Western Australia is a state occupying the entire western third of Australia. It is bounded by the Indian Ocean to the north and west, the Great Australian Bight and Southern Ocean to the south, the state has about 2.6 million inhabitants, around 11% of the national total. 92% of the lives in the south-west corner of the state. The first European visitor to Western Australia was the Dutch explorer Dirk Hartog, the first European settlement of Western Australia occurred following the landing by Major Edmund Lockyer on 26 December 1826 of an expedition on behalf of the New South Wales colonial government. This was followed by the establishment of the Swan River Colony in 1829, including the site of the present-day capital, york was the first inland settlement in Western Australia. Situated 97 kilometres east of Perth, it was settled on 16 September 1831, Western Australia achieved responsible government in 1890, and federated with the other British colonies in Australia in 1901. Today its economy relies on mining and tourism.
The state produces 46% of Australias exports, Western Australia is the second-largest iron ore producer in the world. The International Hydrographic Organization designates the body of water south of the continent as part of the Indian Ocean, the total length of the states eastern border is 1,862 km. There are 20,781 km of coastline, including 7,892 km of island coastline, the total land area occupied by the state is 2.5 million km2. Most of the state is a low plateau with an elevation of about 400 metres, very low relief. This descends relatively sharply to the plains, in some cases forming a sharp escarpment. The extreme age of the landscape has meant that the soils are remarkably infertile, even soils derived from granitic bedrock contain an order of magnitude less available phosphorus and only half as much nitrogen as soils in comparable climates in other continents. Soils derived from extensive sandplains or ironstone are even less fertile, nearly devoid of soluble phosphate and deficient in zinc, molybdenum, the infertility of most of the soils has required heavy application by farmers of chemical fertilisers, particularly superphosphate and herbicides.
These have resulted in damage to invertebrate and bacterial populations, the grazing and use of hoofed mammals and, heavy machinery through the years have resulted in compaction of soils and great damage to the fragile soils. Large-scale land clearing for agriculture has damaged habitats for native flora, large areas of the states wheatbelt region have problems with dryland salinity and the loss of fresh water. The southwest coastal area has a Mediterranean climate and it was originally heavily forested, including large stands of karri, one of the tallest trees in the world. This agricultural region is one of the nine most bio-diverse terrestrial habitats, thanks to the offshore Leeuwin Current, the area is one of the top six regions for marine biodiversity and contains the most southerly coral reefs in the world
Gubbi Gubbi people
The Gubbi Gubbi, written Kabi Kabi, people are an Indigenous Australian people native to southeastern Queensland. They are now classified as one of several Murri language groups in Queensland, norman Tindale situated the Gubbi Gubbi as an inland tribe of the Wide Bay–Burnett area, whose lands extended over 3,700 sq. miles and lay west of Maryborough. The northern borders ran as far as Childers and Hervey Bay, on the south, they approached the headwaters of the Mary River and Cooroy. Westwards, they reached as far as the Coast Ranges and Kilkivan, Gubbi Gubbi country is currently located between Pumicestone Road, near Caboolture in the south, through to Childers in the north. Some Gubbi Gubbi died in the poisoning of upwards of 60 Aborigines on the Kilcoy run in 1842. A further 50-60 are said to have killed by food laced with arsenic at Whiteside Station in April 1847. In June 1849 two youths, the Pegg brothers, were speared on the property while herding sheep and they had feasted on stolen sheep.
Marksmen picked off many, even those fleeing by diving into the Burnett River, the slaughter was extensive, and the bones of many of the dead were uncovered on the site many decades later. Blaxland was in turn killed in a payback action sometime in July–August 1850 and his death was revenged in a further large-scaled massacre of tribes in the area. The escaped convict James Davis lived among other tribes, the Gubbi Gubbi John Mathew and he described their society in a 1910 monograph, Two Representative Tribes of Queensland. The Queensland lungfish was native to Gubbi Gubbi waters and the species fell under a taboo among them and it was known in their language as dala
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south and it has a coast line with the Tasman Sea on its east side. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state, New South Wales state capital is Sydney, which is Australias most populous city. In March 2014, the population of New South Wales was 7.5 million. Just under two-thirds of the population,4.67 million. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen, the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It originally comprised a more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825, in addition, the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemens Land, Lord Howe Island, and Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the area was detached to form separate British colonies that eventually became New Zealand. However, the Swan River Colony has never administered as part of New South Wales.
Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal Territory, as have the now known as the Australian Capital Territory. The prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago, before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region. The Wodi Wodi people are the custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. The Bundjalung people are the custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland. In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land New Wales, however, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he revised the wording to New South Wales. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, macquaries legacy is still evident today.
During the 19th century, large areas were separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia, Victoria. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855, following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840
Coorparoo is a suburb of Brisbane, located 4 kilometres south-east of the CBD. It borders Camp Hill, Holland Park, East Brisbane, Norman Park, Coorparoo was chosen as the name of the suburb at a public meeting on 22 March 1875, before which it was known as Four Mile Camp. The name Coorparoo is likely derived from an Aboriginal name for Norman Creek, the word is thought to refer to either a place associated with mosquitoes, or a sound made by the gentle dove. The latter explanation appears doubtful though, as gentle dove may mean the spotted dove, the Coorparoo Clan lived south of the Brisbane River and generally camped along creeks. Their name comes from Kulpurum, which was the word for Norman Creek or a tributary of it and they continued to occupy watercourse campsites after white settlement, but other clans from the region began to move into South Brisbane. In 1846, there were reports of Aborigines raiding produce along Norman Creek, in 1853, there was a fight between Ningy Ningy, Bribie Island, Amity Point, and Logan peoples at Norman Creek.
A visitor in 1855 reported many camps and fishing spots between Stones Corner and the mouth of Norman Creek, in 1959 an eighty-year-old woman told of frequent corroborees on the banks of the creek in Norman Park. Corroborees were held at a creek that crossed Norfolk Street. On 17 June 1856, ten farms were sold from the Parish of Bulimba near Stones Corner, investors bought all but two of them. The next year James Warner surveyed land on the side of the road for a second land auction. Samuel Stevens donated two acres of his property near the junction of Cavendish and Old Cleveland Roads for use of a school and he declined the offer of naming the area Stevens Town. In 1876, the Coorparoo State School was opened and Frederick Robinson began offering public transport in a wagonette from Coorparoo Junction to Victoria Bridge, the 1880s land boom was a spur to profit from land. John Black was the first to land in the area in 1882. The construction of the bridge at Stanley Street and the development of the Stanley Bridge Estate made the more attractive to purchasers.
In 1887, the tramway was extended to Buranda, putting the end of Coorparoo close to tram travel. Coorparoo had been part of the Bulimba Divisional Board since 1879, however, in 1888, as a result of dissatisfaction with this situation, a petition was taken resulting in the creation of Shire of Coorparoo. A bridge was built at Burnetts Swamp and important road improvements took place, in 1889 there were 2,500 people in the shire. The floods of 1889 and 1893 hit the areas of Coorparoo
Arthur Henry Artie Beetson OAM was an Australian rugby league footballer and coach. He represented Australia and Queensland from 1964 to 1981 and his main position was at prop. Beetson became the first Indigenous Australian to captain his country in any sport and is cited as the best post-war forward in Australian rugby league history. He had a coaching career, spanning the 1970s to the 1990s, coaching Australia, Eastern Suburbs, Redcliffe Dolphins. On 1 December 2011, Beetson died after a heart attack, Beetsons mother was a member of the Stolen Generation. He was born in Roma, Queensland on 21 January 1945, Beetsons big frame, pure speed and brilliant ball skills won countless games for all his teams. His off-loading and attacking workrate broke the mould for front rowers, Beetsons rugby league career began with Redcliffe in the Brisbane Rugby League competition between 1964 and 1965. The 1966 NSWRFL season was his first and he gained selection for the New South Wales team, Beetson was selected to make his representative debut for Australia against England and scored two tries.
He represented Australia again at the 1968 Rugby League World Cup, Beetson played with Balmain, with a spell in England with Hull Kingston Rovers in 1968. After the 1970 NSWRFL season Beetson left Balmain to join the Eastern Suburbs club where he would stay from 1971 to 1978 and he possessed great strength and toughness, a surprising turn of speed for a big man and was unequalled as a ball player. Beetson continued to represent Australia at the 1972 Rugby League World Cup, on the 1973 Kangaroo tour of Great Britain and France he was selected as Australias vice captain, playing at prop forward in all three Ashes test matches. Beetson became the first aboriginal player to captain Australia in the second test against France and his skill as a footballer was matched only by his skill as an eater, earning nicknames such as Meat Pie Artie. He was known and immortalised by his performance of eating 11 hot dogs before a dinner for the Australian team in 1973. Beetson captained Eastern Suburbs to the 1974 and 1975 premierships, during this period Beetson continued playing with distinction for Australia and in 1974 he was named as Rugby League Weeks player of the year.
During the 1976 NSWRFL season, Beetson captained Eastern Suburbs to victory in their unofficial 1976 World Club Challenge match against British champions St. Helens in Sydney and this Easts team would go down as one of the greatest club sides in rugby league history. Beetson joined the Parramatta Eels in 1979, while still playing in Sydney for Parramatta, Beetson achieved further immortality as captain of Queensland in the inaugural 1980 State of Origin game, won 20–10 by Queensland on 8 July. He capped off that year with a man of the performance in the Eels 8-5 Tooth Cup Final win over Balmain. Beetson returned to Queensland for one year of playing with his old Redcliffe team in 1981
Geography is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, the features, the inhabitants, and the phenomena of Earth. The first person to use the word γεωγραφία was Eratosthenes, Geography is an all-encompassing discipline that seeks an understanding of the Earth and its human and natural complexities—not merely where objects are, but how they have changed and come to be. It is often defined in terms of the two branches of geography and physical geography. Geography has been called the world discipline and the bridge between the human and the physical sciences, Geography is a systematic study of the Earth and its features. Traditionally, geography has been associated with cartography and place names, although many geographers are trained in toponymy and cartology, this is not their main preoccupation. Geographers study the space and the temporal database distribution of phenomena, because space and place affect a variety of topics, such as economics, climate and animals, geography is highly interdisciplinary.
The interdisciplinary nature of the approach depends on an attentiveness to the relationship between physical and human phenomena and its spatial patterns. Names of places. are not geography. know by heart a whole gazetteer full of them would not, in itself and this is a description of the world—that is Geography. In a word Geography is a Science—a thing not of mere names but of argument and reason, of cause, just as all phenomena exist in time and thus have a history, they exist in space and have a geography. Geography as a discipline can be split broadly into two main fields, human geography and physical geography. The former largely focuses on the environment and how humans create, manage. The latter examines the environment, and how organisms, soil, water. The difference between these led to a third field, environmental geography, which combines physical and human geography. Physical geography focuses on geography as an Earth science and it aims to understand the physical problems and the issues of lithosphere, atmosphere and global flora and fauna patterns.
Physical geography can be divided into broad categories, Human geography is a branch of geography that focuses on the study of patterns. It encompasses the human, cultural, and it requires an understanding of the traditional aspects of physical and human geography, as well as the ways that human societies conceptualize the environment. Integrated geography has emerged as a bridge between the human and the geography, as a result of the increasing specialisation of the two sub-fields. Examples of areas of research in the environmental geography include, emergency management, environmental management, geomatics is concerned with the application of computers to the traditional spatial techniques used in cartography and topography
Documentary evidence, such as newspaper articles and reports to parliamentary committees, suggest a range of rationales. A minority of historians dispute that substantial numbers of mixed-blood Aboriginal children were taken from their families. They contend that some children were removed mainly to protect them from neglect, given their catastrophic population decline after white contact, whites assumed that the full-blood tribal Aboriginal population would be unable to sustain itself, and was doomed to extinction. The idea expressed by A. O. Euro-Australians believed that their civilisation was superior to that of Aborigines, the Northern Territory Chief Protector of Aborigines, Dr. Cecil Cook, argued that everything necessary to convert the half-caste into a white citizen. The Victorian Aboriginal Protection Act 1869 included the earliest legislation to authorise child removal from Aboriginal parents, the Central Board for the Protection of Aborigines had been advocating such powers since 1860.
Passage of the Act gave the colony of Victoria a wide suite of powers over Aboriginal and half-caste persons, including the removal of children. As a result of legislation, states arranged widespread removal of mixed-race children from their Aboriginal mothers. In addition, appointed Aboriginal protectors in each state exercised wide-ranging guardianship powers over Aborigines up to the age of 16 or 21, often determining where they could live or work. Policemen or other agents of the state were given the power to locate and transfer babies and children of mixed descent from their mothers, the exact number of children removed is unknown. Estimates of numbers have been widely disputed, the Bringing Them Home report says that at least 100,000 children were removed from their parents. This figure was estimated by multiplying the Aboriginal population in 1994, the report stated that between one in three and one in ten children were separated from their families, not one in three persons in the total population.
Given differing populations over a period of time, different policies at different times in different states. Australian historian Robert Manne suggests approximately 20,000 to 25,000 were removed between 1910 and 1970, based on the Australian Bureau of Statistics report of 1994, keith Windschuttle and other historians have argued for a much lower figure. In certain regions and in periods the figure was undoubtedly much greater than one in ten. In that time not one family has escaped the effects of forcible removal, most families have been affected, in one or more generations, by the forcible removal of one or more children. The report closely examined the distinctions between forcible removal, removal under threat or duress, official deception, uninformed voluntary release, Aboriginal Protection Officers often made the judgement to remove certain children. In some cases, families were required to sign documents to relinquish care to the state. In Western Australia, the Aborigines Act 1905 removed the legal guardianship of Aboriginal parents and it made all their children legal wards of the state, so the government did not require parental permission to relocate the mixed-race children to institutions
The Northern Territory is a federal Australian territory in the central and central northern regions of Australia. It shares borders with Western Australia to the west, South Australia to the south, to the north, the territory is bordered by the Timor Sea, the Arafura Sea and the Gulf of Carpentaria. Despite its large area—over 1,349,129 square kilometres, the Northern Territorys population of 244,000 makes it the least populous of Australias eight major states and territories, having fewer than half as many people as Tasmania. The archaeological history of the Northern Territory begins over 40,000 years ago when Indigenous Australians settled the region, makassan traders began trading with the indigenous people of the Northern Territory for trepang from at least the 18th century onwards. The coast of the territory was first seen by Europeans in the 17th century, the British were the first Europeans to attempt to settle the coastal regions. After three failed attempts to establish a settlement, success was achieved in 1869 with the establishment of a settlement at Port Darwin.
Today the economy is based on tourism, especially Kakadu National Park in the Top End and the Uluru-Kata Tjuta National Park in central Australia, the capital and largest city is Darwin. The population is not concentrated in regions but rather along the Stuart Highway. The other major settlements are Palmerston, Alice Springs, Nhulunbuy, residents of the Northern Territory are often known simply as Territorians and fully as Northern Territorians, or more informally as Top Enders and Centralians. With the coming of the British, there were four attempts to settle the harsh environment of the northern coast. The Northern Territory was part of colonial New South Wales from 1825 to 1863, except for a time from February to December 1846. It was part of South Australia from 1863 to 1911, under the administration of colonial South Australia, the overland telegraph was constructed between 1870 and 1872. A railway was built between Palmerston and Pine Creek between 1883 and 1889. The economic pattern of raising and mining was established so that by 1911 there were 513,000 cattle.
Victoria River Downs was at one time the largest cattle station in the world, gold was found at Grove Hill in 1872 and at Pine Creek, Brocks Creek and copper was found at Daly River. On 1 January 1911, a decade after federation, the Northern Territory was separated from South Australia, alfred Deakin opined at this time To me the question has been not so much commercial as national, second and last. Either we must accomplish the peopling of the territory or submit to its transfer to some other nation. In late 1912 there was growing sentiment that the name Northern Territory was unsatisfactory, the names Kingsland and Territoria were proposed with Kingsland becoming the preferred choice in 1913
Musgrave Park, Brisbane
Musgrave Park is a park in South Brisbane, Australia. The park is bordered by Edmonstone and Cordelia Streets, and Brisbane State High School, the park is of cultural significance to indigenous Australians. From here and Woolloongabba, Aborigines in the 1840s and 1850s would go into South Brisbane to work chopping wood, carrying water, the South Brisbane Recreation Reserve was created in 1856. In 1867, it was proposed to build a grammar school adjacent to the reserve. In 1884 it was renamed Musgrave Park after the Governor of Queensland, in 1998, the Brisbane City Council allocated part of the park for the establishment of an indigenous cultural centre. The council has described the park as a place for holding feasts, Musgrave Park is home to the Jagera Arts Centre and is one of the few remaining green spaces left in Brisbanes inner city. The park holds special significance to the indigenous population due to a past restriction barring Aborigines from crossing the park. Notably, being the site of a bora ring, it has historically been a sacred site to the native Murri people.
Each year, the hosts the Paniyiri Greek Festival, the National Aboriginal and Islander Day of Celebration Park Day. In 2008 a man was beaten to death at Musgrave Park and this incident has added to the perception that Musgrave Park is dangerous
The Yolngu or Yolŋu are an Indigenous Australian people inhabiting north-eastern Arnhem Land in the Northern Territory of Australia. Yolngu means person in the Yolŋu languages, the term Murngin was formerly used by some anthropologists for the Yolngu. The complete system of Yolngu law is known as the Maḏayin, Maḏayin embodies the rights of the owners of the law, or citizens who have the rights and responsibilities for this embodiment of law. This law covers the ownership of land and waters, the resources on or within these lands and it regulates and controls production and trade and the moral and religious law including laws for the conservation and the farming of plants and aquatic life. Yolŋu believe that living out their life according to Maḏayin is right, the Maḏayin creates a state of Magaya, which is a state of peace, freedom from hostilities and true justice for all. Yolŋu groups are connected by a kinship system. This system governs fundamental aspects of Yolŋu life, including responsibilities for ceremony, Yolŋu life is divided into two moieties and Yirritja.
Each of these is represented by people of a number of different groups, each of which have their own lands, totems, a Yirritja person must always marry a Dhuwa person and vice versa. If a man or woman is Dhuwa, their mother will be Yirritja, as with nearly all Aboriginal groups, avoidance relationships exist in Yolngu culture between certain relations. The two main avoidance relationships are, son-in-law – mother-in-law brother – sister Brother–sister avoidance called mirriri normally begins after initiation, in avoidance relationships, people dont speak directly or look at one another, and try to avoid being in too close proximity with each other. Yolngu speak a dozen dialects of a group known as Yolngu Matha. English can be anywhere from a third to a language for Yolŋu. Yolŋu identify six distinct seasons, Dhaarratharramirri, Worlmamirri, Yolŋu sustained good trade relations with Macassan fishermen for several hundred years. The Macassans respected the land as Yolŋu land, they only ever camped on the beach and they made yearly visits to harvest trepang and pearls, paying Yolŋu in kind with goods such as knives, canoes and pipes.
The Yolŋu folklore has preserved accounts of the Baijini people, who appear to be distinct from the Macassans, in 1906, the South Australian Government did not renew the Macassans permit to harvest trepang. This loss of trade caused some disruption to the Yolŋu way of life, Yolŋu had well established trade routes within Australia, extending to Central Australian clans and other Aboriginal countries. (For example, they did not make boomerangs, but obtained these via trade from Central Australia, Yolŋu had known about Europeans prior to the arrival of British in Australia through their contact with Macassan traders, which probably began around the sixteenth century. Their word for European, Balanda, is derived from Hollander, in the late nineteenth century, white Australians began to open up Arnhem Land for cattle grazing
Indigenous Australians are the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people of Australia, descended from groups that existed in Australia and surrounding islands prior to European colonisation. In present-day Australia these groups are divided into local communities. At the time of initial European settlement, over 250 languages were spoken, it is estimated that 120 to 145 of these remain in use. Aboriginal people today mostly speak English, with Aboriginal phrases and words being added to create Australian Aboriginal English, a population collapse following European settlement, and a smallpox epidemic spreading three years after the arrival of Europeans may have caused a massive and early depopulation. Since 1995, the Australian Aboriginal Flag and the Torres Strait Islander Flag have been among the flags of Australia. The word aboriginal has been in the English language since at least the 16th century, to mean, first or earliest known and it comes from the Latin word aborigines, derived from ab and origo.
The word was used in Australia to describe its indigenous peoples as early as 1789 and it soon became capitalised and employed as the common name to refer to all Indigenous Australians. Strictly speaking, Aborigine is the noun and Aboriginal the adjectival form, use of either Aborigine or Aboriginal to refer to individuals has acquired negative connotations in some sectors of the community, and it is generally regarded as insensitive and even offensive. The more acceptable and correct expression is Aboriginal Australians or Aboriginal people, the term Indigenous Australians, which includes Torres Strait Islander peoples, has found increasing acceptance, particularly since the 1980s. The broad term Aboriginal Australians includes many groups that often identify under names from local Indigenous languages. Anindilyakwa on Groote Eylandt off Arnhem Land, Palawah in Tasmania and these larger groups may be further subdivided, for example, Anangu recognises localised subdivisions such as Pitjantjatjara, Ngaanyatjarra and Antikirinya.
It is estimated that prior to the arrival of British settlers, the Torres Strait Islanders possess a heritage and cultural history distinct from Aboriginal traditions. The eastern Torres Strait Islanders in particular are related to the Papuan peoples of New Guinea, they are not generally included under the designation Aboriginal Australians. This has been another factor in the promotion of the inclusive term Indigenous Australians. Six percent of Indigenous Australians identify themselves fully as Torres Strait Islanders, a further 4% of Indigenous Australians identify themselves as having both Torres Strait Islander and Aboriginal heritage. The Torres Strait Islands comprise over 100 islands which were annexed by Queensland in 1879, eddie Mabo was from Mer or Murray Island in the Torres Strait, which the famous Mabo decision of 1992 involved. The term blacks has been used to refer to Indigenous Australians since European settlement, while originally related to skin colour, the term is used today to indicate Aboriginal heritage or culture in general and refers to people of any skin pigmentation.
In the 1970s, many Aboriginal activists, such as Gary Foley, proudly embraced the term black, the book included interviews with several members of the Aboriginal community including Robert Jabanungga reflecting on contemporary Aboriginal culture