A condiment or table sauce is a spice, sauce, or preparation, added to food to impart a specific flavor, to enhance the flavor, or, in some cultures, to complement the dish. The term described pickled or preserved foods, but its meaning has changed over time. Many condiments, such as mustard or ketchup, are available in single-serving packets when supplied with take-out or fast-food meals; the diner applies them, but they are sometimes added prior to serving, for example, in a sandwich made with ketchup, mustard or mayonnaise. Some condiments are used during cooking to add texture; the term condiment comes from the Latin condimentum, meaning "spice, sauce" and from the Latin condere, meaning "preserve, season". The exact definition of a condiment varies; some definitions encompass spices and herbs, including salt pepper, using the term interchangeably with seasoning. Others restrict the definition to include only "prepared food compound, containing one or more spices", which are added to food after the cooking process, such as mustard, ketchup or mint sauce.
Cheese is considered a condiment in some European countries. Condiments were known in Ancient India, Ancient Greece and Ancient China. There is a myth that before food preservation techniques were widespread, pungent spices and condiments were used to make the food more palatable, but this claim is not supported by any evidence or historical record; the Romans made the condiments garum and liquamen by crushing the innards of various fish and let it fermenting in salt, resulting in a liquid containing glutamic acid, suitable for enhancing favor of food, leading to a flourishing condiment industry. Apicius, a cookbook based on 4th and 5th century cuisine, contains a section based on condiments; the condiment market refers to the consumer purchase of condiments. In the United States, condiment market was valued at USD 5.6 billion in 2010 and is estimated to grow to USD 7 billion by 2015. The condiment market is the second largest in specialty foods behind that of cheese
Salt is a mineral composed of sodium chloride, a chemical compound belonging to the larger class of salts. Salt is present in vast quantities in seawater; the open ocean has about 35 grams of solids per liter of sea water, a salinity of 3.5%. Salt is essential for life in general, saltiness is one of the basic human tastes. Salt is one of the oldest and most ubiquitous food seasonings, salting is an important method of food preservation; some of the earliest evidence of salt processing dates to around 6,000 BC, when people living in the area of present-day Romania boiled spring water to extract salts. Salt was prized by the ancient Hebrews, the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Hittites and the Indians. Salt became an important article of trade and was transported by boat across the Mediterranean Sea, along specially built salt roads, across the Sahara on camel caravans; the scarcity and universal need for salt have led nations to go to war over it and use it to raise tax revenues. Salt has other cultural and traditional significance.
Salt is processed from salt mines, by the evaporation of seawater and mineral-rich spring water in shallow pools. Its major industrial products are caustic chlorine. Of the annual global production of around two hundred million tonnes of salt, about 6% is used for human consumption. Other uses include water conditioning processes, de-icing highways, agricultural use. Edible salt is sold in forms such as sea salt and table salt which contains an anti-caking agent and may be iodised to prevent iodine deficiency; as well as its use in cooking and at the table, salt is present in many processed foods. Sodium is an essential nutrient for human health via its role as an osmotic solute. Excessive salt consumption may increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases, such as hypertension, in children and adults; such health effects of salt have long been studied. Accordingly, numerous world health associations and experts in developed countries recommend reducing consumption of popular salty foods; the World Health Organization recommends that adults should consume less than 2,000 mg of sodium, equivalent to 5 grams of salt per day.
All through history, the availability of salt has been pivotal to civilization. What is now thought to have been the first city in Europe is Solnitsata, in Bulgaria, a salt mine, providing the area now known as the Balkans with salt since 5400 BC; the name Solnitsata means "salt works". While people have used canning and artificial refrigeration to preserve food for the last hundred years or so, salt has been the best-known food preservative for meat, for many thousands of years. A ancient salt-works operation has been discovered at the Poiana Slatinei archaeological site next to a salt spring in Lunca, Neamț County, Romania. Evidence indicates that Neolithic people of the Precucuteni Culture were boiling the salt-laden spring water through the process of briquetage to extract the salt as far back as 6050 BC; the salt extracted from this operation may have had a direct correlation to the rapid growth of this society's population soon after its initial production began. The harvest of salt from the surface of Xiechi Lake near Yuncheng in Shanxi, dates back to at least 6000 BC, making it one of the oldest verifiable saltworks.
There is more salt in animal tissues, such as meat and milk, than in plant tissues. Nomads who subsist on their flocks and herds do not eat salt with their food, but agriculturalists, feeding on cereals and vegetable matter, need to supplement their diet with salt. With the spread of civilization, salt became one of the world's main trading commodities, it was of high value to the ancient Hebrews, the Greeks, the Romans, the Byzantines, the Hittites and other peoples of antiquity. In the Middle East, salt was used to ceremonially seal an agreement, the ancient Hebrews made a "covenant of salt" with God and sprinkled salt on their offerings to show their trust in him. An ancient practice in time of war was salting the earth: scattering salt around in a defeated city to prevent plant growth; the Bible tells the story of King Abimelech, ordered by God to do this at Shechem, various texts claim that the Roman general Scipio Aemilianus Africanus ploughed over and sowed the city of Carthage with salt after it was defeated in the Third Punic War.
Salt may have been used for barter in connection with the obsidian trade in Anatolia in the Neolithic Era. Salt was included among funeral offerings found in ancient Egyptian tombs from the third millennium BC, as were salted birds, salt fish. From about 2800 BC, the Egyptians began exporting salt fish to the Phoenicians in return for Lebanon cedar and the dye Tyrian purple. Herodotus described salt trading routes across Libya back in the 5th century BC. In the early years of the Roman Empire, roads were built for the transportation of salt from the salt imported at Ostia to the capital. In Africa, salt was used as currency south of the Sahara, slabs of rock salt were used as coins in Abyssinia. Moorish merchants in the 6th century traded salt for weight for weight; the Tuareg have traditionally maintained routes across the Sahara for the transportation of salt by Azalai. The caravans
A dip or dipping sauce is a common condiment for many types of food. Dips are used to add flavor or texture to a food, such as pita bread, crackers, cut-up raw vegetables, seafood, cubed pieces of meat and cheese, potato chips, tortilla chips and sometimes whole sandwiches in the case of au jus. Unlike other sauces, instead of applying the sauce to the food, the food is put, dipped, or added into the dipping sauce. Dips are used for finger foods and other food types. Thick dips based on sour cream, crème fraîche, yogurt, soft cheese, or beans are a staple of American hors d'oeuvres and are thinner than spreads which can be thinned to make dips. Alton Brown suggests that a dip is defined based on its ability to "maintain contact with its transport mechanism over three feet of white carpet". Dips in various forms are eaten all over the world and people have been using sauces for dipping for thousands of years; some types of dip include: Aioli, an emulsion of garlic and olive oil Ajika, a spicy, subtly flavoured dip in Caucasian cuisine, based on hot red pepper, garlic and spices Ajvar, made from red bell peppers with garlic, found in Serbian cuisine Artichoke dip Au jus, a meat juice used as a sandwich dip, such as for Italian beef Baba ghanoush, a dip made from eggplant, popular in the Eastern Mediterranean and parts of South Asia Bagna càuda, a regional dish of the Italian Piedmont Banana ketchup, a Filipino condiment made from bananas.
Used similar to tomato ketchup. Barbecue sauce used for grilled and fried meats in the United States Bean dip, dip made from refried beans Blue cheese dressing used as a dip for raw vegetables or buffalo wings Buffalo sauce used as both a coating for buffalo wings as well as a standalone dipping sauce for other foods Chile con queso, used in Tex Mex cuisine with tortilla chips Chili oil, used as a dipping sauce for meat and dim sum Chocolate, a dip for various fruits, doughnuts and marshmallows Chutney, used with snacks like deep fried samosas and pakoras and idli Clam dip, a kind of condiment for dipping crackers and chips Cocktail sauce, a dip for seafood made from ketchup or chili sauce and horseradish Crab dip, a thick dip popular in Maryland made from cream cheese and lump crab meat Curry ketchup called Currygewürz in Germany, is a spicier form of ketchup Fish sauce, or nam pla, used in southeastern Asian cuisines as a dip for snacks and other foods Fish paste or bagoong, fermented fish paste, used in southeastern Asian cuisines as a dip for rice dishes Fondue, a melted cheese sauce French onion dip Fritessaus, a leaner form of mayonnaise from The Netherlands Fry sauce, a dip eaten with french fries and onion rings Garlic butter sauce, used for dipping seafood, chicken and pizza.
It is eaten with tortilla chips. Hazelnut butter or hazelnut spread is used as a dip for crackers and cookies Honey, a common dip for chicken and biscuits Hot sauce or chili sauce, a spicy dip made from peppers Hummus, a Levantine dip of ground chickpeas and sesame tahini with spices and lemon juice Jus, a broth served with a French dip Ketchup used with french fries, onion rings, a wide variety of other foods Marinara sauce, a tomato sauce served with breadsticks, etc. Mayonnaise, the basis for many dips, on its own a dip for cold chicken. Satsivi, a walnut dip in Georgian cuisine Smetana, a common dip for bliny, vareniki Sour cream, on its own or combined with mayonnaise and/or other ingredients, a common dip for potato chips Soy sauce served in small saucers for dipping a variety of East Asian foods. Spinach dip, for tortilla chips and vegetables Sriracha sauce Sweet and sour sauce, aka plum sauce or duck sauce, used for dipping fried noodles and other foods Taramosalata, a Near Eastern dip of carp or codfish roe Tartar sauce used with seafood Tentsuyu, a Japanese dipping sauce Tkemali, a cherry plum sauce in Georgian cuisine Toyomansi, a Filipino meat or fish dip made with soy sauce and calamansi juice.
Chilis may be added to create "silimansi". Tzatziki and similar sauces used for dipping include tarator and Raita Vinegar, used as a dip for grilled meats, steamed crabs.
A raisin is a dried grape. Raisins are produced in many regions of the world and may be eaten raw or used in cooking and brewing. In the United Kingdom, New Zealand, Australia, the word "raisin" is reserved for the dark-colored dried large grape, with "sultana" being a golden-colored dried grape, "currant" being a dried small Black Corinth seedless grape; the word "raisin" is a loanword from Old French. The Old French word, in turn, developed from the Latin word racemus, "a bunch of grapes". Raisin varieties depend on the type of grape used and are made in a variety of sizes and colors including green, brown, blue and yellow. Seedless varieties include the Greek currants and Flame grapes. Raisins are traditionally sun-dried, but may be water-dipped and artificially dehydrated. "Golden raisins" are dried in dehydrators with controlled temperature and humidity, which allows them to retain a lighter color and more moisture. They are treated with sulfur dioxide after drying. Black Corinth or Zante currant are miniature, sometimes seedless raisins that are much darker and have a tart, tangy flavor.
They are called currants. Muscat raisins are large compared to other varieties, sweeter. Several varieties of raisins produced in Asia are available in the West only at ethnic grocers. Monukka grapes are used for some of these. Raisins can contain up to 72% sugars by weight, most of, fructose and glucose – forming sucrose when combined in a single molecule, they contain about 3% protein and 3.7%–6.8% dietary fiber. Raisins, like prunes and apricots, are high in certain antioxidants, but have a lower vitamin C content than fresh grapes. Raisins contain no cholesterol. Data presented at the American College of Cardiology's 61st Annual Scientific Session in 2012 suggest that, among individuals with mild increases in blood pressure, the routine consumption of raisins may lower blood pressure when compared to eating other common snacks. Raisins can cause renal failure in dogs; the cause of this is not known. Raisins are sweet due to their high concentration of sugars; the sugars can crystallise inside the fruit when stored after a long period, making the dry raisins gritty, but that does not affect their usability.
These sugar grains can be dissolved by blanching the fruit in other liquids. Global production in 2016 was 1.2 million metric tons, with the US as the top producer contributing 24% of the global harvest. Raisins are produced commercially by drying harvested grape berries. For a grape berry to dry, water inside the grape must be removed from the interior of the cells onto the surface of the grape where the water droplets can evaporate. However, this diffusion process is difficult because the grape skin contains wax in its cuticle, which prevents the water from passing through. In addition to this, the physical and chemical mechanisms located on the outer layers of the grape are adapted to prevent water loss; the three steps to commercial raisin production include pre-treatment and post-drying processes. Pre-treatment is a necessary step in raisin production to ensure the increased rate of water removal during the drying process. A faster water removal rate decreases the rate of browning and helps to produce more desirable raisins.
The historical method of completing this process was developed in the Mediterranean and Asia Minor areas by using a dry emulsion cold dip made of potassium carbonate and ethyl esters of fatty acids. This dip was shown to increase the rate of water loss by two- to three-fold. New methods have been developed such as exposing the grapes to oil emulsions or dilute alkaline solutions; these methods can encourage water transfer to the outer surface of grapes which helps to increase the efficiency of the drying process. The three types of drying methods are: sun drying, shade drying, mechanical drying. Sun drying is an inexpensive process. Additionally, sun drying is a slow process and may not produce the most desirable raisins. Mechanical drying can be done in a safer and more controlled environment where rapid drying is guaranteed. One type of mechanical drying is to use microwave heating. Water molecules in the grapes absorb microwave energy resulting in rapid evaporation. Microwave heating produces puffy raisins.
After the drying process is complete, raisins are sent to processing plants where they are cleaned with water to remove any foreign objects that may have become embedded during the drying process. Stems and off-grade raisins are removed; the washing process may cause rehydration, so another drying step is completed after washing to ensure that the added moisture has been removed. All steps in the production of raisins are important in determining the quality of raisins. Sometimes, sulfur dioxide is applied to raisins after the pre treatment step and before drying to decrease the rate of browning caused by the reaction between polyphenol oxidase and phenolic compounds. Sulfur dioxide helps to preserve flavor and prevent the loss of certain vitamins during the drying process. Raisins are rich in dietary fiber, carbohydrates with a low glycemic index, minerals like copper and iron, with a low fat content. Raisins are recommended as a snack for weight control bec
The Byzantine Empire referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century AD and continued to exist for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic and military force in Europe. Both the terms "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms created after the end of the realm. Several signal events from the 4th to 6th centuries mark the period of transition during which the Roman Empire's Greek East and Latin West diverged. Constantine I reorganised the empire, made Constantinople the new capital, legalised Christianity. Under Theodosius I, Christianity became the Empire's official state religion and other religious practices were proscribed.
Under the reign of Heraclius, the Empire's military and administration were restructured and adopted Greek for official use in place of Latin. Thus, although the Roman state continued and its traditions were maintained, modern historians distinguish Byzantium from ancient Rome insofar as it was centred on Constantinople, oriented towards Greek rather than Latin culture, characterised by Eastern Orthodox Christianity; the borders of the empire evolved over its existence, as it went through several cycles of decline and recovery. During the reign of Justinian I, the empire reached its greatest extent after reconquering much of the Roman western Mediterranean coast, including North Africa and Rome itself, which it held for two more centuries; the Byzantine–Sasanian War of 602–628 exhausted the empire's resources and contributed to major territorial losses during the Early Muslim conquests of the 7th century, when it lost its richest provinces and Syria, to the Arab caliphate. During the Macedonian dynasty, the empire expanded again and experienced the two-century long Macedonian Renaissance, which came to an end with the loss of much of Asia Minor to the Seljuk Turks after the Battle of Manzikert in 1071.
This battle opened the way for the Turks to settle in Anatolia. The empire recovered during the Komnenian restoration, by the 12th century Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest European city. However, it was delivered a mortal blow during the Fourth Crusade, when Constantinople was sacked in 1204 and the territories that the empire governed were divided into competing Byzantine Greek and Latin realms. Despite the eventual recovery of Constantinople in 1261, the Byzantine Empire remained only one of several small rival states in the area for the final two centuries of its existence, its remaining territories were progressively annexed by the Ottomans over the 15th century. The Fall of Constantinople to the Ottoman Empire in 1453 ended the Byzantine Empire; the last of the imperial Byzantine successor states, the Empire of Trebizond, would be conquered by the Ottomans eight years in the 1461 Siege of Trebizond. The first use of the term "Byzantine" to label the years of the Roman Empire was in 1557, when the German historian Hieronymus Wolf published his work Corpus Historiæ Byzantinæ, a collection of historical sources.
The term comes from "Byzantium", the name of the city of Constantinople before it became Constantine's capital. This older name of the city would be used from this point onward except in historical or poetic contexts; the publication in 1648 of the Byzantine du Louvre, in 1680 of Du Cange's Historia Byzantina further popularised the use of "Byzantine" among French authors, such as Montesquieu. However, it was not until the mid-19th century that the term came into general use in the Western world; the Byzantine Empire was known to its inhabitants as the "Roman Empire", the "Empire of the Romans", "Romania", the "Roman Republic", as "Rhōmais". The inhabitants called themselves Romaioi and as late as the 19th century Greeks referred to Modern Greek as Romaiika "Romaic." After 1204 when the Byzantine Empire was confined to its purely Greek provinces the term'Hellenes' was used instead. While the Byzantine Empire had a multi-ethnic character during most of its history and preserved Romano-Hellenistic traditions, it became identified by its western and northern contemporaries with its predominant Greek element.
The occasional use of the term "Empire of the Greeks" in the West to refer to the Eastern Roman Empire and of the Byzantine Emperor as Imperator Graecorum were used to separate it from the prestige of the Roman Empire within the new kingdoms of the West. No such distinction existed in the Islamic and Slavic worlds, where the Empire was more straightforwardly seen as the continuation of the Roman Empire. In the Islamic world, the Roman Empire was known as Rûm; the name millet-i Rûm, or "Roman nation," was used by the Ottomans through the 20th century to refer to the former subjects of the Byzantine Empire
Garum was a fermented fish sauce used as a condiment in the cuisines of ancient Greece and Byzantium. Liquamen was a similar preparation, at times they were synonymous. Although it enjoyed its greatest popularity in the Roman world, it was earlier used by the Greeks. Pliny the Elder and Isidore of Seville derive the Latin word garum from the Greek γαρός, a food named by Aristophanes and Aeschylus. Garos may have been a fish sauce similar to garum. Pliny stated that garum was made from fish intestines, with salt, creating a liquor, the garum, a sediment named allec or allex. A concentrated garum evaporated down to a thick paste with salt crystals was called muria. Like the modern fermented soy product soy sauce, fermented garum is rich in monosodium glutamate, a source of umami flavoring, it was used along with murri in medieval Byzantine and Arab cuisine to give a savory flavor to dishes. Murri may well derive from garum. Garum was produced in various grades consumed by all social classes. After the liquid was ladled off of the top of the mixture, the remains of the fish, called allec, was used by the poorest classes to flavour their staple porridge or farinata.
The finished product—the nobile garum of Martial's epigram—was mild and subtle in flavor. The best garum fetched extraordinarily high prices, salt could be substituted for it in a simpler dish. Garum appears in many recipes featured in the Roman cookbook Apicius. For example, Apicius gives a recipe for lamb stew, calling for the meat to be cooked with onion and coriander, lovage, liquamen and wine thickened with flour. In the first century AD, liquamen was a sauce distinct from garum, as indicated throughout the Corpus Inscriptionum Latinarum IV. By the fifth century or earlier, liquamen had come to refer to garum; the available evidence suggests that the sauce was made by crushing the innards of pelagic fishes anchovies, but sprats, mackerel, or tuna, fermenting them in brine. In most surviving tituli picti inscribed on amphorae, where the fish ingredient is shown, the fish is mackerel. Under the best conditions, the fermentation process took about 48 hours; the manufacture and export of garum was an element of the prosperity of coastal Greek emporia from the Ligurian coast of Gaul to the coast of Hispania Baetica, an impetus for Roman penetration of these coastal regions.
Pliny the Elder spoke of a type of higher quality garum that Roman Jews may have used, as normal garum would not have been considered kosher. In the ruins of Pompeii, jars were found containing kosher garum, suggesting an equal popularity among Jews there; each port had its own traditional recipe, but by the time of Augustus, Romans considered the best to be garum from Cartagena and Gades in Baetica. This product was called garum sociorum, "garum of the allies"; the ruins of a garum factory remain at the Baetian site of Baelo Carteia. Other sites are a large garum factory at Málaga under the Picasso museum. Garum was a major export product from Hispania to Rome, gained the towns a certain amount of prestige; the garum of Lusitania was highly prized in Rome, was shipped directly from the harbour of Lacobriga. A former Roman garum factory can be visited in the Baixa area of central Lisbon. Fossae Marianae in southern Gaul, located on the southern tip of present-day France, served as a distribution hub for Western Europe, including Gaul and Roman Britain.
Umbricius Scaurus' production of garum was key to the economy of Pompeii. The factories where garum was produced in Pompeii have not been uncovered indicating that they lay outside the walls of the city; the production of garum created such unpleasant smells that factories were relegated to the outskirts of cities. In 2008, archaeologists used the residue from garum found in containers in Pompeii to confirm the August date of the eruption of Mount Vesuvius; the garum had been made of bogues, fish that congregate in the summer months. When mixed with wine, black pepper, or oil, garum enhances the flavor of a wide variety of dishes, including boiled veal and steamed mussels pear-and-honey soufflé. Diluted with water it was distributed to Roman legions. Pliny remarked in his Natural History that it could be diluted to the colour of honey wine and drunk. Garum had a social dimension that might be compared to that of garlic in some modern Western societies, or to the adoption of fish sauce in Vietnamese cuisine.
Seneca, holding the old-fashioned line against the expensive craze, cautioned against it though his family was from Baetian Corduba: Do you not realize that garum sociorum, that expensive bloody mass of decayed fish, consumes the stomach with its salted putrefaction? A surviving fragment of Plato Comicus speaks of "putrid garum". Martial congratulates a friend on keeping up amorous advances to a girl who had indulged in six helpings of it. Garum was employed as a medicine, it was thought to be one of the best cures for many ailments, including dog bites and ulcers, to ease chronic diarrhea and treat constipation. Garum was used as an ingredient in cosmetics and for removal of unwanted hair and freckles; the biological anthropologist Piers Mitchell suggests that garum may have helped spread fish tapeworms across Europe. Garum is believed to be the ancestor of the fermented anchovy sauce colatura di alici, still produced in Campania, Italy. Worcestershire sauce is a savory sauce based upon fermented
A chipotle, or chilpotle, is a smoke-dried ripe jalapeño chili pepper used for seasoning. It is a chili used in Mexican and Mexican-inspired cuisines, such as Mexican-American, Tex-Mex, Southwestern dishes, it comes in different forms, such as chipotles en adobo. A chipotle's heat is similar to that of the Espelette pepper, jalapeño, Guajillo chili, Hungarian wax pepper, Anaheim pepper, Tabasco sauce; the name comes from the Nahuatl word chīlpoctli, meaning "smoked chili". Jalapeño varieties vary in heat; until chipotles were found in the markets of central and southern Mexico. A grower passes through a jalapeño field many times, picking the unripe, green jalapeños for market. At the end of the growing season, jalapeños ripen and turn bright red. In Mexico and the United States, there is a market for ripe red jalapeños, they are kept on the bush as long as possible. When they are deep red and have lost much of their moisture, they are picked to be made into chipotles, they are moved to a closed smoking chamber and spread on metal grills, but in recent years, producers have begun using large gas dryers.
Wood is put in a firebox, the smoke enters the sealed chamber. Every few hours the jalapeños are stirred to mix in the smoke. They're smoked for several days. In the end, the chipotles are dry like raisins; the underlying heat of the jalapeños combines with the taste of smoke. Ten pounds of jalapeños make one pound of chipotles after being dried. Most chipotle chilis are produced in the northern Mexican state of Chihuahua; the variety of chipotle grown there is known as a morita. In central and southern Mexico, chipotle chilis are known as chile ahumado, or típico. Whereas moritas from Chihuahua are purple in color, chile meco is tan/grey in color and has the general appearance of a cigar butt. Most chipotles found in the United States are of the morita variety. All of the chipotle meco is consumed in Mexico. Chipotles are purchased in numerous forms: chipotle powder, chipotle pods, chipotles en adobo in a can, concentrated chipotle base and wet chipotle meat marinade. Other varieties of chilis are smoke-dried, including red jalapeños, habaneros, New Mexico chiles, Hungarian wax peppers, Santa Fe Grande chiles, a milder jalapeño called the TAM.
Lesser-known varieties of smoked chilis include cobán, a piquín chile native to southern Mexico and Guatemala. Chipotles a key ingredient in a recipe, impart a mild but earthy spiciness to many dishes in Mexican cuisine; the chilis are used to make various salsas. Chipotle can be combined with other spices to make a meat marinade -- adobo. Chipotle is used in powdered form, as an ingredient in both homemade and commercial products, including some brands of barbecue sauce and hot sauce, as well as in some chili con carnes and stews; when used commercially, the product is advertised as having chipotle in it. Chipotles have a distinctive smoky flavor; the flesh is thick, so the chilis are used in a slow-cooked dish rather than raw. Whole chipotles are added in the braising liquid for meats, they can accompany beans or lentils. List of smoked foods Bayless, Rick. Authentic Mexican: Regional Cooking from the Heart of Mexico. New York: William Morrow and Company, Inc. pp. 332–334. ISBN 0-688-04394-1. Dewitt, Dave.
The Pepper Pantry: Chipotles. Celestial Arts. P. 96. ISBN 0-89087-828-5