pan clade were present in the East African Rift Valley during the Middle Pleistocene. DNA evidence suggests the bonobo and common chimpanzee species separated from each other less than one million years ago. A 2017 genetic study suggests ancient gene flow between 200 and 550 thousand years ago from the bonobo into the ancestors of central and eastern chimpanzees; the chimpanzee line split from the last common ancestor of the human line around six million years ago. Because no species other than Homo sapiens has survived from the human line of that branching, both chimpanzee species are the closest living relatives of humans. A 2003 study argues the common chimpanzee should be included in the human branch as Homo troglodytes, notes "experts say many scientists are to resist the reclassification in the emotionally-charged and disputed field of anthropology". Four subspecies of the common chimpanzee have been recognised, with the possibility of a fifth: Central chimpanzee or tschego, Pan troglodytes troglodytes, in Cameroon, the Central African Republic, Equatorial Guinea, the Republic of the Congo, the Democratic Republic of the Congo Western chimpanzee, P. troglodytes verus, in Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana Nigeria-Cameroon chimpanzee, P. troglodytes ellioti, in Nigeria and Cameroon Eastern chimpanzee, P. troglodytes schweinfurthii, in the Central African Republic, South Sudan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Rwanda, Burundi and Zambia Southeastern chimpanzee, P. troglodytes marungensis, in Burundi, Rwanda and Uganda: Colin Groves argues that this is a subspecies, created by enough variation between the northern and southern populations of P. t. schweinfurthii.
Human and chimpanzee DNA is similar. A Chimpanzee Genome Project was initiated after the completion of the Human Genome Project. In December 2003, a preliminary analysis of 7600 genes shared between the two genomes confirmed that certain genes, such as the forkhead-box P2 transcription factor, involved in speech development, have undergone rapid evolution in t
A strain gauge is a device used to measure strain on an object. Invented by Edward E. Simmons and Arthur C. Ruge in 1938, the most common type of strain gauge consists of an insulating flexible backing which supports a metallic foil pattern; the gauge is attached to the object by a suitable adhesive, such as cyanoacrylate. As the object is deformed, the foil is deformed, causing its electrical resistance to change; this resistance change measured using a Wheatstone bridge, is related to the strain by the quantity known as the gauge factor. A strain gauge takes advantage of the physical property of electrical conductance and its dependence on the conductor's geometry; when an electrical conductor is stretched within the limits of its elasticity such that it does not break or permanently deform, it will become narrower and longer, which increases its electrical resistance end-to-end. Conversely, when a conductor is compressed such that it does not buckle, it will broaden and shorten, which decreases its electrical resistance end-to-end.
From the measured electrical resistance of the strain gauge, the amount of induced stress may be inferred. A typical strain gauge arranges a long, thin conductive strip in a zig-zag pattern of parallel lines; this does not increase the sensitivity, since the percentage change in resistance for a given strain for the entire zig-zag is the same as for any single trace. A single linear trace would have to be thin, hence liable to overheating, or would need to be operated at a much lower voltage, making it difficult to measure resistance changes accurately; the gauge factor G F is defined as: G F = Δ R / R G ϵ where Δ R is the change in resistance caused by strain, R G is the resistance of the undeformed gauge, ϵ is strain. For common metallic foil gauges, the gauge factor is a little over 2. For a single active gauge and three dummy resistors of the same resistance about the active gauge in a balanced Wheatstone bridge configuration, the output sensor voltage S V from the bridge is approximately: S V = E V G F ⋅ ϵ 4 where E V is the bridge excitation voltage.
Foil gauges have active areas of about 2–10 mm2 in size. With careful installation, the correct gauge, the correct adhesive, strains up to at least 10% can be measured. An excitation voltage is applied to input leads of the gauge network, a voltage reading is taken from the output leads. Typical input voltages are 5 V or 12 V and typical output readings are in millivolts. Foil strain gauges are used in many situations. Different applications place different requirements on the gauge. In most cases the orientation of the strain gauge is significant. Gauges attached to a load cell would be expected to remain stable over a period of years, if not decades. Strain gauges are attached to the substrate with a special glue; the type of glue depends on the required lifetime of the measurement system. For short term measurements cyanoacrylate glue is appropriate, for long lasting installation epoxy glue is required. Epoxy glue requires high temperature curing; the preparation of the surface where the strain gauge is to be glued is of the utmost importance.
The surface must be smoothed, deoiled with solvents, the solvent traces must be removed and the strain gauge must be glued after this to avoid oxidation or pollution of the prepared area. If these steps are not followed the strain gauge binding to the surface may be unreliable and unpredictable measurement errors may be generated. Strain gauge based technology is utilized in the manufacture of pressure sensors; the gauges used in pressure sensors themselves are made from silicon, metal film, thick film, bonded foil. Variations in temperature will cause a multitude of effects; the object will change in size by thermal expansion, which will be detected as a strain by the gauge. Resistance of the gauge will change, resistance of the connecting wires will change. Most strain gauges are made from a constantan alloy. Various constantan alloys and Karma alloys have been designed so that the temperature effects on the resistance of the strain gauge itself cancel out the resistance change of the gauge due to the thermal expansion of the object under test.
Because different materials have different amounts of thermal expansion, self-temperature compensation requires selecting a particular alloy matched to the material of the object under test. Strain gauges that are not self-temperature-compensated can be temperature compensated by use of the dummy gauge technique. A dummy gauge is installed on an unstrained sample of the same material as the test specimen; the sample with the dummy gauge is placed in thermal contact with the test specimen, adjacent to the active gauge. The dummy gauge is wired into a Wheatstone bridge on an adjacent arm to the active gaug
David Hand (statistician)
David John Hand OBE FBA is a British statistician. His research interests include multivariate statistics, classification methods, pattern recognition, the computational statistics and the foundations of statistics, he has written books on finance and computation in statistics, as well as authoring the Very Short Introduction to statistics. Hand was a professor of statistics at the Open University from 1988 until 1999, when he moved to Imperial College London, he was awarded the Guy Medal in Silver by the Royal Statistical Society in 2002 and served as its president in 2008–2009 again from in 2010 after Bernard Silverman stood down. He was elected a Fellow of the British Academy in 2003. Hand's book The Improbability Principle: Why Coincidences and Rare Events Happen Every Day was published by Scientific American in February 2014. Hand was appointed Officer of the Order of the British Empire in the 2013 New Year Honours for services to research and innovation. 2001.. Principles of Data Mining. MIT Press.
ISBN 978-0262082907 2014.. "The Wellbeing of Nations: Meaning and Measurement". Wiley. ISBN 978-1-118-48957-4 2014. "The Improbability Principle: Why Coincidences and Rare Events Happen All the Time". Farrar Strauss Giroux. ISBN 978-0-374-17534-4 2008.. Top 10 algorithms in data mining. Knowledge and Information Systems 14.1: 1-37
An epigram is a brief, interesting and sometimes surprising or satirical statement. The word is derived from the Greek: ἐπίγραμμα epigramma "inscription" from ἐπιγράφειν epigraphein "to write on, to inscribe", the literary device has been employed for over two millennia; the presence of wit or sarcasm tends to distinguish non-poetic epigrams from aphorisms and adages, which may lack them. The Greek tradition of epigrams began as poems inscribed on votive offerings at sanctuaries – including statues of athletes – and on funerary monuments, for example "Go tell it to the Spartans, passersby...". These original epigrams did the same job, but in verse. Epigram became a literary genre in the Hellenistic period developing out of scholarly collections of inscriptional epigrams. Though modern epigrams are thought of as short, Greek literary epigram was not always as short as examples, the divide between "epigram" and "elegy" is sometimes indistinct. In the classical period, the clear distinction between them was that epigrams were inscribed and meant to be read, while elegies were recited and meant to be heard.
Some elegies could be quite short. All the same, the origin of epigram in inscription exerted a residual pressure to keep things concise when they were recited in Hellenistic times. Many of the characteristic types of literary epigram look back to inscriptional contexts funerary epigram, which in the Hellenistic era becomes a literary exercise. Many "sympotic" epigrams combine sympotic and funerary elements – they tell their readers to drink and live for today because life is short. Any theme found in classical elegies could be and were adapted for literary epigrams. Hellenistic epigrams are thought of as having a "point" – that is, the poem ends in a punchline or satirical twist. By no means do all Greek epigrams behave this way. Since their collections helped form knowledge of the genre in Rome and later throughout Europe, Epigram came to be associated with'point,' because the European epigram tradition takes the Latin poet Martial as its principal model. Greek epigram was much more diverse, as the Milan Papyrus now indicates.
A major source for Greek literary epigram is the Greek Anthology, a compilation from the 10th century AD based on older collections, including those of Meleager and Philippus. It contains epigrams ranging from the Hellenistic period through the Imperial period and Late Antiquity into the compiler's own Byzantine era – a thousand years of short elegiac texts on every topic under the sun; the Anthology includes one book of Christian epigrams as well as one book of erotic and amorous homosexual epigrams called the Μοῦσα Παιδικἠ. Roman epigrams owe much to their Greek contemporaries. Roman epigrams, were more satirical than Greek ones, at times used obscene language for effect. Latin epigrams could be composed as inscriptions or graffiti, such as this one from Pompeii, which exists in several versions and seems from its inexact meter to have been composed by a less educated person, its content makes it clear how popular such poems were: Admiror, O paries, te non cecidisse ruinis qui tot scriptorum taedia sustineas.
I'm astonished, that you haven't collapsed into ruins, since you're holding up the weary verse of so many poets. However, in the literary world, epigrams were most gifts to patrons or entertaining verse to be published, not inscriptions. Many Roman writers seem to have composed epigrams, including Domitius Marsus, whose collection Cicuta was named after the poisonous plant Cicuta for its biting wit, Lucan, more famous for his epic Pharsalia. Authors whose epigrams survive include Catullus, who wrote both invectives and love epigrams – his poem 85 is one of the latter. Odi et amo. Quare id faciam fortasse requires. Nescio, sed fieri sentio, et excrucior. I hate and I love. Maybe you'd like to know why I do? I don't know, but I feel it happening, I am tormented. Martial, however, is considered to be the master of the Latin epigram, his technique relies on the satirical poem with a joke in the last line, thus drawing him closer to the modern idea of epigram as a genre. Here he defines his genre against a critic: Disce quod ignoras: Marsi doctique Pedonis saepe duplex unum pagina tractat opus.
Non sunt longa quibus nihil est quod demere possis, sed tu, disticha longa facis. Learn what you don't know: one work of Marsus or learned Pedo stretches out over a doublesided page. A work isn't long if you can't take anything out of it, but you, write a couplet too long. Poets known for their epigrams whose work has been lost include Cornificia. In early English literature the short couplet poem was dominated by the poetic epigram and proverb in the translations of the Bible and the Greek and Roman poets. Since 1600, two successive lines of verse that rhyme with each other, known as a couplet featured as a part of the longer sonnet form, most notably in William Shakespeare's sonnets. Sonnet 76 is an excellent example; the two line poetic form as a closed cou