The Palais Garnier is a 1,979-seat opera house, built from 1861 to 1875 for the Paris Opera. It was called the Salle des Capucines, because of its location on the Boulevard des Capucines in the 9th arrondissement of Paris, but soon became known as the Palais Garnier, in recognition of its opulence and its architect, Charles Garnier; the theatre is often referred to as the Opéra Garnier and was known as the Opéra de Paris or the Opéra, as it was the primary home of the Paris Opera and its associated Paris Opera Ballet until 1989, when the Opéra Bastille opened at the Place de la Bastille. The Paris Opera now uses the Palais Garnier for ballet; the Palais Garnier has been called "probably the most famous opera house in the world, a symbol of Paris like Notre Dame Cathedral, the Louvre, or the Sacré Coeur Basilica." This is at least due to its use as the setting for Gaston Leroux's 1910 novel The Phantom of the Opera and the novel's subsequent adaptations in films and the popular 1986 musical.
Another contributing factor is that among the buildings constructed in Paris during the Second Empire, besides being the most expensive, it has been described as the only one, "unquestionably a masterpiece of the first rank." This opinion is far from unanimous however: the 20th-century French architect Le Corbusier once described it as "a lying art" and contended that the "Garnier movement is a décor of the grave". The Palais Garnier houses the Bibliothèque-Musée de l'Opéra de Paris, although the Library-Museum is no longer managed by the Opera and is part of the Bibliothèque Nationale de France; the museum is included in unaccompanied tours of the Palais Garnier. The opera was constructed in what Charles Garnier is said to have told the Empress Eugenie was "Napoleon III" style The Napoleon III style was eclectic, borrowed from many historical sources; these were combined with axial symmetry and modern techniques and materials, including the use of an iron framework, pioneered in other Napoleon III buildings, including the Bibliotheque Nationale and the markets of Les Halles.
The façade and the interior followed the Napoleon III style principle of leaving no space without decoration. Garnier used polychromy, or a variety of colors, for theatrical effect, achieved different varieties of marble and stone and gilded bronze; the façade of the Opera used seventeen different kinds of material, arranged in elaborate multicolored marble friezes and lavish statuary, many of which portray deities of Greek mythology. The principal façade is on the south side of the building, overlooking the Place de l'Opéra and terminates the perspective along the Avenue de l'Opéra. Fourteen painters and seventy-three sculptors participated in the creation of its ornamentation; the two gilded figural groups, Charles Gumery's L'Harmonie and La Poésie, crown the apexes of the principal façade's left and right avant-corps. They are both made of gilt copper electrotype; the bases of the two avant-corps are decorated with four major multi-figure groups sculpted by François Jouffroy, Jean-Baptiste Claude Eugène Guillaume, Jean-Baptiste Carpeaux, Jean-Joseph Perraud.
The façade incorporates other work by Gumery, Alexandre Falguière, others. Gilded galvanoplastic bronze busts of many of the great composers are located between the columns of the theatre's front façade and depict, from left to right, Auber, Mozart, Spontini and Halévy. On the left and right lateral returns of the front façade are busts of the librettists Eugène Scribe and Philippe Quinault, respectively; the sculptural group Apollo and Music, located at the apex of the south gable of the stage flytower, is the work of Aimé Millet, the two smaller bronze Pegasus figures at either end of the south gable are by Eugène-Louis Lequesne. Known as the Rotonde de l'Empereur, this group of rooms is located on the left side of the building and was designed to allow secure and direct access by the Emperor via a double ramp to the building; when the Empire fell, work stopped. It now houses the Bibliothèque-Musée de l'Opéra de Paris, home to nearly 600,000 documents including 100,000 books, 1,680 periodicals, 10,000 programs, letters, 100,000 photographs, sketches of costumes and sets and historical administrative records.
Located on the right side of the building as a counterpart to the Pavillon de l'Empereur, this pavilion was designed to allow subscribers direct access from their carriages to the interior of the building. It is covered by a 13.5-metre diameter dome. Paired obelisks mark the entrances to the rotunda on the south; the interior consists of interweaving corridors, stairwells and landings, allowing the movement of large numbers of people and space for socialising during intermission. Rich with velvet, gold leaf, cherubim and nymphs, the interior is characteristic of Baroque sumptuousness; the building features a large ceremonial staircase of white marble with a balustrade of red and green marble, which divides into two divergent flights of stairs that lead to the Grand Foyer. Its design was inspired by Victor Louis's grand staircase for the Théâtre de Bordeaux; the pedestals of the staircase are decorated with female torchères, created by Albert-Ernest
Arc de Triomphe
The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile is one of the most famous monuments in Paris, standing at the western end of the Champs-Élysées at the centre of Place Charles de Gaulle named Place de l'Étoile — the étoile or "star" of the juncture formed by its twelve radiating avenues. The location of the arc and the plaza is shared between 16th, 17th and 8th; the Arc de Triomphe honours those who fought and died for France in the French Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars, with the names of all French victories and generals inscribed on its inner and outer surfaces. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I; as the central cohesive element of the Axe historique, the Arc de Triomphe was designed by Jean Chalgrin in 1806, its iconographic program pits heroically nude French youths against bearded Germanic warriors in chain mail. It set the tone for public monuments with triumphant patriotic messages. Inspired by the Arch of Titus in Rome, the Arc de Triomphe has an overall height of 50 metres, width of 45 m and depth of 22 m, while its large vault is 29.19 m high and 14.62 m wide.
The smaller transverse vaults are 8.44 m wide. Three weeks after the Paris victory parade in 1919, Charles Godefroy flew his Nieuport biplane under the arch's primary vault, with the event captured on newsreel. Paris's Arc de Triomphe was the tallest triumphal arch until the completion of the Monumento a la Revolución in Mexico City in 1938, 67 metres high; the Arch of Triumph in Pyongyang, completed in 1982, is modelled on the Arc de Triomphe and is taller at 60 m. La Grande Arche in La Defense near Paris is 110 metres high. Although it is not named an Arc de Triomphe, it has been designed on the same model and in the perspective of the Arc de Triomphe, it qualifies as the world's tallest arch. The Arc de Triomphe is located on the right bank of the Seine at the centre of a dodecagonal configuration of twelve radiating avenues, it was commissioned in 1806 after the victory at Austerlitz by Emperor Napoleon at the peak of his fortunes. Laying the foundations alone took two years and, in 1810, when Napoleon entered Paris from the west with his bride Archduchess Marie-Louise of Austria, he had a wooden mock-up of the completed arch constructed.
The architect, Jean Chalgrin, died in 1811 and the work was taken over by Jean-Nicolas Huyot. During the Bourbon Restoration, construction was halted and it would not be completed until the reign of King Louis-Philippe, between 1833 and 1836, by the architects Goust Huyot, under the direction of Héricart de Thury. On 15 December 1840, brought back to France from Saint Helena, Napoleon's remains passed under it on their way to the Emperor's final resting place at the Invalides. Prior to burial in the Panthéon, the body of Victor Hugo was displayed under the Arc during the night of 22 May 1885; the sword carried by the Republic in the Marseillaise relief broke off on the day, it is said, that the Battle of Verdun began in 1916. The relief was hidden by tarpaulins to conceal the accident and avoid any undesired ominous interpretations. On 7 August 1919, Charles Godefroy flew his biplane under the Arc. Jean Navarre was the pilot, tasked to make the flight, but he died on 10 July 1919 when he crashed near Villacoublay while training for the flight.
Following its construction, the Arc de Triomphe became the rallying point of French troops parading after successful military campaigns and for the annual Bastille Day military parade. Famous victory marches around or under the Arc have included the Germans in 1871, the French in 1919, the Germans in 1940, the French and Allies in 1944 and 1945. A United States postage stamp of 1945 shows the Arc de Triomphe in the background as victorious American troops march down the Champs-Élysées and U. S. airplanes fly overhead on 29 August 1944. After the interment of the Unknown Soldier, all military parades have avoided marching through the actual arch; the route taken is up to the arch and around its side, out of respect for the tomb and its symbolism. Both Hitler in 1940 and de Gaulle in 1944 observed this custom. By the early 1960s, the monument had grown blackened from coal soot and automobile exhaust, during 1965–1966 it was cleaned through bleaching. In the prolongation of the Avenue des Champs-Élysées, a new arch, the Grande Arche de la Défense, was built in 1982, completing the line of monuments that forms Paris's Axe historique.
After the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel and the Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile, the Grande Arche is the third arch built on the same perspective. In 1995, the Armed Islamic Group of Algeria placed a bomb near the Arc de Triomphe which wounded 17 people as part of a campaign of bombings. In late 2018, the Arc de Triomphe suffered acts of vandalism as part of the Yellow vests movement protests; the astylar design is in the Neoclassical version of ancient Roman architecture. Major academic sculptors of France are represented in the sculpture of the Arc de Triomphe: Jean-Pierre Cortot; the main sculptures are not integral friezes but are treated as independent trophies applied to the vast ashlar masonry masses, not unlike the gilt-bronze appliqués on Empire furniture. The four sculptural groups at the base of the Ar
The Sorbonne is a building in the Latin Quarter of Paris, the historical house of the former University of Paris. Today, it houses part or all of several higher education and research institutions such as Panthéon-Sorbonne University, Sorbonne Nouvelle University, Paris Descartes University, École pratique des hautes études, Sorbonne University; the name is derived from the Collège de Sorbonne, founded in 1257 by the eponymous Robert de Sorbon as one of the first significant colleges of the medieval University of Paris. The library was among the first to arrange items alphabetically according to title; the university predates the college by about a century, minor colleges had been founded during the late 12th century. During the 16th century, the Sorbonne became involved with the intellectual struggle between Catholics and Protestants; the University served as a major stronghold of Catholic conservative attitudes and, as such, conducted a struggle against King Francis I's policy of relative tolerance towards the French Protestants, except for a brief period during 1533 when the University was placed under Protestant control.
The Collège de Sorbonne was suppressed during the French Revolution, reopened by Napoleon in 1808 and closed in 1882. This was only one of the many colleges of the University of Paris that existed until the French revolution. Hastings Rashdall, in The Universities of Europe in the Middle Ages, still a standard reference on the topic, lists some 70 colleges of the university from the Middle Ages alone. With time, the college came to be the main French institution for theological studies and "Sorbonne" was used as a synonym for the Paris Faculty of Theology despite being only one of many colleges of the university. After months of conflicts between students and authorities at the University of Paris at Nanterre, the administration closed that university on May 2, 1968. Students at the Sorbonne campus in Paris met on May 3 to protest against the closure and the threatened expulsion of several students at Nanterre. On May 6, the national student union, the Union Nationale des Étudiants de France — still the largest student union in France today — and the union of university teachers called a march to protest against the police invasion of Sorbonne.
More than 20,000 students and other supporters marched towards the Sorbonne, still sealed off by the police, who charged, wielding their batons, as soon as the marchers approached. While the crowd dispersed, some began to make barricades out of whatever was at hand, while others threw paving stones, forcing the police to retreat for a time; the police responded with tear gas and charged the crowd again. Hundreds of students were arrested. May 10 marked the "Night of Barricades," where students used cars and cobblestones to barricade the streets of the Latin Quarter. Brutal street fighting ensued between students and riot police, most notably on Rue Gay-Lussac. Early the next morning, as the fighting disbanded, Daniel Cohn-Bendit sent out a radio broadcast calling for a general strike. On Monday, 13 May, more than one million workers went on strike and the students declared that the Sorbonne was "open to the public". Negotiations ended, students returned to their campuses after a false report that the government had agreed to reopen them, only to discover police still occupying the schools.
When the Sorbonne reopened, students occupied it and declared it an autonomous "People's University". During the weeks that followed 401 popular action committees were established in Paris and elsewhere to document grievances against the government and French society, including the Occupation Committee of the Sorbonne. In 1970, the University of Paris was divided into thirteen universities, managed by a common rectorate, the Chancellerie des Universités de Paris, with offices in the Sorbonne. Three of those universities maintain facilities in the historical building of the Sorbonne, thus have the word in their name: Panthéon-Sorbonne University, Sorbonne Nouvelle University and Paris-Sorbonne University. Paris Descartes University uses the Sorbonne building; the building houses the École Nationale des Chartes, the École pratique des hautes études, the Cours de Civilisation Française de la Sorbonne and the Bibliothèque de la Sorbonne. The Sorbonne Chapel was classified as a French historic monument in 1887.
The amphitheatre and the entire building complex became monuments in 1975. Despite being a valued brand, the Sorbonne universities did not register their names as trademarks until the 1990s. Over the following years, they established partnerships, merging projects and associated institutions with the name Sorbonne, sometimes triggering conflicts over the usage and ownership of the name. Listing of the works of Alexandre Falguière List of works by Henri Chapu La Sorbonne
Landmarks in Paris
This article presents the main landmarks in the city of Paris within administrative limits, divided by its 20 arrondissements. Landmarks located in the suburbs of Paris, outside of its administrative limits, while within the metropolitan area are not included in this article; the 1st arrondissement forms much of the historic centre of Paris. Place Vendôme is famous for its deluxe hotels such as Hôtel Ritz, The Westin Paris – Vendôme, Hôtel de Toulouse, Hôtel du Petit-Bourbon, Hôtel Meurice, Hôtel Regina Les Halles were Paris's central meat and produce market, since the late 1970s, are a major shopping centre; the old Halles were replaced by the Forum des Halles. The central market of Paris, the biggest wholesale food market in the world, was transferred to Rungis, in the southern suburbs; the Axe historique, is a line of monuments which begins in the first arrondissement at the center of the Louvre with equestrian statue of Louis XIV and continues through the 8th toward the west through the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, the Tuileries Gardens, the Luxor Obelisk erected in the centre of Place de la Concorde, the Champs-Élysées, the Arc de Triomphe, centred in the Place de l'Étoile circus, the Avenue de la Grande Armée, ends at the Grande Arche de la Défense outside of Paris.
The former Conciergerie prison held some prominent Ancien Régime members before their deaths during the French Revolution. Of note in the 1st arrondissement are the theatres Théâtre du Châtelet, Théâtre du Palais-Royal, squares such as Place des Pyramides, Place Dauphine, Place des Victoires and Place du Châtelet, the Comédie-Française, Galerie nationale du Jeu de Paume, the Palais de Justice and Palais-Royal; the 2nd arrondissement of Paris lies to the north of the 1st. The Boulevard des Capucines, Boulevard Montmartre, Boulevard des Italiens, Rue de Richelieu and Rue Saint-Denis are major roads running through the district; the 2nd arrondissement is the theatre district of Paris, overlapping into the 3rd, contains the Théâtre des Capucines and Théâtre-Musée des Capucines, Opéra-Comique, Théâtre des Variétés, Théâtre des Bouffes-Parisiens, Théâtre du Vaudeville and Théâtre Feydeau. Of note are the Académie Julian, Bibliothèque nationale de France, Café Anglais and Galerie Vivienne; the 3rd arrondissement is located to the northeast of the 1st.
Le Marais is a trendy district spanning the 4th arrondissements. It is architecturally well preserved, some of the oldest houses and buildings of Paris can be found there, it is a culturally open place, known for its Chinese and gay communities. The Place des Vosges, established in 1612 to celebrate the wedding of Louis XIII to Anne of Austria lies at the border of the 3rd and 4th arrondissements and is the oldest planned square in Paris, the Place de la République was named after the constitutional change in France; the 3rd arrondissement is noted for its museums such as Museum of French History, Musée Picasso, Musée de la Chasse et de la Nature, Musée Cognacq-Jay, Musée d'Art et d'Histoire du Judaïsme, Musée de la Poupée, Musée des Arts et Métiers and the Carnavalet Museum, theatres such as Théâtre Déjazet, Théâtre de la Gaîté, Théâtre du Marais. Several hotels are located in this district including Hôtel de Soubise; the 4th arrondissement is located to the east of the 1st. Place de la Bastille is a district of great historical significance, for not just Paris, but all of France.
Because of its symbolic value, the square has been a site of political demonstrations, it has a tall column commemorating the final resting place of the revolutionaries killed in 1830 and 1848. Bibliothèque de l'Arsenal, La Force Prison, Centre Georges Pompidou and Lycée Charlemagne are notable institutions here; the 12th-century cathedral Notre Dame de Paris on the Île de la Cité is one of the best-known landmarks of the 4th arrondissement, there are the Gothic 13th-century Sainte-Chapelle palace chapel, Notre-Dame-des-Blancs-Manteaux, Saint-Louis-en-l'Île, Saint-Merri, Saint-Paul-Saint-Louis, St-Gervais-et-St-Protais, Temple du Marais. Roads running through the 4th arrondissement include Rue Charlemagne, Rue de Rivoli, Rue des Francs-Bourgeois, Rue des Rosiers. There are a number of notable hotels in the district, including Hôtel de Beauvais, Hôtel de Sully, Hôtel de Sens, Hôtel de Ville, Hôtel Lambert, Hôtel Saint-Pol, a significant number of bridges, including Pont au Change, Pont au Double, Pont de Sully, Pont Louis-Philippe, Pont Marie, Pont Notre-Dame, Pont Saint-Louis, Pont Saint-Michel.
Quartier Latin is a 12th Century scholastic centre stretching between the "Left Bank's" Place Maubert and the Sorbonne campus of the University of Paris, is the oldest and one of the most famous colleges in Europe and the World. It is known for many bistros. Various higher-education establishments, such as Collège de France, Collège Sainte-Barbe, Collège international de philosophie, Sciences Po Paris, the École Normale Supérieure, Mines ParisTech, the Jussieu university campus, make it a major educational centre in Paris; the Panthéon church is where many of France's illustrious women are buried. Of note is the Arab World Institute, Musée Curie, Hotel des Trois Colleges, Jardin des Plantes, Musée national du Moyen Âge, Muséum national d'histoire naturelle Paris Mosque, Paris Observatory, Sainte-Geneviève Library, Théâtre de la Huchette; the 6th arrondissement, to the south of the centre and Seine has numerous hotels and restaurants and educational institutions. Hotels located in the district include Hôtel Au Manoir Saint Germai
Tourism in Paris
Tourism in Paris is a major income source. In 2018, 17.95 million tourists visited her region. The top reasons to come are shopping; the city is the largest Airbnb market in the world. Top sights: Notre Dame, Disneyland Paris, Sacre Coeur, Versailles Palace, the Louvre Museum, the Eiffel Tower, Centre Pompidou, Musee d'Orsay. In the Paris region, the largest numbers of foreign tourists came in order from Britain, the United States, Italy and Canada. In 2012, 263,212 salaried workers in the city of Paris, or 18.4 percent of the total number, were engaged in tourism-related sectors. In 2014 visitors to Paris spent 17 billion dollars, the third highest sum globally after London and New York; the Eiffel Tower is acknowledged as the universal symbol of France. It was designed by Émile Nouguier and Maurice Koechlin. In March 1885 Gustave Eiffel, known as a successful iron engineer, submitted a plan for a tower to the French Ministre du Commerce et de l'Industrie, he entered a competition for students studying at the university.
The winning proposal would stand as the centerpiece of the 1889 Exposition. Eiffel's was one of over 100 submissions. Eiffel's proposal was chosen in June 1886. Before its construction, the Tower's uniqueness was noticed; the Eiffel Tower was inaugurated on March 31, 1889. About 6.9 million people visit the Eiffel tower each year. Centre Georges Pompidou was opened on January 31, 1977 by President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing; the designers of Pompidou are Renzo Piano, Richard Rogers, Peter Rice. The Centre Pompidou has had over 150 million visitors since 1977. Centre Georges Pompidou is a complex in the Beaubourg area of the 4th arrondissement of Paris, near Les Halles, rue Montorgueil and the Marais. In 1997 renovations had begun to drastically change the interior spaces of the Centre Pompidou; the renovations were still preserving the celebrated and original tubular design The internal refurbishment was done to enable the building to deal with the pressure of increasing visitor numbers. The renovation developed the centre's capacity to host the performing arts and increased the display area of the Museum of Modern Art.
The Arc de Triomphe de l'Étoile is one of the most famous monuments in Paris. It stands at the western end of the Champs-Élysées, it should not be confused with a smaller arch, the Arc de Triomphe du Carrousel, which stands west of the Louvre. The Arc de Triomphe honours those who fought and died for France in the French Revolutionary and the Napoleonic Wars, with the names of all French victories and generals inscribed on its inner and outer surfaces. Beneath its vault lies the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier from World War I; the Arc de Triomphe is the linchpin of the historic axis – a sequence of monuments and grand thoroughfares on a route which goes from the courtyard of the Louvre, to the Grande Arche de la Défense. The Musée d'Orsay is a museum in France, on the left bank of the Seine, it started to be constructed in 1897 and was designed by Gae Aulenti, Victor Laloux, Émile Bernard. The Musée d'Orsay is an art museum for works from 1848 to 1914 and has an emphasis on French Impressionism artwork.
One can walk through the museum room by room. There are sections on Symbolism, Impressionism, Pont Aven School, Art Nouveau to name just a few; the museum is the culmination of nearly ten years of government commitment and dedicated team-work By visiting this museum it is possible to get some idea of what was happening in France in the fields of painting and sculpture, opera design, photography, furniture and textiles. Disneyland Paris is an amusement park in the Paris region, it is the most popular amusement park in Europe in terms of attendance records. The Louvre Palace built as a medieval fortress in the year 1190 by King Philippe Auguste, was transformed by successive governments, since the French Revolution, it hosts the Musée du Louvre one of the largest museums of the western world, it houses some of the most culturally ethnic form of art. The doors to The Louvre opened to the public on August 10, 1793. Since the 12th Century, The Louvre has undergone several infrastructural changes due to a change of reign after every century.
On March 3, 1989, I. M. Pei inaugurated the Glass Pyramid; this serves as an official entrance to the main exhibition hall, which in turn leads to the temporary exhibition halls. The Musée is divided into 3 separate wings: Sully and Denon, which showcase 35,000 pieces of art, dating back to the Middle Ages; some of the most renown pieces of art showcased at The Louvre are the Leonardo da Vinci's Mona Lisa, Venus of Milo, Winged Victory of Samothrace, Liberty Leading the People, the Dying Slave by Michelangelo. The Notre-Dame de Paris, is the largest cathedral in Paris, it was started to be built in 1163 by Maurice de Sully, the appointed bishop of Paris. The construction campaign was divided into 4 parts, was done by well-known builders of that era: Jean de Chelles, Pierre de Montreuil, Pierre de Chelles, Jean Ravy, Jean le Bouteiller, it took over 100 years for the Notre-Dame to be built completely. It was built in honour of Virgin Mary, making it a canon church and a baptistery, it is one of the main symbols of Paris.
It is located at a small island in the heart of the city. There have been several historical events that have taken place here, in
Maurice Utrillo, born Maurice Valadon, was a French painter who specialized in cityscapes. Born in the Montmartre quarter of Paris, Utrillo is one of the few famous painters of Montmartre, born there. Utrillo was the son of the artist Suzanne Valadon, an eighteen-year-old artist's model, she never revealed, the father of her child. In 1891 a Spanish artist, Miguel Utrillo y Molins, signed a legal document acknowledging paternity, although the question remains as to whether he was in fact the child's father. Valadon, who became a model after a fall from a trapeze ended her chosen career as a circus acrobat, found that posing for Berthe Morisot, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, others provided her with an opportunity to study their techniques, she taught herself to paint, when Toulouse-Lautrec introduced her to Edgar Degas, he became her mentor. She became a peer of the artists she had posed for. Meanwhile, her mother was left to raise the young Maurice, who soon showed a troubling inclination toward truancy and alcoholism.
When a mental illness took hold of the 21-year-old Utrillo in 1904, his mother encouraged him to take up painting. He soon showed real artistic talent. With no training beyond what his mother taught him, he painted what he saw in Montmartre. After 1910 his work attracted critical attention, by 1920 he was internationally acclaimed. In 1928, the French government awarded him the Cross of the Légion d'honneur. Throughout his life, however, he was interned in mental asylums repeatedly. Today, tourists to the area will find many of his paintings on post cards, one of, his popular 1936 painting entitled, Montmartre Street Corner or Lapin Agile. In middle age Utrillo became fervently religious and in 1935, at the age of fifty-two, he married Lucie Valore and moved to Le Vesinet, just outside Paris. By that time, he was too ill to work in the open air and painted landscapes viewed from windows, from post cards, from memory. Although his life was plagued by alcoholism, he lived into his seventies. Maurice Utrillo died on 5 November 1955 in Hotel Splendid in Dax of a lung disease, was buried in the Cimetière Saint-Vincent in Montmartre.
An apocryphal anecdote told by Diego Rivera concerning Utrillo's paternity is related in the unpublished memoirs of one of his American collectors, Ruth Bakwin: "After Maurice was born to Suzanne Valadon, she went to Renoir, for whom she had modeled nine months previously. Renoir looked at the baby and said,'He can't be mine, the color is terrible!' Next she went to Degas, for whom she had modeled. He said,'He can't be mine, the form is terrible!' At a cafe, Valadon saw an artist. The man told her to call the baby Utrillo:'I would be glad to put my name to the work of either Renoir or Degas!'" In 2010, several retrospective exhibitions were staged, at Oglethorpe University Museum of Art and in Montmartre that culminated in an auction of 30 of Utrillo's works on 30 November 2010 from the collection of Paul Pétridès, Utrillo's art dealer, whose Galerie Pétridès dealt with the likes of Jacques Thévenet. This follows the exhibition of Suzanne Valadon and Maurice Utrillo's works held in Paris in 2009.
Jean Fabris, Claude Wiart, Alain Buquet, Jean-Pierre Thiollet, Jacques Birr, Catherine Banlin-Lacroix, Joseph Foret: Utrillo, sa vie, son oeuvre, Editions Frédéric Birr, Paris, 1982. Longstreet and Ethel, Man of Montmartre, A Novel based on the Life of Maurice Utrillo, New York, Funk & Wagnalls, 403 pages. Warnod, Jeanine. Suzanne Valadon. New York: Crown. ISBN 0-517-54499-7 Hecht Museum site of Utrillo Estate ArtCyclopedia - Maurice Utrillo Works by Maurice Utrillo
Émile Henri Bernard was a French Post-Impressionist painter and writer, who had artistic friendships with Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin and Eugène Boch, at a time, Paul Cézanne. Most of his notable work was accomplished at a young age, in the years 1886 through 1897, he is associated with Cloisonnism and Synthetism, two late 19th-century art movements. Less known is Bernard's literary work, comprising plays and art criticism as well as art historical statements that contain first-hand information on the crucial period of modern art to which Bernard had contributed. Émile Henri Bernard was born in Lille, France in 1868. As in his younger years his sister was sick, Émile was unable to receive much attention from his parents, she was one of the greatest supporters of his art. The family moved to Paris in 1878, he began his studies at the École des Arts Décoratifs. In 1884, joined the Atelier Cormon where he experimented with impressionism and pointillism and befriended fellow artists Louis Anquetin and Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.
After being suspended from the École des Beaux-Arts for "showing expressive tendencies in his paintings", he toured Brittany on foot, where he was enamored by the tradition and landscape. In August 1886, Bernard met Gauguin in Pont-Aven. In this brief meeting, they looked forward to meeting again. Bernard said, looking back on that time, that "my own talent was fully developed." He believed that his style did play a considerable part in the development of Gauguin's mature style. Bernard spent September 1887 at the coast, where he painted La Grandmère, a portrait of his grandmother, he started saying good things about Gauguin. Bernard went back to Paris, attended Académie Julian, met with van Gogh, who as we stated was impressed by his work, found a restaurant to show the work alongside van Gogh and Toulouse-Lautrec's work at the Avenue Clichy. Van Gogh called the group the School of Petit-Boulevard. One year Bernard set out for Pont-Aven by foot and saw Gauguin, their friendship and artistic relationship grew strong quickly.
By this time Bernard had developed many theories about his artwork. He stated that he had "a desire to an art that would be of the most extreme simplicity and that would be accessible to all, so as not to practice its individuality, but collectively..." Gauguin was impressed by Bernard's ability to verbalize his ideas. 1888 was a seminal year in the history of Modern art. From 23 October until 23 December Paul Vincent van Gogh worked together in Arles. Gauguin had brought his new style from Pont-Aven exemplified in Vision after the Sermon: Jacob Wrestling with the Angel, a powerful work of visual symbolism of which he had sent a sketch to van Gogh in September, he brought along Bernard's Le Pardon de Pont-Aven which he had exchanged for one of his paintings and which he used to decorate the shared workshop. See in: This work was striking and illustrative of the style Émile Bernard had acquainted van Gogh with when he sent him a batch of drawings in August, so much so that van Gogh made a watercolor copy of the Pardon which he sent to his brother, to recommend Bernard's new style to be promoted.
The following year van Gogh still vividly remembered the painting in his written portrait of Émile Bernard in a letter to his sister Wil:"...it was so original I wanted to have a copy." Bernard's style was effective and coherent as can be seen from the comparison of the two "portraits" Bernard and Gauguin sent to van Gogh at the end of September 1888 at the latter's request: self-portraits -at Gauguin's initiative- each integrating a small portrait of the other in the background. One of Émile Bernard's drawings from the August batch appears to have inspired the work van Gogh and Gauguin did on the Allée des Alyscamps in Arles. In 1891 he joined a group of Symbolist painters that included Ferdinand Hodler. In 1893 he started traveling, to Egypt and Italy and after that his style became more eclectic, he remained there for the remainder of his life. He taught at the École des Beaux-Arts before he died in 1941. " this creative, avant-garde young man destroyed himself in a fight against that same avant-garde he had helped to create.
His rivalry with Gauguin led him out of spite along a different path: classicism. This change took place, in a period of great crisis, but the fact remains that the young Bernard played an essential part as an initiator for Gauguin, that he was the inventor of a new artistic vision." Bernard theorized a style of painting with bold forms separated by dark contours which became known as cloisonnism. His work showed geometric tendencies which hinted at influences of Paul Cézanne, he collaborated with Paul Gauguin and Vincent van Gogh. Many say that it was Bernard's friend Anquetin, who should receive the credit for this "closisonisme" technique. During the spring of 1887, Bernard and Anquetin "turned against Neo-Impressionism." It is likely that Bernard was influenced by the works he had seen of Cézanne. But Bernard says "When I was in Brittany, I was inspired by "everything, superfluous in a spectacle is covering it with reality and occupying our eyes instead of