The Musée de l'Orangerie is an art gallery of impressionist and post-impressionist paintings located in the west corner of the Tuileries Gardens next to the Place de la Concorde in Paris. The museum is most famous as the permanent home of eight large Water Lilies murals by Claude Monet, contains works by Paul Cézanne, Henri Matisse, Amedeo Modigliani, Pablo Picasso, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Henri Rousseau, Alfred Sisley, Chaim Soutine, Maurice Utrillo, others; the gallery is on the bank of the Seine in the old orangery of the Tuileries Palace on the Place de la Concorde near the Concorde metro station. Napoleon III had the Orangerie built in 1852, to store the citrus trees of the Tuileries garden from the cold in the winter; the building was built by architect Firmin Bourgeois. Bourgeois built the Orangerie out of glass on the Seine side to allow light to the trees but the opposite side is completely windowless to protect the citrus trees from the cold winds. Before the Orangerie was built, the trees were stored in the Grande Galerie of the Louvre.
The main entrances on the east and west side of the building were decorated by architect Louis Visconti, known for his renovations on the Louvre. The columns located at the doors are topped by triangular pediments that were sculpted by Charles Gallois-Poignant; the tops of the columns represent cornucopias and ears of corn that relate to the building's agricultural function. After the Fall of the Empire in 1870 and the fire at the Tuileries Palace in 1871, the Orangerie became a property of the State, which continued to use the Orangerie in its original function as well as for public events such as music concerts, art expositions and dog shows until 1922. After World War I, new changes came to the Orangerie. In 1921, the State gave the building to the Under-Secretariat of State for Fine Arts along with another building, the Jeu de Paume; the goal for these two buildings was to provide a space for living artists to display their works. At the time, Claude Monet was painting a series of Water Lillies paintings for the State that were destined for another museum, the Rodin.
The President of the Council, Georges Clemenceau, wanted the paintings placed in the Orangerie instead. The Water Lillies donation to the Orangerie was finalized in 1922. Monet helped with the architectural design along with the architect Camille Lefevre. Eight panels, each two meters high and spanning 91 meters in length, are arranged in 2 oval rooms which form the infinity symbol. Monet required skylights for observing the paintings in natural light.. Due to the east to west orientation of the building, the rooms are in the path of the sun which stretches along the same axis as the Arc de Triomphe to the Louvre; the museum was inaugurated on May 17th 1927 as the Musée Claude Monet, a few months after the artist’s death. It was annexed into the Musée du Luxembourg and formally renamed the Musée National de l’Orangerie des Tuileries; the Orangerie was joined with the Louvre in 1930. The western half of the Orangerie was dedicated to temporary exhibitions for the Louvre and other national museums in France.
Each year, the Orangerie hosted a variety of exhibitions. From 1930-1933, the Orangerie hosted an exhibition on impressionism. In 1934, the exhibition Peintres de la realité became famous. In 1936, the exhibition Rubens et son temps attracted a million visitors to the museum. There was an entire exhibition dedicated to Degas in 1937, titled in his name. In 1942, there was an exhibition dedicated to Arno Breker, an official artist of the Third Reich and who studied in France. In 1946, after the end of WWII, many masterpieces from private collections were recovered in Germany by the French Commission for Art Recovery and the Monuments Men and they were displayed in the Orangerie; the Orangerie and the Jeu de Paume were allied with the Paintings Department of the Louvre. The Réunion des Musées Nationaux organized successful exhibitions at the Orangerie between 1946-1960; the building of the Galeries Nationales du Grand Palais in 1964 was due to the success of the exhibitions of the Orangerie. The Jean Walter and Paul Guillaume collections were acquired in 1963 respectively.
Domenica Walter was the widow of both Paul Jean Walter. Paul Guillaume was an art dealer and his desire was to create a museum of French modern art that would be open to the public; when the State offered to show this collection at the Orangerie after his death, Domenica agreed. Olivier Lahalled executed the renovation project to accommodate the new acquisition; the existing exhibition galleries were knocked down and two levels were added to the building. A staircase with a banister was designed by Raymond Subes which replaced the entrance to the Water Lillies paintings and led to rooms that displayed the new collection. In 1966, the collection was publicly presented and inaugurated by the Minister of Culture, André Malraux, Domenica owned the paintings until her death in 1977. There was a third renovation project conducted between 1978-1984 to consolidate the buildings, refurbish the rooms and permanently house the collection, given to the Orangerie after Domenica’s death; the Orangerie became separate from the administration of the Louvre and the Jeu de Paume, whose impressionist paintings would be destined for the future Musée d’Orsay.
The most recent renovation was made by Olivier Brochet between 2000-2006. The rooms that were constructed on two levels were knocked down and natural light was restored to the Water Lillies. In order to display the
Reading Anthracite Company is a coal mining company based in Pottsville, Pennsylvania in the United States. It mines anthracite coal in the Coal Region of eastern Pennsylvania; the company owns the Bear Valley Strip Mine in Pennsylvania. Reading Anthracite Company; as a large publicly traded concern, P. & R. C. & I. had diverse industrial interests which revolved around its main business of railroading. P. & R. C. & I. changed its corporate title in 1956 to The Philadelphia & Reading Corporation, of which Reading Anthracite Company was one of its many operating divisions. In 1961, Philadelphia & Reading Corporation divested itself of its anthracite coal interests, selling the Reading Anthracite company to its present owners; the unionized mine suffered an on-the-job fatality in July 2017. Reading Anthracite Company website Historic Images of Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company at the Hagley Library Digital Archives Philadelphia and Reading Coal and Iron Company photograph albums at Baker Library Special Collections, Harvard Business School
The Asian Children's Festival is an annual event organised by the National Library Board of Singapore and the National Book Development Council of Singapore to promote the habit of lifelong learning and to create and provide opportunities for the creative and joyous learning of Asian content and culture among children. The inaugural event was held in 2000; the festival attracts more than 300,000 participants annually. In 2005, the event was held between 7 November and 27 November with the opening at the Woodlands Regional Library, it was held from 15 November to 26 November in 2006. The eighth edition of the festival in 2017 at the Central Public Library, it was organised by the National Book Development Council of Singapore. 57 speakers from 18 countries were invited including PJ Lynch and Leslee Udwin. The biennial Scholastic Picture Book Award was given out to the winner, The Little Durian Tree, during the festival, chosen from 137 entries from Asia; the book was created by a five-man team, students from the Singapore Polytechnic