Palace of the Dukes of Burgundy
The Palace of the Dukes and Estates of Burgundy or Palais des ducs et des États de Bourgogne is a remarkably well-preserved architectural assemblage in Dijon. The oldest part is the 14th and 15th century Gothic ducal palace and seat of the Dukes of Burgundy, made up of a logis still visible on place de la Liberation, the ducal kitchens on cour de Bar, the tour de Philippe le Bon, a "guette" overlooking the whole city, tour de Bar. Most of what can be seen today, was built in the 17th and the 18th centuries, in a classical style, when the palace was a royal residence building and housed the estates of Burgundy; the 19th façade of the musée on place de la Sainte-Chapelle was added on the site of the palace's Sainte-Chapelle, demolished in 1802. The Palace houses the musée des Beaux-Arts; the Duchy of Burgundy was founded in the 9th century, around the year 880, from the Kingdom of Burgundy by the Carolingian kings of France, Louis III and Carloman II, the Princes who shared the Carolingian Empire, after reorganizing the entire kingdom into duchies and counties.
Richard, Count of Autun, known as "Richard the Justiciar", was named the first Margrave and Duke of Burgundy. He was one of the six in the French Peerage installed under King Louis III of France. Philip the Bold, son of the King John II of France John the Fearless Philip the Good Charles the Bold The palace turned into a Royal residence when the Duchy of Burgundy was occupied by the Kingdom of France after the death of Charles the Bold, in 1477, the treaty of Arras of 1482 between the king Louis XI and Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor. After 1477, the kings of France named governors to rule Burgundy. Sometimes they came to Dijon, where the palace was turned into a royal residence to receive them while in the province of Burgundy; the restored ducal tombs were installed in the Salle de garde following the razing of the Chartreuse de Champmol in the nineteenth century. During the 2010–12 renovation of the palace, a number of sculptures from the tombs travelled on exhibition. Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon Dukes of Burgundy Dijon Media related to Palais des Ducs at Wikimedia Commons Official Site of the Musée des Beaux-Arts de Dijon
The Chartreuse de Champmol, formally the Chartreuse de la Sainte-Trinité de Champmol, was a Carthusian monastery on the outskirts of Dijon, now in France, but in the 15th century was the capital of the Duchy of Burgundy. The monastery was founded in 1383 by Duke Philip the Bold to provide a dynastic burial place for the Valois Dukes of Burgundy, operated until it was dissolved in 1791, during the French Revolution. Called "the grandest project in a reign renowned for extravagance", it was lavishly enriched with works of art, the dispersed remnants of its collection remain key to the understanding of the art of the period. Purchase of the land and quarrying of materials began in 1377, but construction did not begin until 1383, under the architect Druet de Dammartin from Paris, who had designed the Duke's chateau at Sluis, been an assistant in work at the Louvre. According to James Snyder his work at Champmol was "a somewhat conservative modification of the Late Gothic buildings of Paris". A committee of councillors from Dijon supervised the construction for the Duke, elsewhere.
By 1388 the church was consecrated, most construction completed. The monastery was built for twenty-four choir monks, instead of the usual twelve in a Carthusian house, two more were endowed to celebrate the birth in 1433 of Charles the Bold; these lived semi-hermitic lives in their individual small houses when not in the chapel. There would have been non-ordained monks, servants and other workers; when founded, Champmol was "two arrow shots" outside the city gates, but is now inside the modern city boundaries. At this time the city had about 10,000 inhabitants and was the largest in Burgundy proper, though smaller than the cities of the territories in the Netherlands inherited by the Duke through his wife, but Burgundy was held more securely than the turbulent cities in the north, represented the senior title of the dynasty. Over sixty members of the Capetian House of Burgundy, whom the Valois had succeeded in 1361, only two decades earlier, had been buried at Cîteaux Abbey to the south of Dijon.
Champmol was intended to rival Cîteaux, Saint-Denis, where the Kings of France were buried, other dynastic burial places. Somewhat in contradiction to the Carthusian mission of tranquil contemplation and pilgrims were encouraged, the expenses of hospitality recompensed by the Dukes. In 1418 Papal indulgences were granted to those visiting the Well of Moses, further encouraging pilgrims; the ducal family had a private oratory overlooking the church, though their visits were in fact rare. The ducal accounts, which have survived, show major commissions for paintings and other works to complete the monastery continuing until about 1415, further works were added after that at a slower rate by the Dukes and other donors; the accounts for Champmol have survived in sufficient detail that Martin Warnke synthesized from them a view of the emerging status of court artists, "the autonomous consciousness of art and artists" that would distinguish the world of art in the Early modern period. The Valois dynasty of Burgundy had less than a century to run when the monastery was founded, the number of tombs never approached that of their Capetian predecessors at Cîteaux – indeed there would hardly have been room in the choir of the church, where the monuments were.
Only two monuments were erected, both in the same style with painted alabaster effigies with lions at their feet and angels with spread wings at their heads. Underneath the slab the effigies rested on, unpainted small "pleurants" or mourners were set among Gothic tracery; these were described by Johan Huizinga in The Waning of the Middle Ages as "the most profound expression of mourning known in art, a funeral march in stone". Philip the Bold died in 1404, his wife Margaret III, Countess of Flanders the following year, she had decided to rest her remains with those of her parents in Lille, Philip had been planning a single monument for himself for over twenty years, having commissioned Jean de Marville in 1381. Work did not begin until 1384, proceeded with Claus Sluter being put in charge in 1389. At the Duke's death in 1404, only two mourners and the framework were complete, his nephew and assistant, Claus de Werve took over and finished the sculptures in 1410. The effigies were painted by Malouel.
John expressed a wish for his own tomb, this time a double one with his Duchess Margaret of Bavaria, to resemble that of his father, but nothing was done after his death in 1419, until 1435, in 1439 de Werve died without having managed to find suitable alabaster. In 1443 a Spaniard, Jean de La Huerta, was contracted, sent drawings for the effigies, he completed most elements, but not the effigies, before leaving Dijon in 1456. Yet another master was brought in, the monument installed in 1470, by which time Philip the Good was himself dead, he seems to have made no provision for a monument for himself, had been buried in Bruges, where he died. His son Charles the Bold had the remains brought back to Champmol after some years, but no monument was planned. Charles himself was relocated from Nancy to Bruges by his great-grandson Charles V in 1558; the second tomb repeats the design of the first, but with their execution spanning a century, stylistic differences can be seen, although some of the "pleurants" of the second tomb copy those of the first exactly.
It is recorded that Philip the Good had a portrait of himself placed in the choir, where there were those of the previous two Dukes. None of
Duke of Burgundy
Duke of Burgundy was a title borne by the rulers of the Duchy of Burgundy, a small portion of traditional lands of Burgundians west of river Saône which in 843 was allotted to Charles the Bald's kingdom of West Franks. Under the Ancien Régime, the Duke of Burgundy was the premier lay peer of the kingdom of France. Beginning with Robert II of France, the title was held by the French royal family, it was granted to Robert's younger son, who founded the House of Burgundy. When the senior line of the House of Burgundy became extinct, it was inherited by John II of France through proximity of blood. John granted the duchy as an appanage for Philip the Bold; the Valois Dukes of Burgundy became dangerous rivals to the senior line of the House of Valois. When the male line of the Valois Dukes of Burgundy became extinct, the title was confiscated by Louis XI of France. Today, the title is used by the House of Bourbon as a revived courtesy title; the first margrave duke, of Burgundy was Richard of the House of Ardennes, whose duchy was created from the merging of several regional counties of the kingdom of Provence which had belonged to his brother Boso.
His descendants and their relatives by marriage ruled the duchy until its annexation over a century by the French crown, their suzerain. Richard the Justiciar Rudolph King of France Hugh the Black Gilbert Otto Eudes Henry the Great Otto William In 1004, Burgundy was annexed by the king, of the House of Capet. Otto William continued to rule, his descendants formed another House of Ivrea. Robert Henry Robert, son of Robert II of France, received the Duchy as a peace settlement, having disputed the succession to the throne of France with his brother Henry. John II of France, the second Valois king claimed the Duchy after the death of Philip, the last Capet duke. John passed the duchy to his youngest son Philip as an apanage. In 1477, the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy was annexed by France. In the same year, Mary married Maximilian, Archduke of Austria, giving the Habsburgs control of the remainder of the Burgundian Inheritance. Although the territory of the Duchy of Burgundy itself remained in the hands of France, the Habsburgs remained in control of the title of Duke of Burgundy and the other parts of the Burgundian inheritance, notably the Low Countries and the Free County of Burgundy in the Holy Roman Empire.
They used the term Burgundy to refer to it, until the late 18th century, when the Austrian Netherlands were lost to French Republic. The Habsburgs continued to claim Burgundy proper until the Treaty of Cambrai in 1529, when they surrendered their claim in exchange for French recognition of Imperial sovereignty over Flanders and Artois. Maximilian I Philip IV the Handsome, titular Duke of Burgundy as Philip IV Charles II 1506–1555Philip V 1556–1598 Philip VI 1598–1621 Philip VII 1621–1665 Charles III 1665–1700 Louis, Duke of Burgundy Philip VIII 1700–1713 Charles IV 1713–1740 Maria Theresa 1740–1780 Francis I Joseph 1780–1790 Leopold 1790–1792 Francis II 1792–1795/1835 Ferdinand Franz Joseph Charles V King Juan Carlos I of Spain King Felipe VI of Spain – the title is one of the titles of the Spanish Crown Prince Louis of Bourbon – the title is used by eldest son of the legitimist claimant to the French throne Louis Alphonse, Duke of Anjou. Duchess of Burgundy Kingdom of Burgundy King of Burgundy Duchy of Burgundy County of Burgundy Count of Burgundy Dukes of Burgundy family tree Arelat Calmette, Joseph.
Doreen Weightman, trans. The Golden Age of Burgundy. New York: W. W. Norton, 1962. Chaumé, Maurice. Les Origines du Duché de Bourgogne. 2v. in 4 parts. Dijon: Jobard, 1925. Michael, Nicholas. Armies of Medieval Burgundy 1364–1477. London: Osprey, 1983. ISBN 0-85045-518-9. Vaughan, Richard. Valois Burgundy. London: Allen Lane, 1975. ISBN 0-7139-0924-2
Ivory is a hard, white material from the tusks and teeth of animals, that consists of dentine, one of the physical structures of teeth and tusks. The chemical structure of the teeth and tusks of mammals is the same, regardless of the species of origin; the trade in certain teeth and tusks other than elephant is widespread. It has been valued since ancient times in art or manufacturing for making a range of items from ivory carvings to false teeth, fans and joint tubes. Elephant ivory is the most important source, but ivory from mammoth, hippopotamus, sperm whale, killer whale and wart hog are used as well. Elk have two ivory teeth, which are believed to be the remnants of tusks from their ancestors; the national and international trade in ivory of threatened species such as African and Asian elephants is illegal. The word ivory derives from the ancient Egyptian âb, âbu, through the Latin ebor- or ebur. Both the Greek and Roman civilizations practiced ivory carving to make large quantities of high value works of art, precious religious objects, decorative boxes for costly objects.
Ivory was used to form the white of the eyes of statues. There is some evidence of either walrus ivory used by the ancient Irish. Solinus, a Roman writer in the 3rd century claimed that the Celtic peoples in Ireland would decorate their sword-hilts with the'teeth of beasts that swim in the sea'. Adomnan of Iona wrote a story about St Columba giving a sword decorated with carved ivory as a gift that a penitent would bring to his master so he could redeem himself from slavery; the Syrian and North African elephant populations were reduced to extinction due to the demand for ivory in the Classical world. The Chinese have long valued ivory for utilitarian objects. Early reference to the Chinese export of ivory is recorded after the Chinese explorer Zhang Qian ventured to the west to form alliances to enable the eventual free movement of Chinese goods to the west. Southeast Asian kingdoms included tusks of the Indian elephant in their annual tribute caravans to China. Chinese craftsmen carved ivory to make everything from images of deities to the pipe stems and end pieces of opium pipes.
The Buddhist cultures of Southeast Asia, including Myanmar, Thailand and Cambodia, traditionally harvested ivory from their domesticated elephants. Ivory was prized for containers due to its ability to keep an airtight seal, it was commonly carved into elaborate seals utilized by officials to "sign" documents and decrees by stamping them with their unique official seal. In Southeast Asian countries, where Muslim Malay peoples live, such as Malaysia and the Philippines, ivory was the material of choice for making the handles of kris daggers. In the Philippines, ivory was used to craft the faces and hands of Catholic icons and images of saints prevalent in the Santero culture. Tooth and tusk ivory can be carved into a vast variety of objects. Examples of modern carved ivory objects are okimono, jewelry, flatware handles, furniture inlays, piano keys. Additionally, warthog tusks, teeth from sperm whales and hippos can be scrimshawed or superficially carved, thus retaining their morphologically recognizable shapes.
Ivory usage in the last thirty years has moved towards mass production of souvenirs and jewelry. In Japan, the increase in wealth sparked consumption of solid ivory hanko – name seals – which before this time had been made of wood; these hanko can be carved out in a matter of seconds using machinery and were responsible for massive African elephant decline in the 1980s, when the African elephant population went from 1.3 million to around 600,000 in ten years. Prior to the introduction of plastics, ivory had many ornamental and practical uses because of the white color it presents when processed, it was used to make cutlery handles, billiard balls, piano keys, Scottish bagpipes, buttons and a wide range of ornamental items. Synthetic substitutes for ivory in the use of most of these items have been developed since 1800: the billiard industry challenged inventors to come up with an alternative material that could be manufactured. Ivory can be taken from dead animals – however, most ivory came from elephants that were killed for their tusks.
For example, in 1930 to acquire 40 tons of ivory required the killing of 700 elephants. Other animals which are now endangered were preyed upon, for example, which have hard white ivory prized for making artificial teeth. In the first half of the 20th century, Kenyan elephant herds were devastated because of demand for ivory, to be used for piano keys. During the Art Deco era from 1912 to 1940, dozens of European artists used ivory in the production of chryselephantine statues. Two of the most frequent users of ivory in their sculptured artworks were Ferdinand Preiss and Claire Colinet. Owing to the rapid decline in the populations of the animals that produce it, the importation and sale of ivory in many countries is banned or restricted. In the ten years preceding a decision in 1989 by CITES to ban international trade in African elephant ivory, the population of African elephants declined from 1.3 million to around 600,000. It was found by investigators from the Environmental Investigation Agency that CITES sales of stockpiles from Singapore and
Jacopo Carucci known as Jacopo da Pontormo, Jacopo Pontormo or Pontormo, was an Italian Mannerist painter and portraitist from the Florentine School. His work represents a profound stylistic shift from the calm perspectival regularity that characterized the art of the Florentine Renaissance, he is famous for his use of twining poses, coupled with ambiguous perspective. Jacopo Carucci was born at Pontorme, near Empoli, to Bartolomeo di Jacopo di Martino Carrucci and Alessandra di Pasquale di Zanobi. Vasari relates how the orphaned boy, "young and lonely", was shuttled around as a young apprentice: Jacopo had not been many months in Florence before Bernardo Vettori sent him to stay with Leonardo da Vinci, with Mariotto Albertinelli, Piero di Cosimo, in 1512, with Andrea del Sarto, with whom he did not remain long, for after he had done the cartoons for the arch of the Servites, it does not seem that Andrea bore him any good will, whatever the cause may have been. Pontormo painted in and around Florence supported by Medici patronage.
A foray to Rome to see Michelangelo's work, influenced his style. Haunted elongated bodies are characteristic of his work. An example of Pontormo's early style is a fresco depicting the Visitation of the Virgin and St Elizabeth, with its dancelike, balanced figures, painted from 1514 to 1516; this early Visitation makes an interesting comparison with his painting of the same subject, done about a decade now housed in the parish church of St. Michael Archangel in Carmignano, about 20 km west of Florence. Placing these two pictures together—one from his early style, another from his mature period—throws Pontormo's artistic development into sharp relief. In the earlier work, Pontormo is much closer in style to his teacher, Andrea del Sarto, to the early sixteenth century renaissance artistic principles. For example, the figures stand at just under half the height of the overall picture, though a bit more crowded than true high renaissance balance would prefer, at least are placed in a classicizing architectural setting at a comfortable distance from the viewer.
In the work, the viewer is brought uncomfortably close to the Virgin and St. Elizabeth, who drift toward each other in clouds of drapery. Moreover, the clear architectural setting, constructed in earlier piece has been abandoned in favor of a peculiar nondescript urban setting; the Joseph canvases offer another example of Pontormo's developing style. Done around the same time as the earlier Visitation, these works show a much more mannerist leaning. According to Giorgio Vasari, the sitter for the boy seated on a step is his young apprentice, Bronzino. In the years between the SS Annunziata and San Michele Visitations, Pontormo took part in the fresco decoration of the salon of the Medici country villa at Poggio a Caiano, 17 km NNW of Florence. There he painted frescoes in a pastoral genre style uncommon for Florentine painters. In 1522, when the plague broke out in Florence, Pontormo left for the Certosa di Galluzzo, a cloistered Carthusian monastery where the monks followed vows of silence, he painted a series of frescoes, now quite damaged, on the resurrection of Christ.
The large altarpiece canvas for the Brunelleschi-designed Capponi Chapel in the church of Santa Felicita, portraying The Deposition from the Cross, is considered by many Pontormo's surviving masterpiece. The figures, with their modeled forms and brilliant colors are united in an enormously complex, swirling ovular composition, housed by a shallow, somewhat flattened space. Although known as The Deposition from the Cross, there is no actual cross in the picture; the scene might more properly be called a Bearing the Body of Christ. Those who are lowering Christ appear as anguished as the mourners. Though they are bearing the weight of a full-grown man, they seem to be touching the ground; these two boys have sometimes been interpreted as angels. In this case, the subject of the picture would be more akin to an Entombment, though the lack of any discernible tomb disrupts that theory, just as the lack of cross poses a problem for the Deposition interpretation, it has been noted that the positions of Christ and the Virgin seem to echo those of Michelangelo's Pietà in Rome, though here in the Deposition mother and son have been separated.
Thus in addition to elements of a Lamentation and Entombment, this picture carries hints of a Pietà. It has been speculated that the bearded figure in the background at the far right is a self-portrait of Pontormo as Joseph of Arimathea. Another unique feature of this particular Deposition is the empty space occupying the central pictorial plane as all the Biblical personages seem to fall back from this point, it has been suggested that this emptiness may be a physical representation of the Virgin Mary's emotional emptiness at the prospect of losing her son. On the wall to the right of the Deposition, Pontormo frescoed an Annunciation scene; as with the Deposition, the artist's primary attention is on the figures themselves rather than their setting. Placed against white walls, the Angel Gabriel and Virgin Mary are presented in an environment, so simplified as to seem stark; the fictive architectural de
Tiziano Vecelli or Tiziano Vecellio, known in English as Titian, was an Italian painter, the most important member of the 16th-century Venetian school. He was born in Pieve di Cadore, near Belluno in the Republic of Venice). During his lifetime he was called da Cadore, taken from the place of his birth. Recognized by his contemporaries as "The Sun Amidst Small Stars", Titian was one of the most versatile of Italian painters adept with portraits, landscape backgrounds, mythological and religious subjects, his painting methods in the application and use of colour, would exercise a profound influence not only on painters of the late Italian Renaissance, but on future generations of Western art. His career was successful from the start, he became sought after by patrons from Venice and its possessions joined by the north Italian princes, the Habsburgs and papacy. Along with Giorgione, he is considered a founder of the Venetian School of Italian Renaissance painting. During the course of his long life, Titian's artistic manner changed drastically, but he retained a lifelong interest in colour.
Although his mature works may not contain the vivid, luminous tints of his early pieces, their loose brushwork and subtlety of tone were without precedent in the history of Western painting. The exact date of Titian's birth is uncertain; when he was an old man he claimed in a letter to Philip II, King of Spain, to have been born in 1474, but this seems most unlikely. Other writers contemporary to his old age give figures that would equate to birthdates between 1473 and after 1482. Most modern scholars believe a date between 1488 and 1490 is more though his age at death being 99 had been accepted into the 20th century, he was the son of whom little is known. Gregorio was superintendent of the castle of Pieve di Cadore and managed local mines for their owners. Gregorio was a distinguished councilor and soldier. Many relatives, including Titian's grandfather, were notaries, the family were well-established in the area, ruled by Venice. At the age of about ten to twelve he and his brother Francesco were sent to an uncle in Venice to find an apprenticeship with a painter.
The minor painter Sebastian Zuccato, whose sons became well-known mosaicists, who may have been a family friend, arranged for the brothers to enter the studio of the elderly Gentile Bellini, from which they transferred to that of his brother Giovanni Bellini. At that time the Bellinis Giovanni, were the leading artists in the city. There Titian found a group of young men about his own age, among them Giovanni Palma da Serinalta, Lorenzo Lotto, Sebastiano Luciani, Giorgio da Castelfranco, nicknamed Giorgione. Francesco Vecellio, Titian's older brother became a painter of some note in Venice. A fresco of Hercules on the Morosini Palace is said to have been one of Titian's earliest works. Others were the Bellini-esque so-called Gypsy Madonna in Vienna, the Visitation of Mary and Elizabeth, now in the Accademia, Venice. A Man with a Quilted Sleeve is an early portrait, painted around 1509 and described by Giorgio Vasari in 1568. Scholars long believed it depicted Ludovico Ariosto. Rembrandt borrowed the composition for his self-portraits.
Titian joined Giorgione as an assistant, but many contemporary critics found his work more impressive—for example in exterior frescoes that they did for the Fondaco dei Tedeschi. Their relationship evidently contained a significant element of rivalry. Distinguishing between their work at this period remains a subject of scholarly controversy. A substantial number of attributions have moved from Giorgione to Titian in the 20th century, with little traffic the other way. One of the earliest known Titian works, Christ Carrying the Cross in the Scuola Grande di San Rocco, depicting the Ecce Homo scene, was long regarded as by Giorgione; the two young masters were recognized as the leaders of their new school of arte moderna, characterized by paintings made more flexible, freed from symmetry and the remnants of hieratic conventions still found in the works of Giovanni Bellini. In 1507–1508 Giorgione was commissioned by the state to create frescoes on the re-erected Fondaco dei Tedeschi. Titian and Morto da Feltre worked along with him, some fragments of paintings remain by Giorgione.
Some of their work is known, through the engravings of Fontana. After Giorgione's early death in 1510, Titian continued to paint Giorgionesque subjects for some time, though his style developed its own features, including bold and expressive brushwork. Titian's talent in fresco is shown in those he painted in 1511 at Padua in the Carmelite church and in the Scuola del Santo, some of which have been preserved, among them the Meeting at the Golden Gate, three scenes from the life of St. Anthony of Padua, The Miracle of the Jealous Husband, which depicts the Murder of a Young Woman by Her Husband, A Child Testifying to Its Mother's Innocence, The Saint Healing the Young Man with a Broken Limb. In 1512 Titian returned to Venice from Padua, he became superintendent of the government works charged with completing the paintings left unfinished by Giovanni Bellini in the hall of the great council in the ducal palace. He set up a
Painting is the practice of applying paint, color or other medium to a solid surface. The medium is applied to the base with a brush, but other implements, such as knives and airbrushes, can be used; the final work is called a painting. Painting is an important form in the visual arts, bringing in elements such as drawing, composition, narration, or abstraction. Paintings can be naturalistic and representational, abstract, symbolistic, emotive, or political in nature. A portion of the history of painting in both Eastern and Western art is dominated by religious art. Examples of this kind of painting range from artwork depicting mythological figures on pottery, to Biblical scenes Sistine Chapel ceiling, to scenes from the life of Buddha or other images of Eastern religious origin. In art, the term painting describes the result of the action; the support for paintings includes such surfaces as walls, canvas, glass, pottery, leaf and concrete, the painting may incorporate multiple other materials including sand, paper, gold leaf, as well as objects.
Color, made up of hue and value, dispersed over a surface is the essence of painting, just as pitch and rhythm are the essence of music. Color is subjective, but has observable psychological effects, although these can differ from one culture to the next. Black is associated with mourning in the West; some painters, theoreticians and scientists, including Goethe and Newton, have written their own color theory. Moreover, the use of language is only an abstraction for a color equivalent; the word "red", for example, can cover a wide range of variations from the pure red of the visible spectrum of light. There is not a formalized register of different colors in the way that there is agreement on different notes in music, such as F or C♯. For a painter, color is not divided into basic and derived colors. Painters deal with pigments, so "blue" for a painter can be any of the blues: phthalocyanine blue, Prussian blue, Cobalt blue, so on. Psychological and symbolical meanings of color are not speaking, means of painting.
Colors only add to the potential, derived context of meanings, because of this, the perception of a painting is subjective. The analogy with music is quite clear—sound in music is analogous to "light" in painting, "shades" to dynamics, "coloration" is to painting as the specific timbre of musical instruments is to music; these elements do not form a melody of themselves. Modern artists have extended the practice of painting to include, as one example, which began with Cubism and is not painting in the strict sense; some modern painters incorporate different materials such as sand, straw or wood for their texture. Examples of this are the works of Anselm Kiefer. There is a growing community of artists who use computers to "paint" color onto a digital "canvas" using programs such as Adobe Photoshop, Corel Painter, many others; these images can be printed onto traditional canvas. Jean Metzinger's mosaic-like Divisionist technique had its parallel in literature. I make a kind of chromatic versification and for syllables I use strokes which, variable in quantity, cannot differ in dimension without modifying the rhythm of a pictorial phraseology destined to translate the diverse emotions aroused by nature.
Rhythm, for artists such as Piet Mondrian, is important in painting as it is in music. If one defines rhythm as "a pause incorporated into a sequence" there can be rhythm in paintings; these pauses allow creative force to intervene and add new creations—form, coloration. The distribution of form, or any kind of information is of crucial importance in the given work of art, it directly affects the aesthetic value of that work; this is because the aesthetic value is functionality dependent, i.e. the freedom of perception is perceived as beauty. Free flow of energy, in art as well as in other forms of "techne", directly contributes to the aesthetic value. Music was important to the birth of abstract art, since music is abstract by nature—it does not try to represent the exterior world, but expresses in an immediate way the inner feelings of the soul. Wassily Kandinsky used musical terms to identify his works. Kandinsky theorized that "music is the ultimate teacher," and subsequently embarked upon the first seven of his ten Compositions.
Hearing tones and chords as he painted, Kandinsky theorized that, yellow is the color of middle C on a brassy trumpet. In 1871 the young Kandinsky learned to play the cello. Kandinsky's stage design for a performance of Mussorgsky's "Pictures at an Exhibition" illustrates his "synaesthetic" concept of a universal correspondence of forms and musical sounds. Music d