Charles-François Daubigny was one of the painters of the Barbizon school, is considered an important precursor of impressionism. Daubigny was born in Paris, into a family of painters and was taught the art by his father Edmond François Daubigny and his uncle, miniaturist Pierre Daubigny. Daubigny painted in a traditional style, but this changed after 1843 when he settled in Barbizon to work outside in nature. More important was his meeting with Camille Corot in 1852 in Optevoz. On his famous boat Botin, which he had turned into a studio, he painted along the Seine and Oise in the region around Auvers. From 1852 onward he came under the influence of Gustave Courbet. In 1866 Daubigny visited England returning because of the Franco-Prussian war in 1870. In London he met Claude Monet, together they left for the Netherlands. Back in Auvers, he met another important Impressionist, it is assumed. His most ambitious canvases are Springtime, in the Louvre, he was named by the French government as an Officer of the Legion of Honor.
Daubigny died in Paris. His remains are interred at cimetière du Père-Lachaise, his followers and pupils included his son Karl, Achille Oudinot, Hippolyte Camille Delpy, Albert Charpin and Pierre Emmanuel Damoye. Among the public collections holding works by Charles-François Daubigny are: Mesdag Collectie, Den Haag, Netherlands Museum de Fundatie, Netherlands Cincinnati Art Museum Rijksmuseum Amsterdam The Israel Museum, Jerusalem The life of Daubigny was adapted into a graphic novel by Belgian comics writer Bruno de Roover and artist Luc Cromheecke, it appeared under the title De Tuin van Daubigny. Daubigny's Garden This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Chisholm, Hugh, ed.. "Daubigny, Charles François". Encyclopædia Britannica. 7. Cambridge University Press. P. 847. O'Neill, J, ed.. Romanticism & the school of nature: nineteenth-century drawings and paintings from the Karen B. Cohen collection. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. Charles-François Daubigny – Museum – Musée Daubigny Auvers-sur-Oise Charles-François Daubigny's Home-Studio – Maison-Atelier de DAUBIGNY Auvers-sur-Oise.
Historical monument. Charles-François Daubigny – Rehs Galleries' biography on the artist. Charles-François Daubigny at Artcyclopedia Banks of the Seine 1855, near Bezons, near Paris
Allan Ramsay (artist)
Allan Ramsay was a prominent Scottish portrait-painter. Allan Ramsay was born in Edinburgh, the eldest son of Allan Ramsay and author of The Gentle Shepherd. From the age of twenty he studied in London under the Swedish painter Hans Hysing, at the St. Martin's Lane Academy. On his return in 1738 to the British Isles, he first settled in Edinburgh, attracting attention by his head of Duncan Forbes of Culloden and his full-length portrait of the Duke of Argyll used on Royal Bank of Scotland banknotes, he moved to London, where he was employed by the Duke of Bridgewater. His pleasant manners and varied culture, not less than his artistic skill, contributed to render him popular, his only serious competitor was Thomas Hudson, with whom he shared a drapery painter, Joseph van Aken. In 1739 he married his first wife, Anne Bayne, the daughter of Alexander Bayne of Rires, Mary Carstairs. Anne died on 4 February 1743. One of his drawing pupils was Margaret Lindsay, eldest daughter of Sir Alexander Lindsay of Evelick and Amelia Murray.
He eloped with her and on 1 March 1752 they married in the Canongate Kirk, Edinburgh. Ramsay had to maintain a daughter from his previous marriage and his two surviving sisters, but told Sir Alexander that he could provide Margaret with an annual income of £100, he said it would increase ‘as my affairs increase, I thank God, they are in a way of increasing’ and that his only motive for the marriage was ‘my love for your Daughter, who, I am sensible, is entitled to much more than I shall have to bestow upon her’. Three children survived from their long and happy marriage, Amelia and John. Ramsay and his new wife spent 1754 to 1757 together in Italy, going to Rome, Florence and Tivoli, researching and drawing old masters and archaeological sites, he earned income painting Grand Tourists' portraits. This and other trips to Italy involved more antiquarian research than art. After their return, Ramsay in 1761 was appointed to succeed John Shackelton as Principal Painter in Ordinary to George III, beating Hudson to the post.
The king commissioned so many royal portraits to be given to ambassadors and colonial governors, that Ramsay used the services of numerous assistants—of whom David Martin and Philip Reinagle are the best known. He gave up painting in about 1770 to concentrate on literary pursuits, his health was shattered by an accidental dislocation of the right arm and his second wife's death in 1782. With unflinching pertinacity, he struggled until he had completed a likeness of the king upon which he was engaged at the time, started for his beloved Italy, he left a series of 50 royal portraits to be completed by his assistant Reinagle. For several years he lingered in the south, his constitution broken, he died at Dover on 10 August 1784. Ramsay was a friend of Samuel Johnson's. You will not find a man in whose conversation there is more instruction, more information, more elegance, than in Ramsay's.' Among his most satisfactory productions are some of his earlier ones, such as the full-length of the duke of Argyll, the numerous bust-portraits of Scottish gentlemen and their ladies which he executed before settling in London.
They are full of both individuality. His full-length of Lady Mary Coke is remarkable for the skill and delicacy with which the white satin drapery is managed; the portrait of his wife shows the influence of French art, which Ramsay incorporated into his work. The large collection of his sketches in the possession of the Royal Scottish Academy and the Board of Trustees, Edinburgh show this French elegance and soft colours. In a documentary broadcast by the BBC in February 2014, Ramsay was shown to be the artist who painted the lost portrait of Charles Edward Stuart in 1745, completed on the verge of his invasion of England. Ramsay has paintings in the collection of a few British institutions including the National Gallery in London, Derby Art Gallery, Glasgow Museum and Newstead Abbey. According to Mario de Valdes y Cocom in 2009 on an edition of PBS Frontline, in several paintings of Queen Charlotte, Ramsay deliberately emphasised "mulatto features" which the queen inherited via descent from a 13th-century Moorish ancestor.
Valdes suggests that copies of these paintings were sent to the colonies to be used by abolitionists as a de facto support for their cause. Other historians question whether the 13th-century ancestor, referred to in various places as a'Moor' and Berber, was black African. In any event, they contend that the connection, nine and 15 generations removed, was too distant to consider Charlotte'black' in any cultural way, as her other ancestors were all European. Allan Ramsay's works A Dialogue on Taste 1762.
Félix Ziem was a French painter in the style of the Barbizon School, who produced some Orientalist works. He was born Félix-Francois Georges Philibert Ziem in Beaune in the Côte-d'Or département of the Burgundy région of France, his mother was a native of Burgundy. Ziem planned to be an architect, studied in the École des Beaux-Arts in Dijon, for a time he worked as an architect. In 1839 he moved to Marseilles, where he received some informal instruction in painting from Adolphe Monticelli. Painting developed from a hobby into a career following a visit in 1841 to Italy, where he fell in love with the city of Venice, a place that would become the source for many of his works, to which he returned annually until 1892. Apart from Venetian scenes, he painted many still lifes and landscapes of diverse locations which reflected his travels. Following a year-long trip to the Ottomon Empire and Egypt in 1857-58, he began to include works with an Orientalist theme in his oeuvre, his landscapes included scenes from a variety of locations including Constantinople, Martigues, Cagnes-sur-Mer and his native Burgundy.
Ziem was a commercially successful artist in his own lifetime. Ziem's works were first exhibited in 1849 at the Paris Salon, Ziem remained a regular exhibitor there for many years, he traveled extensively throughout Europe and in 1860 moved to Montmartre, the artistic quarter of the city of Paris. Financially successful, he was known to assist struggling young artists. In 1857, the government of France recognized his contribution to the art world by making him a Chevalier of the Legion of Honor. Félix Ziem was interred in the Père Lachaise Cemetery in Paris. List of Orientalist artists Orientalism Poulet, A. L. & Murphy, A. R.. Corot to Braque: French Paintings from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston. Boston: The Museum. ISBN 0-87846-134-5
Anthony van Dyck
Sir Anthony van Dyck was a Flemish Baroque artist who became the leading court painter in England after success in the Southern Netherlands and Italy. The seventh child of Frans van Dyck, a wealthy Antwerp silk merchant, Anthony was precocious as a youth and painted from an early age. In his late teens he was enjoying success as an independent painter, becoming a master in the Antwerp guild in 1618. By this time he was working in the studio of the leading northern painter of the day, Peter Paul Rubens, who became a major influence on his work. Van Dyck worked in London for some months in 1621 returned to Flanders for a brief time, before travelling to Italy, where he stayed until 1627 based in Genoa. In the late 1620s he completed his admired Iconography series of portrait etchings of other artists, he spent five years after his return from Italy in Flanders, from 1630 was court painter for the archduchess Isabella, Habsburg Governor of Flanders. In 1632 he returned to London to be the main court painter, at the request of Charles I of England.
With the exception of Holbein, van Dyck and his contemporary Diego Velázquez were the first painters of pre-eminent talent to work as court portraitists, revolutionising the genre. He is best known for his portraits of European aristocracy, most notably Charles I and his family and associates, he painted mythological and biblical subjects, including altarpieces, displayed outstanding facility as a draughtsman, was an important innovator in watercolour and etching. His superb brushwork rather painted, can be distinguished from the large areas painted by his many assistants, his portrait style changed between the different countries he worked in, culminating in the relaxed elegance of his last English period. His influence extends into the modern period. During his lifetime, Charles I granted him a knighthood, he was buried in St Paul's Cathedral, an indication of his standing at the time of his death. Antoon van Dyck was born to prosperous parents in Antwerp, his father was Frans van Dyck, a silk merchant, his mother was Maria, daughter of Dirk Cupers and Catharina Conincx.
He was baptised on 23 March 1599. His talent was evident early, he was studying painting with Hendrick van Balen by 1609, became an independent painter around 1615, setting up a workshop with his younger friend Jan Brueghel the Younger. By the age of fifteen he was a accomplished artist, as his Self-portrait, 1613–14, shows, he was admitted to the Antwerp painters' Guild of Saint Luke as a free master by February 1618. Within a few years he was to be the chief assistant to the dominant master of Antwerp, the whole of Northern Europe, Peter Paul Rubens, who made much use of sub-contracted artists as well as his own large workshop, his influence on the young artist was immense. The origins and exact nature of their relationship are unclear. At the same time the dominance of Rubens in the small and declining city of Antwerp explains why, despite his periodic returns to the city, van Dyck spent most of his career abroad. In 1620, in Rubens's contract for the major commission for the ceiling of the Carolus Borromeuskerk, the Jesuit church at Antwerp, van Dyck is specified as one of the "discipelen", to execute the paintings to Rubens' designs.
Unlike van Dyck, Rubens worked for most of the courts of Europe, but avoided exclusive attachment to any of them. In 1620, at the instigation of George Villiers, Marquess of Buckingham, van Dyck went to England for the first time where he worked for King James I of England, receiving £100, it was in London in the collection of the Earl of Arundel that he first saw the work of Titian, whose use of colour and subtle modeling of form would prove transformational, offering a new stylistic language that would enrich the compositional lessons learned from Rubens. After about four months, he returned to Flanders, but moved on in late 1621 to Italy, where he remained for six years, studying the Italian masters and beginning his career as a successful portraitist, he was presenting himself as a figure of consequence, annoying the rather bohemian Northern artist's colony in Rome, says Giovan Pietro Bellori, by appearing with "the pomp of Zeuxis... his behaviour was that of a nobleman rather than an ordinary person, he shone in rich garments.
He was based in Genoa, although he travelled extensively to other cities, stayed for some time in Palermo in Sicily. For the Genoese aristocracy in a final flush of prosperity, he developed a full-length portrait style, drawing on Veronese and Titian as well as Rubens' style from his own period in Genoa, where tall but graceful figures look down on the viewer with great hauteur. In 1627, he went back to Antwerp where he remained for five years, painting more affable portraits which still made his Flemish patrons look as stylish as possible. A life-size group portrait of twenty-four City Councill
Giorgio Vasari was an Italian painter, architect and historian, most famous today for his Lives of the Most Excellent Painters and Architects, considered the ideological foundation of art-historical writing. Vasari was born on 30 July 1511 in Tuscany. Recommended at an early age by his cousin Luca Signorelli, he became a pupil of Guglielmo da Marsiglia, a skillful painter of stained glass. Sent to Florence at the age of sixteen by Cardinal Silvio Passerini, he joined the circle of Andrea del Sarto and his pupils Rosso Fiorentino and Jacopo Pontormo, where his humanist education was encouraged, he was befriended by Michelangelo. He died on 27 June 1574 in Florence, Grand Duchy of Tuscany, aged 62. In 1529, he visited Rome where he studied the works of Raphael and other artists of the Roman High Renaissance. Vasari's own Mannerist paintings were more admired in his lifetime than afterwards. In 1547 he completed the hall of the chancery in Palazzo della Cancelleria in Rome with frescoes that received the name Sala dei Cento Giorni.
He was employed by members of the Medici family in Florence and Rome, worked in Naples and other places. Many of his pictures still exist, the most important being the wall and ceiling paintings in the Sala di Cosimo I in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence, where he and his assistants were at work from 1555, the frescoes begun by him inside the vast cupola of the Duomo were completed by Federico Zuccari and with the help of Giovanni Balducci, he helped to organize the decoration of the Studiolo, now reassembled in the Palazzo Vecchio. In Rome he painted frescos in the Sala Regia. Among his other pupils or followers are included Sebastiano Flori, Bartolomeo Carducci, Domenico Benci, Tommaso del Verrocchio, Federigo di Lamberto, Niccolo Betti, Vittor Casini, Mirabello Cavalori, Jacopo Coppi, Piero di Ridolfo, Stefano Veltroni of Monte San Savino, Orazio Porta of Monte San Savino, Alessandro Fortori of Arezzo, Bastiano Flori of Arezzo, Fra Salvatore Foschi of Arezzo, Andrea Aretino. Aside from his career as a painter, Vasari was successful as an architect.
His loggia of the Palazzo degli Uffizi by the Arno opens up the vista at the far end of its long narrow courtyard. It is a unique piece of urban planning that functions as a public piazza, which, if considered as a short street, is unique as a Renaissance street with a unified architectural treatment; the view of the Loggia from the Arno reveals that, with the Vasari Corridor, it is one of few structures that line the river which are open to the river itself and appear to embrace the riverside environment. In Florence, Vasari built the long passage, now called Vasari Corridor, which connects the Uffizi with the Palazzo Pitti on the other side of the river; the enclosed corridor passes alongside the River Arno on an arcade, crosses the Ponte Vecchio and winds around the exterior of several buildings. It was once the home of the Mercado de Vecchio, he renovated the medieval churches of Santa Maria Novella and Santa Croce. At both he removed the original rood screen and loft, remodelled the retro-choirs in the Mannerist taste of his time.
In Santa Croce, he was responsible for the painting of The Adoration of the Magi, commissioned by Pope Pius V in 1566 and completed in February 1567. It was restored, before being put on exhibition in 2011 in Rome and in Naples, it is planned to return it to the church of Santa Croce in Bosco Marengo. In 1562 Vasari built the octagonal dome on the Basilica of Our Lady of Humility in Pistoia, an important example of high Renaissance architecture. In Rome, Vasari worked with Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola and Bartolomeo Ammannati at Pope Julius III's Villa Giulia. Called "the first art historian", Vasari invented the genre of the encyclopedia of artistic biographies with his Le Vite de' più eccellenti pittori, scultori, ed architettori, dedicated to Grand Duke Cosimo I de' Medici, first published in 1550, he was the first to use the term "Renaissance" in print, though an awareness of the ongoing "rebirth" in the arts had been in the air since the time of Alberti, he was responsible for our use of the term Gothic Art, though he only used the word Goth which he associated with the "barbaric" German style.
The Lives included a novel treatise on the technical methods employed in the arts. The book was rewritten and enlarged in 1568, with the addition of woodcut portraits of artists; the work has a consistent and notorious bias in favour of Florentines, tends to attribute to them all the developments in Renaissance art – for example, the invention of engraving. Venetian art in particular, is systematically ignored in the first edition. Between the first and second editions, Vasari visited Venice and while the second edition gave more attention to Venetian art, it did so without achieving a neutral point of view. There are many inaccuracies within his Lives. For example, Vasari writes that Andrea del Castagno killed Domenico Veneziano, not true, given Andrea died several years before Domenico. In another example, Vasari's biography of Giovanni Antonio Bazzi, whom he calls "Il Soddoma," published only in the Lives' second edition after Bazzi's death, condemns the artist as being immoral and vain. Vasari dismisses Bazzi's work as being lazy and offensive, despite the artist's having been named a Cavaliere di Crist
Giacomo Legi was a Baroque painter of Flemish descent, active principally in northern Italy during the first half of the 17th century. Here he was one of the leading painters of still lifes and pantry scenes. Little is known about Legi’s early life, his original name is not known with certainty. It is believed that his Italian name is derived from the French word Liège which may refer to the city Liège or the Prince-Bishopric of Liège, in present-day Belgium, where he may have been born. Antwerp has been suggested as a possible place of birth. Legi moved to Genoa to work as an apprentice in the large workshop of Jan Roos, a Flemish painter who had made a name for himself in Genoa and had married a local woman. Jan Roos may have been Legi's brother-in-law. Genoa was at the time an attractive destination for artists since the competition between artists there was less intense than in the leading cultural centres Rome and Venice, while Genoa was a thriving port city where a large number of potential customers and collectors lived.
There was a large colony of Flemish artists who resided in or passed through the city and relied on the network of established Flemish artists and traders to find patrons and commissions. Struck by an illness he moved for treatment to Milan, where he died some time between 1640 and 1645. Giacomo Legi was a master of the still life and of genre paintings and worked in a style inspired by his teacher Jan Roos. Roos and Legi played an important role in the development of the still life in Italy towards more complex compositions in line with Baroque taste. Legi made a career out of the depiction of single fruit, game or fish salesmen and women, it is difficult to determine the chronology of Legi's oeuvre. In his mature period his compositions became more elaborate and were characterized by an abundance of figures and details. Characteristic of his work are the rich brushstrokes, the vivid colors and the use of light, with clear chiaroscuro contrasts. During his stay in Genoa, he collaborated with the local painter Domenico Fiasella.
Legi's work was much admired and imitated by local painters in Genoa. Legi's A market scene was cited directly in a composition referred to as The Market executed by the young Domenico Piola with the collaboration of Stefano Camogli, who had trained in the Roos workshop. Market, Oil on canvas, 150x186 cm, Galleria di Palazzo Bianco, Genoa Kitchen, Oil on canvas, 150x186 cm, Palazzo Tursi, Genoa Pantry with live and dead animals with a young man, Oil on canvas, 99x147 cm, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux, Bordeaux Pantry with animals, hanging ham and cook, Oil on canvas, 112x142 cm, Musée des Beaux-Arts de Bordeaux, Bordeaux Pantry with animals, vegetables and a male character, Oil on canvas, Private Collection, Genoa The Fortune Teller, Oil on canvas, in collaboration with Domenico Fiasella, Albergo dei Poveri, Genoa Kitchen interior, oil on canvas, private collection Pellegrino Antonio Orlandi, Pietro Guarienti, Abecedario pittorico, Venezia. Raffaele Soprani, Giovanni Nicolò Cavana, Le Vite De Pittori Scoltori, Et Architetti Genovesi, E de' Forastieri, che in Genoua operarono Con alcuni Ritratti de gli stessi, Genova Media related to Giacomo Legi at Wikimedia Commons
Abraham Govaerts was a Flemish painter who specialized in small cabinet-sized forest landscapes in the manner of Jan Brueghel the Elder and Gillis van Coninxloo. He was a regular collaborator with other artists. Govaerts would paint the landscape while these specialists painted the figures, animals or still life elements, he was born in Antwerp. There is no information on his training. In view of the influence on his early oeuvre of Jan Brueghel the Elder, some believe he may have apprenticed in the latter’s workshop but there is no evidence for this, he became a master in Antwerp's Guild of Saint Luke in 1607–1608. He married Isabella Gielis, he was active throughout his career in Antwerp. He became deacon of the local Guild of Saint Luke in 1623, he trained several artists including Alexander Keirincx, Nicolaes Aertsens and Gysbrecht van der Berch. Govaerts was a landscape specialist, was known for his wooded landscapes which included a diminutive history, mythological or biblical subject or a hunting scene.
His landscapes followed the Mannerist style of the three-colour world landscape in which the figures are bracketed by repoussoir trees. His palette at the time exaggerated the blue tones in the foliage. An example is Actaeon. Another major influence was the landscape painter Gillis van Coninxloo. A painting entitled Landscape with River Vale and Falcon Hunt is inspired by the work of Joos de Momper. From 1620 onwards the Mannerist aspect of his palette was replaced by pure and brilliant colours applied in light stippling, he juxtaposed various colours to achieve gradual gentle transitions. This style was more reminiscent of the work of Jan Breughel the Elder, he strived for a dynamic effect in his work by placing dramatic and contorted tree trunks in the foreground and using stark light–dark effects. As was common at the time, Govaerts collaborated with other artists who were specialists in specific genres. Govaerts would take care of the landscape while these specialists painted the figures, animals or still life elements.
He collaborated with members of the Francken family such as Frans Francken the Younger and Ambrosius Francken I. Other collaborators included Hendrick van Balen. An example of such a collaboration is the composition An elegant couple strolling through the forest where Govaerts had the assistance of Sebastiaen Vrancx who painted the figures and dog in the landscape. A landscape composition painted in collaboration with Frans Francken the Younger showing an open view of a river is uncharacteristic for his oeuvre. Media related to Abraham Govaerts at Wikimedia Commons