Golden Age of Comic Books
The Golden Age of Comic Books describes an era of American comic books from the late 1930s to circa 1950. During this time, modern comic books were first published and increased in popularity; the superhero archetype was created and many well-known characters were introduced, including Superman, Captain Marvel, Captain America, Wonder Woman. The first recorded use of the term "Golden Age" was by Richard A. Lupoff in an article, "Re-Birth", published in issue one of the fanzine Comic Art in April 1960. An event cited by many as marking the beginning of the Golden Age was the 1938 debut of Superman in Action Comics #1, published by Detective Comics. Superman's popularity helped make comic books a major arm of publishing, which led rival companies to create superheroes of their own to emulate Superman's success. Between 1939 and 1941 Detective Comics and its sister company, All-American Publications, introduced popular superheroes such as Batman and Robin, Wonder Woman, the Flash, Green Lantern, Doctor Fate, the Atom, Green Arrow and Aquaman.
Timely Comics, the 1940s predecessor of Marvel Comics, had million-selling titles featuring the Human Torch, the Sub-Mariner, Captain America. Although DC and Timely characters are well-remembered today, circulation figures suggest that the best-selling superhero title of the era was Fawcett Comics' Captain Marvel with sales of about 1.4 million copies per issue. The comic was published biweekly at one point to capitalize on its popularity. Patriotic heroes donning red and blue were popular during the time of the second World War following The Shield's debut in 1940. Many heroes of this time period battled the Axis powers, with covers such as Captain America Comics #1 showing the title character punching Nazi leader Adolf Hitler; as comic books grew in popularity, publishers began launching titles that expanded into a variety of genres. Dell Comics' non-superhero characters outsold the superhero comics of the day; the publisher featured licensed movie and literary characters such as Mickey Mouse, Donald Duck, Roy Rogers and Tarzan.
It was during this era. Additionally, MLJ's introduction of Archie Andrews in Pep Comics #22 gave rise to teen humor comics, with the Archie Andrews character remaining in print well into the 21st century. At the same time in Canada, American comic books were prohibited importation under the War Exchange Conservation Act which restricted the importation of non-essential goods; as a result, a domestic publishing industry flourished during the duration of the war which were collectively informally called the Canadian Whites. The educational comic book Dagwood Splits. According to historian Michael A. Amundson, appealing comic-book characters helped ease young readers' fear of nuclear war and neutralize anxiety about the questions posed by atomic power, it was during this period that long-running humor comics debuted, including EC's Mad and Carl Barks' Uncle Scrooge in Dell's Four Color Comics. In 1953, the comic book industry hit a setback when the United States Senate Subcommittee on Juvenile Delinquency was created in order to investigate the problem of juvenile delinquency.
After the publication of Fredric Wertham's Seduction of the Innocent the following year that claimed comics sparked illegal behavior among minors, comic book publishers such as EC's William Gaines were subpoenaed to testify in public hearings. As a result, the Comics Code Authority was created by the Association of Comics Magazine Publishers to enact self-censorship by comic book publishers. At this time, EC canceled its crime and horror titles and focused on Mad. During the late 1940s, the popularity of superhero comics waned. To retain reader interest, comic publishers diversified into other genres, such as war, science fiction, romance and horror. Many superhero titles were converted to other genres. In 1946, DC Comics' Superboy and Green Arrow were switched from More Fun Comics into Adventure Comics so More Fun could focus on humor. In 1948 All-American Comics, featuring Green Lantern, Johnny Thunder and Dr. Mid-Nite, was replaced with All-American Western; the following year, Flash Comics and Green Lantern were cancelled.
In 1951 All Star Comics, featuring the Justice Society of America, became All-Star Western. The next year Star Spangled Comics, featuring Robin, was retitled Star Spangled War Stories. Sensation Comics, featuring Wonder Woman, was cancelled in 1953; the only DC superhero comics to continue publishing through the 1950s were Action Comics, Adventure Comics, Detective Comics, Superboy, Wonder Woman and World's Finest Comics. Plastic Man appeared in Quality Comics' Police Comics until 1950, when its focus switched to detective stories but his solo title continued bimonthly until issue 64, cover dated November 1956. Timely Comics' The Human Torch was canceled with issue #35 and Marvel Mystery Comics, featuring the Human Torch, with issue #93 became the horror comic Marvel Tales. Sub-Mariner Comics was cancelled with issue #42 and Captain America Comics, by Captain America's Weird Tales, with #75. Harvey Comics' Black Cat was cancelled in 1951 and rebooted as a horror comic that year—the title would change to Black Cat Mystery, Black Cat Mystic, Black Cat Western for the final two issues, which included Black Cat stories.
Lev Gleason Publications' Daredevil was edged out of his title by the Little Wise Guys in 1950. Fawcett Comics' Whiz Comics, Master Comics and Captain Marvel Adventure
Douglas Curtis "Curt" Swan was an American comics artist. The artist most associated with Superman during the period fans call the Silver Age of Comic Books, Swan produced hundreds of covers and stories from the 1950s through the 1980s. Curt Swan, whose Swedish grandmother had shortened the original family name of Swanson, was born in Minneapolis, the youngest of five children. Father John Swan worked for the railroads; as a boy, Swan's given name – Douglas – was shortened to "Doug," and, disliking the phonetic similarity to "Dog," Swan thereafter reversed the order of his given names and went by "Curtis Douglas," rather than "Douglas Curtis."Having enlisted in Minnesota's National Guard's 135th Regiment, 34th Division in 1940, Swan was sent to Europe when the "federalized" division was shipped to Northern Ireland and Scotland. While his comrades in the 34th went into combat in North Africa and Italy, Swan spent most of World War II working as an artist for the G. I. magazine Stars and Stripes.
While at Stars and Stripes, Swan met writer France Herron, who directed him to DC Comics. During this period Swan married the former Helene Brickley, who he had met at a dance at Fort Dix, New Jersey, and, stationed near him in Paris in 1944 as a Red Cross worker. Shortly after returning to civilian life in 1945 he moved from Minnesota to New Jersey and began working for DC Comics. Apart from a few months of night classes at the Pratt Institute under the G. I. Bill, Swan was an self-taught artist. After a stint on Boy Commandos he began to just pencil pages. Swan drew many different features, including "Tommy Tomorrow" and "Gangbusters", but he began gravitating towards the Superman line of books, his first job pencilling the iconic character was for Superman #51. Many comics of the 1940s and 1950s lacked contributor credits, but research shows that Swan began pencilling the Superboy series with its fifth issue in 1949, he drew the first comics meeting of Superman and Batman in Superman #76. The two heroes began teaming on a regular basis in World's Finest Comics #71 in a story, drawn by Swan.
Swan always felt that his breakthrough came when he was assigned the art duties on Superman's Pal, Jimmy Olsen, in 1954. Swan didn't take to line editor Mort Weisinger's controlling style. Swan discussed this period in an interview: "I was getting terrible migraine headaches and had these verbal battles with Mort. So it was emotional, physical, it just drained me and I thought I'd better get out of here before I go whacko." After leaving comics for the advertising world in 1951, Swan soon returned, for National's higher paychecks. And as biographer Eddy Zeno notes, "The headaches went away after gained Weisinger's respect by standing up to him."Around 1954, Swan unsuccessfully pitched an original comic strip for newspaper syndication. Called Yellow Hair, it was about a blond boy raised by Native Americans. A couple of years starting with the episode of June 18, 1956, Swan drew the Superman daily newspaper comic strip, which he continued on until November 12, 1960. In the view of comics historian Les Daniels, Swan became the definitive artist of Superman in the early 1960s with a "new look" to the character that replaced Wayne Boring's version.
The Composite Superman was co-created by Swan and Edmond Hamilton in World's Finest Comics #142. Swan and writer Jim Shooter crafted the story "Superman's Race With the Flash!" in Superman #199 which featured the first race between the Flash and Superman, two characters known for their super-speed powers. Over the years, Swan was a remarkably consistent and prolific artist illustrating two or more titles per month. Swan remained as artist of Superman when Julius Schwartz became the editor of the title with issue #233, writer Denny O'Neil streamlined the Superman mythos, starting with the elimination of Kryptonite. Among Swan's contributions to the Superman mythos, he and writer Cary Bates co-created the supervillains Terra-Man and the 1970s version of the Toyman as well as the superhero Vartox. Writer Martin Pasko and Swan created the Master Jailer character in Superman #331. After DC's 1985 12-issue limited series Crisis on Infinite Earths and with the impending 1986 revision of Superman by writer/artist John Byrne, Swan was released from his duties on the Superman comics.
Critic Wallace Harrington summed up Swan's dismissal this way:... the most striking thing that DC did was to turn their back on the one man that had defined Superman for three decades... They turned out the lights on the creator that had defined their whole line. With no real thanks, no pomp nor circumstance, DC relieved Curt of his artistic duties on Superman. Curt Swan who had drawn Superman in Action, Lois Lane, Jimmy Olsen and World's Finest, drew Superboy in Adventure Comics, the quintessential Superman artist of the 1960s,'70s and'80s, he became. Gone. Swan's last work as regular artist on Superman was the non-canonical 1986 story "Whatever Happened to the Man of Tomorrow?", written by Alan Moore. After this, Swan continued to do occasional minor projects for DC, including the artwork of what is thought to be one of the rarest Superman comics published, titled "This Island Bradman", a comic book, commissioned in 1988 by real estate tycoon Godfrey Bradman as a Bar Mitzvah gift for his son, as well as an Aquaman limited series and special in 1989, various returns on
Fiction House was an American publisher of pulp magazines and comic books that existed from the 1920s to the 1950s. It was founded by John B. "Jack" Kelly and John W. Glenister. By the late 1930s, the publisher was Thurman T. Scott, its comics division was best known for its pinup-style good girl art, as epitomized by the company's most popular character, Queen of the Jungle. The company's original location was 461 Eighth Avenue in New York City. At the end of 1929, a New York Times article referred to John B. Kelly as "head" of Fiction House, Inc. and a new location of 271 Madison Avenue. In late 1932, John W. Glenister was president of Fiction House and his son-in-law, Thurman T. Scott, was secretary of the corporation. By the end of the 1930s Scott had risen to the title of publisher. In January 1950, the Manhattan-based company signed a lease for office space at 130 W. 42nd Street. Fiction House began in 1921 as a pulp-magazine publisher of aviation and sports pulps. According to co-founder John W. Glenister: During their first decade the company produced pulp magazines such as Action Stories, Air Stories, Lariat Stories, Detective Classics, The Frontier, True Adventures and Fight Stories.
Fiction House acquired other publishers' magazines, such as its 1929 acquisition of Frontier Stories from Doubleday, Doran & Co. By the 1930s, the company had expanded into detective mysteries. In late 1932, however, in the midst of the Great Depression, Fiction House cancelled 12 of its pulp magazines — Aces, Action Novels, Action Stories, Air Stories, Detective Book Magazine, Detective Classics, Fight Stories, Frontier Stories, Love Romances, North-West Stories and Wings — with the stated goal of reviving them. After a short hiatus, Action Stories resumed publishing through this period. In addition, Fiction House relaunched its pulp magazines in 1934, finding success with a number of detective and romance pulp titles; the cancelled pulps Fight Stories and Detective Book Magazine were revived in spring 1936 and in 1937 with both magazines publishing continuously into the 1950s. Fiction House's first title with science fiction interest was Jungle Stories, launched in early 1939. At the end of 1939 Fiction House decided to add an sf magazine to its line up.
By the late 1930s, publisher Thurman T. Scott expanded Fiction House into comic books, an emerging medium that began to seem a viable adjunct to the fading pulps. Receptive to a sales call by Eisner & Iger, one of the prominent "packagers" of that time which produced complete comic books on demand for publishers looking to enter the field, Scott published Jumbo Comics #1 under the company's Real Adventures Publishing Company imprint. Sheena, Queen of the Jungle appeared in that initial issue, soon becoming the company's star character. Sheena appeared in every issue of Jumbo Comics, as well as in her groundbreaking, 18-issue spin-off, Queen of the Jungle, the first comic book to title-star a female character. Other features in Jumbo Comics #1 included three by future industry legend Jack Kirby, representing his first comic-book work following his debut in Wild Boy Magazine: the science fiction feature The Diary of Dr. Hayward, the modern-West crimefighter strip Wilton of the West, Part One of the swashbuckling serialization of Alexandre Dumas, père's The Count of Monte Cristo, each four pages long.
Jumbo proved a hit, Fiction House would go on to publish Jungle Comics. Fiction House referred to these titles in its regular house ads as "The Big Six," but the company published several other titles, among them the Western-themed Indians and Firehair, jungle titles Sheena, Queen of the Jungle and Wambi, five issues of Eisner's The Spirit. Developing its own staff under editor Joe Cunningham followed by Jack Burden, Fiction House employed either in-house or on a freelance basis such artists as Mort Meskin, Matt Baker, Nick Cardy, George Evans, Bob Powell, the British Lee Elias, as well as such rare female comics artists as Ruth Atkinson, Fran Hopper, Lily Renée, Marcia Snyder; the popularity of Sheena led to numerous other Fiction House "jungle girls": Ann Mason — the mate of Ka'a'nga, Jungle King. They were war nurses, girl detectives and animal skin-clad jungle queens, they were in command. Guns blazing, daggers unsheathed, sword in hand, they leaped across the pages, ready to take on any villain.
And they did not need rescuing. Despite such pre-feminist pedigree, F
Spectre (DC Comics character)
The Spectre is the name given to several fictional antihero characters who have appeared in numerous comic books published by DC Comics. The character first appeared in More Fun Comics #52, he was created by Jerry Siegel and Bernard Baily, although several sources attribute creator credit to Siegel, limiting Baily to being the artist assigned to the feature. The Spectre debuted in More Fun Comics #52 when hard-boiled cop Jim Corrigan, on his way with his fiancee Clarice to their engagement party, is murdered by thugs who stuff him into a barrel filled with cement and throw it into a body of water, his spirit is refused entry into the afterlife however, he is sent back to Earth by an entity referred to only as "The Voice" to eliminate evil. The Spectre seeks bloody vengeance against Corrigan's murderers in supernatural fashion. One of them turned to a skeleton upon touching him. Corrigan soon creates his signature costume, breaks off his romance with Clarice, continues to live as Jim Corrigan, assuming the secret identity of the Spectre whenever he is needed.
He turns down an offer to relinquish his mission to destroy all evil. The Spectre is soon awarded charter membership in the first-ever superhero team, the Justice Society of America in All Star Comics. Jim Corrigan is resurrected in More Fun #75, after which the Spectre's ghostly form enters and emerges from Jim Corrigan functioning independently of him. During the mid-1940s, the popularity of superhero comics began to decline and the Spectre was reduced to playing the role of guardian angel to a bumbling character called "Percival Popp, the Super Cop", who first appeared in More Fun #74; when Corrigan enlisted in the military and departed to serve in World War II, in More Fun #90, the Spectre became permanently invisible, becoming a secondary player in his own series. The feature's final installment was in issue #101, the Spectre made his last appearance in the superhero group the Justice Society of America at the same time in All Star Comics #23. In the mid-1950s and 1960s Silver Age of Comic Books, DC Comics editor Julius Schwartz revived the Spectre and returned him to the role of an avenging undead spirit, beginning in Showcase #60.
Under writer Gardner Fox and penciller Murphy Anderson, his power was vastly increased and at times he approached the level of omnipotence. A 1987 magazine retrospective on the character said this revival had been announced as a team-up with Doctor Mid-Nite. After a three-issue try-out in Showcase, the Spectre appeared in the superhero-team comic Justice League of America #46–47 in that year's team-up of the titular group and its 1940's predecessors, the Justice Society of America: written by Gardner Fox. A few months he co-starred with the Silver Age Flash in The Brave and the Bold #72; the Spectre was given his own title, premiering in December 1967, while making another appearance in The Brave & the Bold #75, this time teamed with Batman. In The Spectre, the creative credits varied over the 10 issues published, with introduction of a then-newcomer to comics, Neal Adams, who drew issues #2–5 and wrote issues #4–5. For its final two issues, the comic became in effect a horror anthology, with the title character being little more than a narrator in several short stories.
The Spectre title suffered from the same problem that vexed the Golden Age series: writing meaningful stories using a character, omnipotent. The end to this era came in Justice League of America #83, at the climax of another JLA/JSA crossover, the Ghostly Guardian appeared to be destroyed, he had a cameo in a JSA meeting the previous issue, leaving in doubt how he went from there to being imprisoned in a crypt, as found and freed by Doctor Fate in JLA #83. In the 1970s, DC revived the Spectre in the superhero anthology series Adventure Comics. Beginning with the 12-page "The Wrath of... the Spectre" in issue #431. Writer Michael Fleisher and artist Jim Aparo produced 10 stories through issue #440 that became controversial for what was considered gruesome, albeit bloodless, violence. Comics historian Les Daniels commented that the Spectre had...a new lease on life after editor Joe Orlando was mugged and decided the world needed a relentless super hero. The character came back with a vengeance... and became a cause of controversy.
Orlando plotted the stories with writer Michael Fleisher, they emphasized the gruesome fates of criminals who ran afoul of the Spectre. The Comics Code had been liberalized, but this series pushed its restrictions to the limit by turning evildoers into inanimate objects and thoroughly demolishing them. Jim Aparo's art showed criminals being transformed into everything from broken glass to melting candles, but Fleisher was quick to point out that many of his most bizarre plot devices were lifted from stories published decades earlier. In the series' letter column, some fans indicated uneasiness with this depiction. In issue #435, Fleisher introduced a character that shared their concerns, a reporter named Earl Crawford; the series was canceled with scripts written, but not yet drawn. Several years these remaining chapters were penciled by Aparo and inked by others, published in the final issue of Wrath of the Spectre, a four-issue miniseries in 1988 that reprinted the ten original Fleisher-Aparo stories in its first three issues, three newly drawn stories in the fourth one.
Fleisher had stated in 1980. The Spectre made a guest appearance in the "Doctor Thirteen" feature in Ghosts #97–99, wou
Greensboro, North Carolina
Greensboro is a city in the U. S. state of North Carolina. It is the 3rd-most populous city in North Carolina, the 68th-most populous city in the United States, the county seat and largest city in Guilford County and the surrounding Piedmont Triad metropolitan region; as of the 2010 census, the city population was 269,666, in 2015 the estimated population was 285,342. Three major interstate highways in the Piedmont region of central North Carolina were built to intersect at this city. In 1808, "Greensborough" was planned around a central courthouse square to succeed Guilford Court House as the county seat; the county courts were thus placed closer to the geographical center of the county, a location more reached at the time by the majority of the county's citizens, who depended on horse and foot for travel. In 2003, the previous Greensboro – Winston-Salem – High Point metropolitan statistical area was re-defined by the U. S. Office of Management and Budget; this region was separated into the Greensboro–High Point MSA and the Winston-Salem MSA.
The 2010 population for the Greensboro–High Point MSA was 723,801. The combined statistical area of Greensboro–Winston-Salem–High Point, popularly referred to as the Piedmont Triad, had a population of 1,599,477. Among Greensboro's many notable attractions, some of the most popular include the Wet'n Wild Emerald Pointe water park, the Greensboro Science Center, the International Civil Rights Museum, the Weatherspoon Art Museum, the Greensboro Symphony, the Greensboro Ballet, Triad Stage, the Wyndham Golf Championship, the headquarters of the Atlantic Coast Conference, the Greensboro Coliseum Complex which hosts various sporting events and other events, the Greensboro Grasshoppers of the South Atlantic Baseball League, the Carolina Dynamo of the Premier Development Soccer League, the Greensboro Swarm of the NBA G League, the Greensboro Roller Derby, the National Folk Festival. At the time of European encounter, the inhabitants of the area that became Greensboro were a Siouan-speaking people called the Saura.
Other indigenous cultures had occupied this area for thousands of years settling along the waterways, as did the early settlers. Quaker migrants from Pennsylvania, by way of Maryland, arrived at Capefair in about 1750; the new settlers began organized religious services affiliated with the Cane Creek Friends Meeting in Snow Camp in 1751. Three years 40 Quaker families were granted approval to establish New Garden Monthly Meeting; the settlement grew during the next three years, adding members from as far away as Nantucket in Massachusetts. It soon became the most important Quaker community in North Carolina and mother of several other Quaker meetings that were established in the state and west of the Appalachians. After the Revolutionary War, the city of Greensboro was named for Major General Nathanael Greene, commander of the rebel American forces at the Battle of Guilford Court House on March 15, 1781. Although the Americans lost the battle, Greene's forces inflicted heavy casualties on the British Army of General Cornwallis.
Following this battle, Cornwallis withdrew his troops to a British coastal base in Wilmington, North Carolina. Greensboro was established near the geographic center of Guilford County, on land, "an unbroken forest with thick undergrowth of huckleberry bushes, that bore a finely flavored fruit." Property for the future village was purchased from the Saura for $98. Three north-south streets were laid out intersecting with three east-west streets; the courthouse was built at the center of the intersection of Market streets. By 1821, the town was home to 369 residents. In the early 1840s, Greensboro was designated by the state government as one of the stops on a new railroad line, at the request of Governor John Motley Morehead, whose plantation, was in Greensboro. Stimulated by rail traffic and improved access to markets, the city grew soon becoming known as the "Gate City" due to its role as a transportation hub for the Piedmont; the railroads transported goods to and from the cotton textile mills.
Many of the manufacturers developed workers' housing in mill villages near their facilities. Textile companies and related businesses continued into the 21st century, when most went bankrupt, and/or merged with other companies as textile manufacturing jobs moved offshore. Greensboro is still a major center of the textile industry, with the main offices of International Textile Group, Galey & Lord, VF Corporation. ITG Brands, maker of Kool and Salem brand cigarettes, is the third largest tobacco company in the United States and is headquartered in Greensboro. Rail traffic continues to be important for the city's economy, as Greensboro is a major regional freight hub. In addition, four Amtrak passenger trains stop in Greensboro daily on the main Norfolk Southern line between Washington and New Orleans by way of Atlanta. Though the city developed early wealth generated in the 18th and 19th centuries from cotton trade and merchandising resulted in owners' constructing several notable buildings; the earliest named Blandwood Mansion and Gardens, was built by a planter in 1795.
Additions to this residence in 1846, designed by Alexander Jackson Davis of New York City, made the house influential as America's earliest Tuscan-style villa. It has been designated as a
Superman is a fictional character, a superhero appearing in American comic books published by DC Comics. Created by writer Jerry Siegel and artist Joe Shuster, the character first appeared in Action Comics #1 on April 18, 1938 which marked the rise of the Golden Age of Comic Books. Since his inception, Superman has been depicted as an hero that that originated the planet Krypton and named Kal-El; as a baby, he was sent to Earth in a small spaceship by his biological family, Jor-El and Lara, moments before Krypton was destroyed in a natural cataclysm. His ship landed in the American countryside. Clark displayed various superhuman abilities from the start as a young boy, such as incredible strength and impervious skin, his foster parents advised him to use his abilities for the benefit of humanity, he decided to fight crime as a vigilante. To protect his privacy, he changes into a colorful costume and uses the alias "Superman" when fighting crime. Clark Kent resides in the fictional American city of Metropolis in his adult life, where he works as a journalist for the Daily Planet disguising himself among the people there.
Depicted supporting characters of Superman are depicted as residing in Metropolis such as prominent love interest of Superman, Lois Lane, good friend of Superman, Jimmy Olsen, Daily Planet chief editor Perry White. He has many foes such as the genius inventor Lex Luthor, he is a friend of many other superheroes such as Batman and Wonder Woman. Although Superman was not the first superhero character, he popularized the superhero genre and defined its conventions, he remains the best selling superhero in comic books of all time and endured as one of the most lucrative franchises outside of comic books. He is regarded as the greatest superhero / comic book character of all time. Superman was created by Joe Shuster. A duo who met met in 1932 in a high school in Cleveland and bonded over their mutual love of fiction. Siegel aspired to become a writer and Shuster aspired to become an illustrator. Siegel wrote amateur science fiction stories, which he self-published a magazine called Science Fiction: The Advance Guard of Future Civilization.
His friend Shuster provided illustrations for his work. In January 1933, Siegel published a short story in his magazine titled "The Reign of the Superman"; the titular character is a vagrant named Bill Dunn, tricked by an evil scientist into consuming an experimental drug. The drug gives Dunn the powers of mind-reading, mind-control, clairvoyance, he uses these powers maliciously for profit and amusement, but the drug wears off, leaving him a powerless vagrant again. Shuster provided illustrations. Siegel and Shuster shifted with a focus on adventure and comedy, they wanted to become syndicated newspaper strip authors, so they showed their ideas to various newspaper editors. However, the newspaper editors told them. If they wanted to make a successful comic strip, it had to be something more sensational than anything else on the market; this prompted Siegel to revisit Superman as a comic strip character. Siegel modified Superman's powers to make him more sensational: Like Bill Dunn, the second prototype of Superman is given powers against his will by an unscrupulous scientist, but instead of psychic abilities, he acquires superhuman strength and bullet-proof skin.
Additionally, this new Superman was a crime-fighting hero instead of a villain, because Siegel noted that comic strips with heroic protagonists tended to be more successful. In years, Siegel once recalled that this Superman wore a "bat-like" cape in some panels, but he and Shuster agreed there was no costume yet, there is none apparent in the surviving artwork. Siegel and Shuster showed this second concept of Superman to Consolidated Book Publishers, based in Chicago. In May 1933, Consolidated had published a comic book titled Detective Dan: Secret Operative 48, it contained all-original stories as opposed to reprints of newspaper strips, a novelty at the time. Siegel and Shuster put together a comic book in similar format called The Superman. A delegation from Consolidated visited Cleveland that summer on a business trip, Siegel and Shuster took the opportunity to present their work in person. Although Consolidated expressed interest, they pulled out of the comics business without offering a book deal because the sales of Detective Dan were disappointing.
Siegel believed publishers kept rejecting them because he and Shuster were young and unknown, so he looked for an established artist to replace Shuster. When Siegel told Shuster what he was doing, Shuster reacted by burning their rejected Superman comic, sparing only the cover, they continued collaborating on other projects, but for the time being Shuster was through with Superman. Siegel wrote to numerous artists; the first response came in July 1933 from Leo O'Mealia, who drew the Fu Manchu strip for the Bell Syndicate. In the script that Siegel sent O'Mealia, Superman's origin story changes: He is a "scientist-adventurer" from the far future, when humanity has evolved "super powers". Just before the Earth explodes, he escapes in a time-machine to the modern era, whereupon he begins using his super powers to fight crime. O'Mealia produced a few strips and showed them to his newspaper syndicate. Nothing of Siegel and O'Mealia's collaboration survives, except in Siegel's memoir. In June 1934, Siegel found another partner: an artist in Chicago named Russell Keaton.
Keaton drew the Buck R
Hawkman (Katar Hol)
Hawkman is a DC Comics superhero. He is the Silver Age, Bronze Age, New 52 Hawkman. Created by Gardner Fox and Joe Kubert, he first appeared in The Brave and the Bold #34. There are two versions of Katar Hol, the Silver Age/Pre-Crisis version and the post-Hawkworld/Post-Crisis version; the Silver Age Hawkman was first introduced in The Brave and the Bold #34 by artist Joe Kubert and writer Gardner Fox. At this time DC had rebooted many of its characters such as the Flash, Green Lantern. Hawkman's first appearance spawned five more tryout issues in The Brave and the Bold. During these issues, he teamed up with his wife, Hawkgirl, to battle foes on earth as well as on his home planet Thanagar. After Hawkman had concluded his appearances in The Brave and the Bold, he starred in a side strip within Mystery in Space, he appeared in four issues of this series, teamed up with Adam Strange in some of these adventures. In 1964, Hawkman was given a bi-monthly solo title. Murphy Anderson took over the art for this series with Gardner Fox continuing as writer.
Hawkman teamed up with The Atom and Adam Strange in his title. Together and Hawkgirl battled such enemies as the Matter Master, the Shadow Thief, Lion-Mane. Hawkman's comic book would continue for less than five years before it was canceled at issue #27. After declining sales forced the cancellation of his solo magazine, Hawkman teamed up with the Atom and starred in The Atom and Hawkman for seven issues; this series was canceled as well. During the 1970s and early 1980s, Hawkman continued to appear as a member of the Justice League of America, which he had joined back in 1964, he made regular appearances in World's Finest Comics and Detective Comics, along with a three-issue story in the pages of Showcase. It was not until the mid-1980s. In 1986, DC published. Due to the decent sales of this series, Hawkman received another monthly solo series, it lasted seventeen issues and one Special before it, was cancelled. In 1989, Timothy Truman decided to reboot the Silver Age Hawkman in a three-book series titled Hawkworld.
This was the start of the post-Hawkworld version of Katar Hol. While this series was meant to just be a retold origin of Hawkman, it spawned yet another Hawkman series. In 1990 DC created the Hawkworld monthly series; this series had two volumes, but was canceled. During the mid 1990s–2010s Hawkman would have more on-and-off series. However, none of them were of much importance. With all of the different series, Hawkman had been part of, his origin and story had become rather complicated and confusing. At the end of his 3rd series, Hawkman was physically dissolved into nothing. Hawkman came back, but this time, rather than being the alien policeman that he was in the previous series, he was Carter Hall, the reincarnated Egyptian prince; however this added more complexity to Hawkman, the series was canceled. In 2011, the Silver Age Hawkman was rebooted again as part of The New 52 reboot, his new comic book was titled The Savage Hawkman. Although this Hawkman was the most simple version of the complex character, the series sold poorly and ended after twenty issues.
In 2016, Hawkman returned again as part of the DC Rebirth relaunch, in a series titled The Death of Hawkman, which concluded after six issues. A new Hawkman title, by Robert Venditti and Bryan Hitch, debuted in June 2018; however this series concerned Carter Hall the reincarnated Egyptian prince version of Hawkman rather than Katar Hol, or Silver Age version of the character. Katar Hol was the imperial prince of his home planet of Thanagar, his father was renowned ornithologist and inventor. When Katar Hol was eighteen, an alien race called the Manhawks invaded Thanagar and began looting the planet. Paran sent young Katar Hol to bring back information on the aliens. Using this information, Paran created a hawk-like battle suit containing advanced technology like his "Nth metal". Katar used Paran's advanced weaponry to drive the Manhawks away from Thanagar. That, was not the end of the problem; some Thanagarians had learned the concept of stealing from the Manhawks. Due to the amount of crime, the Thanagarian government created a police force.
In honor of Paran Katar and his achievements, the new police force began using his hawk-suit and equipment. Paran headed this new police force, named the Hawk-Police, his son became one of the first recruits. Katar soon became one of the most skilled of the Hawk-Police; when a group called the Rainbow Robbers began committing crimes, Katar was teamed up with rookie Shayera Thal to track and apprehend the criminals. During the case, Shayera saved Katar's life, the two soon fell in love. A few weeks Katar proposed to Shayera and the two got married, working together as partners-for-life in the Hawk-Police. After ten years of marriage and in the force, the pair were sent to Earth to capture the shape-shifting Thanagarian criminal Byth. During their mission, they meet George Emmett, commissioner of the Midway City Police Department, told him their alien origin. With Emmett's help, the pair took over his retiring brother Ed's place as museum curators, they adopt the identities as Shiera Hall. After capturing him and sending him back to Thanagar, they elected to remain on Earth to work with authorities to learn human police methods.
The two acted publicly as the heroes Hawkgirl. The rest of Hawkman's supporting cast consist of Mavis Trent, museum naturalist and diorama artist who flirts with Katar.