Murray Hill is a neighborhood on the east side of Manhattan in New York City. Murray Hill is bordered to the east by the East River, to the west by Midtown Manhattan, to the south by Kips Bay and Rose Hill, to the north by Turtle Bay, its exact boundaries are disputed and vary but it is located between East 32nd Street and/or 34th Street to the south, East 40th Street and/or 42nd Street to the north, Madison Avenue or Fifth Avenue to the west, the East River to the east. Murray Hill was named after Robert Murray, the head of the Murray family, a mercantile family that settled in the area in the 18th century; the Murray property was located on a steep glacial hill that peaked between Lexington Avenue and Broadway. Through the 19th century, Murray Hill was isolated from the rest of New York City, which at the time was centered in lower Manhattan. Murray Hill became an upscale neighborhood during the 20th century. Today, it contains several cultural institutions, as well as missions and consulates to the nearby United Nations headquarters.
Murray Hill is part of Manhattan Community District 6 and its primary ZIP Codes are 10016 and 10017. It is patrolled by the 17th Precinct of the New York City Police Department. According to the Murray Hill Neighborhood Association, the neighborhood encompasses the 10016 zip code—running from 40th Street down to 27th Street, from Fifth Avenue to the East River; the city's Landmarks Preservation Commission has described Murray Hill's boundaries as 34th Street on the south, 40th Street on the north, Fifth Avenue on the west, Third Avenue on the east. The city's Planning Department has described the boundaries as East 40th Street to the north, Second Avenue to the east, 34th Street to the south, Madison Avenue to the west. For its entry on Murray Hill, the American Institute of Architects' AIA Guide to New York City uses the area from East 32nd Street north to East 40th Street, from Third Avenue west to Madison Avenue. In AIA Guide, Murray Hill abuts Midtown to the north and west, Kips Bay to the east, Rose Hill to the south.
Manhattan Community Board 6—of which Murray Hill is part—has defined the boundaries as East 34th Street to the south, East 40th Street to the north, Madison Avenue to the west, East River to the east. Murray Hill derives its name from the Murray family, 18th-century Quaker merchants concerned with shipping and overseas trade. Robert Murray, the family patriarch, was born in County Armagh, immigrated to Pennsylvania in 1732, came to New York City in 1753 after a short residence in North Carolina, he established himself as a merchant and owned more shipping tonnage than any other New Yorker. About 1762 Murray rented land from the city for a large house and farm, his house, which he named Inclenberg, but, called Murray Hill, was built on a since-leveled hill at what is today Park Avenue and 36th Street. The great square house was approached by an avenue of mixed trees leading from the Boston Post Road; the total area was just over 29 acres. The farm began a few feet south of modern day 33rd Street and extended north to the middle of the block between 38th and 39th Streets.
At the southern end, the plot was narrow, but at the northern end it extended from Lexington Avenue to a spot between Madison and Fifth Avenues. The Inclenberg was an abrupt, steep-sided mound of glacial till typical of Manhattan Island's still-unmodified post-glacial terrain: this "hill of the rudest and most heterogeneous mixture of stone and gravel and boulders, cemented together into a matrix of impenetrable density existed, crowning the underlying schist... It had a natural rise from 34th Street, sinking towards 42nd Street and reaching from Lexington Avenue to Broadway." Such a soil would have been unsuitable for farming. Mary Lindley Murray is credited with delaying William Howe and his army during General Washington's retreat from New York following the British landing at Kip's Bay, September 15, 1776; as the story goes, Mrs. Robert Murray, the mother of Lindley and John, invited the officers to tea at her mansion of Inclenberg and succeeded in delaying the British troops for a period sufficient to allow a successful American retreat.
She is said by Rev. T. Dewitt Talmage to have saved American independence by detaining Lord Howe long enough to permit Israel Putnam to pass up the Greenwich road from the city and join the forces of George Washington in the north end of the island, before Howe was able to overtake him; this dilatory action saved 3,500 men, who would have otherwise been captured. James Thacher, M. D. a gossipy surgeon with the Continental Army, kept a journal, one of the prime sources of information about the military happenings of the times. In an entry for September 20, Thacher tells the story as follows: "The British generals...repaired to the house of a Mr. Robert Murray, a Quaker and friend of our cause. By this happy incident general Putnam, by continuing his march, escaped... It has since become a common saying a
Westview is a census-designated place in Miami-Dade County, United States. The population was 9,650 at the 2010 census. Westview is located at 25°52′56″N 80°14′17″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.2 square miles, of which, 3.1 square miles of it is land and 0.1 square miles of it is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 9,692 people, 2,914 households, 2,235 families living in the CDP; the population density was 3,109.2 people per square mile. There were 3,111 housing units at an average density of 998.0/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 17.01% White 75.63% African American, 0.43% Native American, 0.41% Asian, 0.13% Pacific Islander, 3.01% from other races, 3.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 19.76% of the population. There were 2,914 households out of which 37.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 37.1% were married couples living together, 31.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.3% were non-families.
19.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.32 and the average family size was 3.74. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 31.2% under the age of 18, 11.1% from 18 to 24, 25.6% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, 9.5% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 31 years. For every 100 females, there were 88.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 81.4 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $28,943, the median income for a family was $31,289. Males had a median income of $23,052 versus $22,933 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $11,887. About 23.2% of families and 26.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 32.4% of those under age 18 and 24.9% of those age 65 or over. As of 2000, speakers of English as a first language accounted for 68.37% of residents, while Spanish made up 20.61%, French Creole was at 10.16%, French was the mother tongue of 0.84% of the population
The Rose Hill Historic District is a nationally recognized historic district located in Sioux City, United States. It was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2002. At the time of its nomination it contained 217 resources, which included 132 contributing buildings 84 non-contributing buildings, one non-contributing site; the district is located within the larger Rose Hill Addition, laid out by a group of Sioux City entrepreneurs in 1884. It includes many mansions built for the wealthy from about 1890 to 1910, most of which were divided into apartments; the Elzy G. Burkam House and adjacent garage are contributing properties, it included a 125-year-old house at 1529 Grandview Boulevard, demolished in 2015 after a long controversy about historic preservation. GovernmentSioux City Urban Renewal Area
In fluid dynamics, Görtler vortices are secondary flows that appear in a boundary layer flow along a concave wall. If the boundary layer is thin compared to the radius of curvature of the wall, the pressure remains constant across the boundary layer. On the other hand, if the boundary layer thickness is comparable to the radius of curvature, the centrifugal action creates a pressure variation across the boundary layer; this leads to the centrifugal instability of the boundary layer and consequent formation of Görtler vortices. The onset of Görtler vortices can be predicted using the dimensionless number called Görtler number, it is the ratio of centrifugal effects to the viscous effects in the boundary layer and is defined as G = U e θ ν 1 / 2 where U e = external velocity θ = momentum thickness ν = kinematic viscosity R = radius of curvature of the wallGörtler instability occurs when G exceeds about 0.3. A similar phenomenon arising from the same centrifugal action is sometimes observed in rotational flows which do not follow a curved wall, such as the rib vortices seen in the wakes of cylinders and generated behind moving structures.
Görtler, H.. "Dreidimensionales zur Stabilitätstheorie laminarer Grenzschichten". Journal of Applied Mathematics and Mechanics. 35: 362–363. Bibcode:1955ZaMM...35..360.. Doi:10.1002/zamm.19550350906. Saric, W. S.. "Görtler vortices". Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 26: 379–409. Bibcode:1994AnRFM..26..379S. Doi:10.1146/annurev.fl.26.010194.002115
John Burns Brooksby was a Scottish veterinarian, animal physiologist and veterinary virologist. He was a recognised expert on serology and foot-and-mouth disease, identified and categorised the majority of its known forms, his advice was taken on an international level, he played a significant role in disease control in Africa and the Middle East. He was responsible for the control of the spread of this disease at international level. Brooksby attended Hyndland Secondary School in Glasgow and the Glasgow Veterinary College, he completed a BSc in Veterinary Science at London University while lecturing in histology at the College. In 1936 he received a grant to study for three years, he studied at three separate centres of excellence on consecutive years: London. However, once complete in 1939, his preferred field of animal reproduction offered no employment opportunities and instead he joined the Foot-and-Mouth Research Institute at Pirbright, he developed a methodology for diagnosing and typing foot-and-mouth disease, thereafter adopted worldwide.
Following a widespread epidemic in Mexico he developed an effective vaccination against the disease. His studies included the survival of the virus in meat, concluding that the virus made use of the animal meat non-viable, a major contributor to the widespread fear of the disease now felt in the farming community. Brooksby became Deputy Director of the Pirbright Institute in 1957, took complete control as Director in 1964, he served as Director for 16 years. During this time he worked on vaccines and further study on the potential for airborne spread of the disease, his research extended into African swine fever and blue tongue viruses. He prepared the UK for an epidemic of swine vesicular disease, stemming from Italy and Hong Kong and halted it in its tracks in 1972 due to appropriate immunisation, he was elected a 17n17 in 1968 and a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1970. In 1973 he was made a Commander of the Order of the British Empire, he was born on 25 December 1914 to Elizabeth Brodie Burns and George B.
Brooksby, an organ-builder in Hyndland, Glasgow. His mother was from a family of Renfrewshire farmers and he visited his uncles' farms who engendered in him, a love of animals. Brooksby married Muriel Weir, one of his Glasgow students, on 18 December 1940, they had two children and Iain. He had developed a keen love of art from his mother and was a member of the Farnham Art Society, selling several pictures. On retiring he moved to Cambridgeshire with his wife. Here he exhibited there, he was a keen golfer and gardener. Brooksby died on 17 December 1998 at Swaffham Bulbeck near Cambridge aged 83 years. Henderson, W. M. B.. "The survival of foot-and-mouth disease virus in meat and offal". The Journal of Hygiene. 46: 394–402. Doi:10.1017/s0022172400036561. PMC 2235151. PMID 18129316. Brooksby, J. B.. The antibodies in foot-and-mouth disease. Report No. 9. Agricultural Research Council. Pp. 55–58. OCLC 630166920. Rice, Christine E.. B.. "Studies of the complement-fixation reaction in virus systems. V. In foot and mouth disease using direct and indirect methods".
Journal of Immunology. 71: 300–10. PMID 13118165. Brooksby, J. B.. "The virus of foot-and-mouth disease". Advances in Virus Research. 5: 1–37. Doi:10.1016/s0065-352760670-3. PMID 13508401
The Class is an Estonian film about school violence directed by Ilmar Raag. It was released on March 16, 2007. A 7 episode series was produced, telling what happens after the initial movie; the series was called Class: Life After. Joosep Raak is an Estonian teenager, being bullied by his entire high school class, the ring leader of them all is Anders, his accomplice Paul and three other friends Toomas and Olav. Anders encourages the class to continually beat up Joosep, harass him in other ways as well, such as undressing him and pushing him in the girls' changing room; however classmate Kaspar Kordes decides to go into a matter of loyalty by going against Anders and the others entertainment of harassing Joosep by defending him, such as giving him a spare pair of shoes when Paul had torn them, which does not sit well with the whole class and so Kaspar becomes separated from the whole group the class had formed. Kaspar's love interest Thea becomes distant to him and this begins to worry him but continues to defend Joosep.
Joosep's tutor Laine becomes aware of Joosep receiving harassment and sends Paul to the headmistresses office and so he frames Kaspar of the whole harassment where they believe in him due to being unaware of his true actions, which leads to the school contacting Joosep's parents. Joosep's Father Margus a militarist fascinated with guns and insists on Joosep being a "real man" encounters him about the accusation of Kaspar bullying him and so Joosep dismissively reveals, the whole class which angers Margus and tells Joosep to fight the ringleader of the crowd as he believes it is the only way to stop and scare somebody from bullying him; the next day when Anders and his four friends go to attack Joosep, the restrained Kaspar breaks free and attempts to hit Anders with a chair, which Anders manages to dodge. Anders claims that Kaspar has "gone crazy". Anders asks Kaspar to meet him in the school playground after class. Upon meeting up with an expected fight, Kaspar tells Anders that he will accept the fact that he will not be a "normal guy", where Paul, Toomas and Olav appear with a restrained Joosep and lock Kaspar in a burned down shed where they force him to watch as they take turns to hit Joosep, to the point where he can't breathe anymore.
Before leaving off Anders tells Kaspar that if he continues to defend Joosep it will only earn Joosep worser beatings. Joosep goes to Kaspar's apartment complex where they meet up and he informs Kaspar that he wishes for him to stop defending him, a concerned Kaspar asks what Joosep will do and suggests that he could shoot them by referencing a God's law, Joosep believes that it will be best if he let's it go on until he has finished school so he will never see them again and be free. Thea becomes saddened and angered when the class starts believing that in a homophobic atmosphere Joosep and Kaspar are ridiculed for having gay feelings for each other and so she is having love interests in Kaspar. Kaspar becomes stressed by this and tries to talk Thea down about it but she starts believing that Kaspar cares more about Joosep her and leaves him, meanwhile Joosep is being beaten in class; when returning home, Joosep's Mother Liina discovers heavy bruises on his chest as well as a cut on his chin, she becomes worried that he had been fighting and demands to know what is happening but he refuses to tell and Margus supports him on the claim.
Liina at last the class as a whole is rightly blamed. When Laine confronts the class about the claim, Joosep runs home fearing the worst and angered, upon entering his home crying only to encounter Margus who learns that Liina called the school, tries to encourage his son to fight back and demonstrates a fighting technique by giving the boy an additional punch. Out of revenge, the class assembles on a beach, calling both Kaspar and Joosep there by writing emails to them showing each other as fake sender. Once there, they make Thea confess to Kaspar that she is no longer with him in front of the whole crowd which sets him off and beats Anders to the ground only to have a knife pulled on him, they all force Kaspar to fellate Joosep at knife point and photograph the sexual act without showing the knife. Kaspar throws up afterwards; the boys decide to avenge themselves. Joosep steals Margus's two pistols, a bolt-action rifle and ammunition from his gun safe whilst asleep, the two proceed to school the next morning.
As they proceed and teachers notice the guns in their hands, when a teacher encounters them about it they walk past and Joosep tells her to call the police. Before entering the cafeteria to shoot their bullies, Kerli, a gothic girl from the class who witnessed the incident at the beach, decides to let the two have their revenge and goes past them, they begin the massacre on the students responsible for their torment. Joosep shoots Tiit at close range and shoots Olav in the head. Joosep shoots and kills Thea's best friend Riina. To their regret, Kaspar accidentally shoots an eighth grade female student from another class while trying to shoot Anders. Toomas tries to grab the gun from Joosep but ends up getting shot in the abdomen Anders and Paul manage to restrain him and take his rifle, however Kaspar saves Joosep by shooting Paul in the head, just before Anders could reach the exit and escape he is shot in the shoulder and is executed by Joosep. Joosep goes over to finish off Thea but Kaspar stops him and decides to spa