Minnesota State Highway 30
Minnesota State Highway 30 is a highway in southwest and southeast Minnesota, which runs from South Dakota Highway 34 at the South Dakota state line near Airlie, west of Pipestone, continues to its eastern terminus at its intersection with Minnesota Highway 43 in Rushford. Highway 30 is 266 miles in length. State Highway 30 serves as an east–west route between Pipestone, Slayton, St. James, Stewartville and Rushford. Highway 30 parallels U. S. Highway 14 and Interstate Highway 90 throughout its route; the Pipestone National Monument is located north of Highway 30 in Pipestone. Lake Shetek State Park is located near Highway 30 in Murray County on the shore of Lake Shetek; the park is located north of the town of Currie and northeast of Slayton. Highway 30 passes through the Richard J. Dorer Memorial Hardwood State Forest in Olmsted and Fillmore counties. State Highway 30 was established in 1933 running from Highway 15 to Rushford, it replaced former State Highway 41 from Blooming Prairie to Hayfield.
The road was gravel at this time except where it overlapped other highways. By 1946, the road was still unpaved except for short sections near some towns; the first extended paving was done from Cummingsville to Rushford in 1948 and 1949. The remainder of the highway was paved throughout the 1950s. In 1955, the highway was re-routed east of Chatfield to overlap with Highway 74. In 1961, Highway 30 was extended westward, along the route of what had been State Highway 47; this extension was paved except for the section between U. S. 71 and the Cottonwood-Watonwan county line. Highway 47 was established November 2, 1920 from Pipestone to Slayton, it was extended west to the South Dakota state line and east to Highway 4 north of St. James in 1933; the entire highway was gravel at this time. In 1939, it was realigned to take a direct route to Darfur from U. S. 71, bypassing Comfrey. By 1940, the roadway was paved from the state line to Westbrook. Paving from Westbrook to U. S. 71 was performed in 1950 and 1951, through Watonwan County in 1955.
In the late 1970s, Highway 30's overlap with Highway 60 was upgraded to a four-lane expressway. There are plans to reroute the highway into the City of Rochester to better serve the Rochester International Airport and improve conditions on U. S. 63. Highway 30 at The Unofficial Minnesota Highways Page
Minnesota is a state in the Upper Midwest and northern regions of the United States. Minnesota was admitted as the 32nd U. S. state on May 11, 1858, created from the eastern half of the Minnesota Territory. The state has a large number of lakes, is known by the slogan the "Land of 10,000 Lakes", its official motto is L'Étoile du Nord. Minnesota is the 12th largest in area and the 22nd most populous of the U. S. states. This area is the center of transportation, industry and government, while being home to an internationally known arts community; the remainder of the state consists of western prairies now given over to intensive agriculture. Minnesota was inhabited by various indigenous peoples for thousands of years prior to the arrival of Europeans. French explorers and fur traders began exploring the region in the 17th century, encountering the Dakota and Ojibwe/Anishinaabe tribes. Much of what is today Minnesota was part of the vast French holding of Louisiana, purchased by the United States in 1803.
Following several territorial reorganizations, Minnesota in its current form was admitted as the country's 32nd state on May 11, 1858. Like many Midwestern states, it remained centered on lumber and agriculture. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, a large number of European immigrants from Scandinavia and Germany, began to settle the state, which remains a center of Scandinavian American and German American culture. In recent decades, immigration from Asia, the Horn of Africa, the Middle East, Latin America has broadened its demographic and cultural composition; the state's economy has diversified, shifting from traditional activities such as agriculture and resource extraction to services and finance. Minnesota's standard of living index is among the highest in the United States, the state is among the best-educated and wealthiest in the nation; the word Minnesota comes from the Dakota name for the Minnesota River: The river got its name from one of two words in the Dakota language,'Mní sóta' which means "clear blue water", or'Mnißota', which means cloudy water.
Native Americans demonstrated the name to early settlers by dropping milk into water and calling it mnisota. Many places in the state have similar names, such as Minnehaha Falls, Minneota, Minnetonka and Minneapolis, a combination of mni and polis, the Greek word for "city". Minnesota is the second northernmost U. S. state and northernmost contiguous state. Its isolated Northwest Angle in Lake of the Woods county is the only part of the 48 contiguous states lying north of the 49th parallel; the state is part of the U. S. region known as part of North America's Great Lakes Region. It shares a Lake Superior water border with Michigan and a land and water border with Wisconsin to the east. Iowa is to the south, North Dakota and South Dakota are to the west, the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Manitoba are to the north. With 86,943 square miles, or 2.25% of the United States, Minnesota is the 12th-largest state. Minnesota has gneisses that are about 3.6 billion years old. About 2.7 billion years ago, basaltic lava poured out of cracks in the floor of the primordial ocean.
The roots of these volcanic mountains and the action of Precambrian seas formed the Iron Range of northern Minnesota. Following a period of volcanism 1.1 billion years ago, Minnesota's geological activity has been more subdued, with no volcanism or mountain formation, but with repeated incursions of the sea, which left behind multiple strata of sedimentary rock. In more recent times, massive ice sheets at least one kilometer thick ravaged the state's landscape and sculpted its terrain; the Wisconsin glaciation left 12,000 years ago. These glaciers covered all of Minnesota except the far southeast, an area characterized by steep hills and streams that cut into the bedrock; this area is known as the Driftless Zone for its absence of glacial drift. Much of the remainder of the state outside the northeast has 50 feet or more of glacial till left behind as the last glaciers retreated. Gigantic Lake Agassiz formed in the northwest 13,000 years ago, its bed created the fertile Red River valley, its outflow, glacial River Warren, carved the valley of the Minnesota River and the Upper Mississippi downstream from Fort Snelling.
Minnesota is geologically quiet today. The state's high point is Eagle Mountain at 2,301 feet, only 13 miles away from the low of 601 feet at the shore of Lake Superior. Notwithstanding dramatic local differences in elevation, much of the state is a rolling peneplain. Two major drainage divides meet in Minnesota's northeast in rural Hibbing, forming a triple watershed. Precipitation can follow the Mississippi River south to the Gulf of Mexico, the Saint Lawrence Seaway east to the Atlantic Ocean, or the Hudson Bay watershed to the Arctic Ocean; the state's nickname, "Land of 10,000 Lakes", is apt, as there are 11,842 Minnesota lakes over 10 acres in size. Minnesota's portion of Lake Superior is the largest at 962,700 acres and deepest body of wate
Buffalo Ridge is a large expanse of rolling hills in the southeastern part of the larger Coteau des Prairies. It stands 1,995 feet above sea level; the Buffalo Ridge is sixty miles long and runs through Lincoln County, Pipestone County, Murray County, Nobles County, Rock County in the southwest corner of Minnesota. Because of its high altitude and high average wind speed, Buffalo Ridge has been transformed into a place for creating alternative energy. Over 200 wind turbines stand along the Buffalo Ridge. Buffalo Ridge is considered the elevated land extending through Lincoln, Pipestone, Murray and Nobles counties, it is a drainage divide separating the watersheds of the Missouri Rivers. Buffalo Ridge is part of the inner coteau and is the highest point of the Coteau des Prairies in Minnesota, its bedrock is formed of Cretaceous shale and clay that lie above the pinkish-red Upper Precambrian Sioux Quartzite. These units are covered in most areas by thick deposits of glacial drift, which consist of up to 800 feet of pre-Wisconsin age glacial till left after the glaciers receded.
The inner coteau is made up of stream-eroded glacial deposits of pre-Wisconsin glacial drift, covered by a 6 to 15 foot thick deposit of a wind-blown silt called loess. This covering results in the creation of an area with long sloping hills. Loess is an eroded material, because of this there are few lakes and wetlands in the inner coteau area. Loess however promotes well established dendritic drainage networks, the majority of which flow into the Missouri River and Minnesota River systems. Loamy, well-drained soils like Mollisols-Aquolls and Udolls containing Borolls and Ustolls dominate the soils of the inner coteau. On the areas of eroded glacial deposits, dry prairie and moist prairie soils like Cummins and Grigal are present; these soil types, along with the temperate climate, combine to make perfect growing conditions for tallgrass prairie, which once covered the entire inner coteau. Buffalo Ridge has a midlatitude continental climate with an average twenty-four to twenty-seven inches of precipitation per year and thirty-six to forty inches of snowfall per winter.
The average spring thaw is around April 5 and the spring green-up occurs between May 1 and May 10. Peaking fall colors tend to occur around October 20 and there are forty to fifty thunderstorm days per year. On the weekend of June 13, 1992 a large storm developed over the Northern Great Plains, resulting in severe weather in western South Dakota. On June 16, another storm struck eastern South Dakota and southwestern Minnesota destroying over one hundred homes and businesses; these supercells created many large damaging tornadoes. The first tornado moved toward Mitchell, South Dakota; the second formed in Miner County, South Dakota and the third formed south of Pierre, South Dakota both causing considerable property damage. The fourth tornado formed near the unincorporated town of Leota in southwest Minnesota, spawning a "maxi" tornado that stayed on the ground for an hour and a half and did substantial damage to the cities of Chandler and Lake Wilson, Minnesota. In Chandler, the property damage was estimated at over fifteen million dollars.
This tornado was classified as an F5 tornado on the Fujita Scale and turned out to be the only F5 tornado documented in the United States in 1992. Another tornado formed in South Dakota in the day and made its way to Minnesota where it struck the town of Chandler for the second time, along with Colton and Dell Rapids. Before the settlers arrived and developed the towns on and surrounding Buffalo Ridge, the Dakota Native Americans inhabited the area, it was the Dakota who created intricate pipes out of the quartzite in the Buffalo Ridge area, which today are displayed at Pipestone National Monument. The land on Buffalo Ridge is privately owned farmland. However, there is an 800-acre tall grass prairie conservancy, owned and protected by The Nature Conservancy. Hole in the Mountain Prairie is a nature reserve created by the Nature Conservancy, it is the headwaters of Flandreau Creek. It was created to preserve the diminishing tallgrass prairie and the insects and animals native to tallgrass prairies.
In the past the area had been used as a grazing area for cattle and sheep. The result being the extinction of the tallgrass prairie. Today the Nature Conservancy manages the Hole in the Mountain with controlled burning which have led to a remarkable recovery of the native prairie vegetation. A number of wind farms are sited on the ridge because of the windy conditions in the area. Nobles Wind Farm, Buffalo Ridge Wind Farm, Fenton Wind Farm are several of them. Wind power Wind farm Wind power in the United States List of large wind farms Venturi effect "Buffalo Ridge Wind Towers." HendricksMN. 2004. Hendricks, Minnesota. 22 Apr 2007 <https://web.archive.org/web/20070416072730/http://hendricksmn.com/wind_towers.html%3E. Dieter and Higgins, Kenneth and Osbourn and Usgaard, Richard. "Bird Flight Characteristics Near Wind Turbines in Minnesota." The American Midland Naturalist 139Jan 1998 29-38. 26 Apr 2007 <http://www.bioone.org/perlserv/?request=get-document&doi=10.1674%2F0003-0031139%5B0029%3ABFCNWT%5D2.0.
CO%3B2>. Douglas, Paul. Prairie Skies. Voyageur Press Inc. 1990. "Regional Landscape Ecosystems of Michigan and Wisconsin." Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center. 03 Aug 2006. USGS. 22 Apr 2007 <https://web.archive.org/web/20060929083936/http://www.npwrc.usgs.gov/resource/habitat/rlandsc
Brown County, Minnesota
Brown County is a county in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 25,893, its county seat is New Ulm. The county was formed in 1855 and organized in 1856. Brown County comprises the New Ulm MN Metropolitan Statistical Area and is included in the Mankato-New Ulm-North Mankato, MN Combined Statistical Area. Brown County was founded in 1855, it was named for Joseph Renshaw Brown, a member of the Governor's Council of Minnesota in 1855. The Minnesota River flows east-southeast along the county's northern border; the Cottonwood River flows east-northeast through the county's central and upper area, discharging into the Minnesota at the northern border. The Little Cottonwood River flows east through the lower portion of the county, on its way to discharge into the Minnesota in neighboring Blue Earth County; the terrain consists of rolling hills devoted to agriculture, slopes to the east, tending to drop into the river valleys. Its highest point is near its southwestern corner, at 1,257' ASL.
The county has a total area of 618 square miles, of which 611 square miles is land and 7.4 square miles is water. In recent years, average temperatures in the county seat of New Ulm have ranged from a low of 6 °F in January to a high of 83 °F in July, although a record low of −37 °F was recorded in January 1984 and a record high of 105 °F was recorded in July 1988. Average monthly precipitation ranged from 0.64 inches in January to 4.82 inches in June. As of the 2000 United States Census, there were 26,911 people, 10,598 households, 7,164 families in the county; the population density was 44.0/sqmi. There were 11,163 housing units at an average density of 18.3/sqmi. The racial makeup of the county was 97.82% White, 0.10% Black or African American, 0.12% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.91% from other races, 0.63% from two or more races. 2.03% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 67.1% were of German and 9.6% Norwegian ancestry. There were 10,598 households out of which 31.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.30% were married couples living together, 6.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 32.40% were non-families.
29.00% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.30% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.43 and the average family size was 3.00. The county population contained 25.30% under the age of 18, 9.70% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 21.90% from 45 to 64, 17.50% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 98.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 95.90 males. The median income for a household in the county was $39,800, the median income for a family was $49,811. Males had a median income of $32,347 versus $23,918 for females; the per capita income for the county was $19,535. About 4.40% of families and 6.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.00% of those under age 18 and 9.80% of those age 65 or over. Searles Essig Godahl Leavenworth Brown County voters have traditionally voted Republican. In no national election since 1964 has the county selected the Democratic Party candidate National Register of Historic Places listings in Brown County, Minnesota Louis Albert Fritsche, History of Brown County, Minnesota: Its People and Institutions.
In Two Volumes. Indianapolis, IN: B. F. Bowen and Co. 1916. Brown County official website City of New Ulm
Chandler is a city in Murray County, United States. The population was 270 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.78 square miles, all of it land. Minnesota State Highway 91 and Murray County Roads 4 and 5 are the main routes in the community; as of the census of 2010, there were 270 people, 109 households, 75 families residing in the city. The population density was 346.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 120 housing units at an average density of 153.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 88.9% White, 0.7% African American, 9.6% from other races, 0.7% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 22.6% of the population. There were 109 households of which 32.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.8% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 31.2% were non-families. 26.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 19.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.01. The median age in the city was 41 years. 24.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.4% male and 49.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 276 people, 113 households, 72 families residing in the city; the population density was 342.7 people per square mile. There were 121 housing units at an average density of 150.2 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.46% White, 1.81% from other races, 0.72% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 17.39% of the population. There were 113 households out of which 24.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.5% were married couples living together, 3.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.4% were non-families. 33.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 26.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.44 and the average family size was 3.14.
In the city, the population was spread out with 24.6% under the age of 18, 8.7% from 18 to 24, 19.2% from 25 to 44, 20.3% from 45 to 64, 27.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.4 males. The median income for a household in the city was $26,875, the median income for a family was $38,542. Males had a median income of $30,417 versus $20,000 for females; the per capita income for the city was $16,134. About 6.8% of families and 15.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 27.3% of those under the age of eighteen and 14.0% of those sixty five or over. A post office has been in operation at Chandler since 1886; the city was named for a railroad official. Chandler Air Force Station was located just south of town from 1951 though 1969, home to 787th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron. On June 16, 1992, Chandler was struck by a devastating F5 tornado that destroyed half of the town, most of which has since been rebuilt.
The Fenton Wind Farm, a 137 turbine wind farm near Chandler, became operational in 2007. Chandler is located in Minnesota's 1st congressional district, represented by Mankato educator Tim Walz, a Democrat. At the state level, Chandler is located in Senate District 22, represented by Republican Doug Magnus, in House District 22A, represented by Republican Joe Schomacker. City of Chandler
Pipestone County, Minnesota
Pipestone County is a county located in the U. S. state of Minnesota. As of the 2010 census, the population was 9,596, its county seat is Pipestone. The county was founded in 1857 and organized in 1879; the county was named for deposits of red pipestone used by Native Americans to make pipes. Pipestone National Monument is located in the county, just north of the town of Pipestone. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 466 square miles, of which 465 square miles is land and 0.9 square miles is water. Despite Pipestone County not containing any natural lakes, it does have one man-made reservoir created by a dam. Split Rock Lake: Eden Township, in Split Rock Creek State Park U. S. Highway 75 Minnesota State Highway 23 Minnesota State Highway 30 Minnesota State Highway 269 Lincoln County Lyon County Murray County Rock County Minnehaha County, South Dakota Moody County, South Dakota Brookings County, South Dakota Pipestone National Monument As of the 2000 census, there were 9,895 people, 4,069 households, 2,726 families residing in the county.
The population density was 21 people per square mile. There were 4,434 housing units at an average density of 10 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 96.68% White, 0.17% Black or African American, 1.48% Native American, 0.46% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.26% from other races, 0.93% from two or more races. 0.70% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 35.7% were of German, 24.8% Dutch and 14.3% Norwegian ancestry. There were 4,069 households out of which 31.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.60% were married couples living together, 6.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.00% were non-families. 30.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 17.20% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.96. In the county, the population was spread out with 25.80% under the age of 18, 6.80% from 18 to 24, 24.60% from 25 to 44, 21.40% from 45 to 64, 21.30% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 40 years. For every 100 females there were 92.80 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 89.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,909, the median income for a family was $40,133. Males had a median income of $27,642 versus $20,759 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,450. About 7.80% of families and 9.50% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.20% of those under age 18 and 11.10% of those age 65 or over. Airlie Cazenovia Cresson Diamond Corner National Register of Historic Places listings in Pipestone County, Minnesota Pipestone County government’s website
U.S. Route 59
U. S. Route 59 is a north–south United States highway. A latecomer to the U. S. numbered route system, US 59 is now a border-to-border route, part of NAFTA Corridor Highway System. It parallels U. S. Route 75 for nearly its entire route, never much more than 100 miles away, until it veers southwest in Houston, Texas, its number is out of place since US 59 is either concurrent with or west of U. S. Route 71; the highway's northern terminus is nine miles north of Lancaster, Minnesota, at the Canada–US border, where it continues as Manitoba Highway 59. Its southern terminus is at the Mexico–US border in Laredo, where it continues as Mexican Federal Highway 85D. U. S. Highway 59 in the U. S. state of Texas is named the Lloyd Bentsen Highway, after Lloyd Bentsen, former U. S. Senator from Texas. In northern Houston, US 59, co-signed with Interstate 69, is the Eastex Freeway. To the south, co-signed with I-69, it is the Southwest Freeway, one of the busiest sections of freeway in the United States with a vehicle count, as of 2006, over 330,000 vehicles per day just outside the Loop.
US 59 straddles the border between Texas and Arkansas north of I-30 near Texarkana, with the east side of the highway on the Arkansas side and the west side of the highway on the Texas side. In the past, both highways remained on the border past I-30 as State Line Avenue to downtown Texarkana. Nearly 90% of this route is designated to become part of I-69 in the future. 75 mph speed limits are allowed on US 59 in Duval County and portions of northern Polk County. From the southwestern suburbs of Houston to Downtown Houston, U. S. 59 is referred to as the "Southwest Freeway," sometimes derisively as the "Southwest's Best Freeway." Supporting 371,000 vehicles per day, it is one of the busiest freeways in the United States. U. S. 59 is known as the "Eastex Freeway" in the north/northeast part of the Houston region. At the Mexico -- US border, it ends at the World Trade International Bridge in Texas. In Laredo, U. S. 59 is co-signed with both Interstate 69W and Loop 20 and has an intersection with Interstate 35 which ends at the Juarez-Lincoln International Bridge.
After crossing the bridge into Mexico, Interstate 35 continues as Mexican Federal Highway 85 in Nuevo Laredo which runs through Mexico and Central America and ends in Panama at the Panama Canal. In Arkansas, US 59 is concurrent with U. S. Route 71 from Interstate 30 at Texarkana to Acorn, with U. S. Route 270 from Acorn to the Oklahoma state line; the Third Loop was to be Extended on Interstate 49 from its original northern end to US-71 at the Texas state line opened on May 15, 2013 and was extended to State Line Road, where it intersects US-59 and US-71 in Texas. US 59 and U. S. Route 412 are co-signed for 10 miles in Oklahoma. US 59 is co-signed with U. S. Route 270 from the Arkansas State Line to Heavener and U. S. Route 271 from Poteau to west of Spiro, it is co-signed with U. S. Route 64 in Sallisaw. U. S. 59 runs nearly directly north across the state. U. S. 59 runs concurrently with U. S. 169 starting about five miles south of Garnett and diverges north again south of Garnett. The intersection south of Garnett used to be a "braided" intersection with stop and yield signs.
It was identified as a high crash location in 2001, was rebuilt as a roundabout that opened in April 2006. The Kansas Department of Transportation is rebuilding or planning to rebuild several other rural intersections as roundabouts for increased safety; until 2012 US 59 passed through Ottawa and had to be shut down or detoured every time the Marias Des Cygnes floodwall gates were closed across the highway. The highway now bypasses around Ottawa, running concurrently with Interstate 35 for five miles and utilizing that highway's bridges over the Marias Des Cygnes. US 59 passes through Lawrence; the street name of US 59 in Lawrence is Iowa Street 6th Street as it joins U. S. 40 and jogs east to cross the Kansas River near downtown. North of the U. S. 40 and 59 Bridges, it splits with U. S. 40 as it joins U. S. 24 and jogs back west before resuming a northerly course. It continues north to Nortonville northeast to Atchison, where it crosses the Missouri River over the Amelia Earhart Bridge. U. S. 59 has been rebuilt and rerouted just to the east between Lawrence and Ottawa as a divided highway, as the former road was one of the most dangerous stretches of highway in the state.
The project began in mid 2007 and was completed and opened to the public on October 17, 2012. In Missouri, US 59 follows the Missouri River in the northwest corner of the state, from its entrance at Winthrop. In Saint Joseph the highway is paired with Interstate 229 through downtown. US 59 departs from I-229 as Saint Joseph Avenue, joining with U. S. Route 71 at Interstate 29; the two highways separate in Savannah. US 59 follows Interstate 29 closely until turning northward at Craig, it exits the state 10 miles north of Tarkio. This section of US 59 is immortalized in the Brewer and Shipley song "Tarkio Road". In Iowa, US 59 is a main north–south artery in the western part of the state, it junctions Interstate 80 at Avoca. It passes through the county seats of Harlan, Denison and Primghar. Except for small stretches of expressway near Avoca and Holstein, the entire length of US 59 in Iowa is an undivided two-lane road. US 59 exits the state near Hawkeye Point, the highest p