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Muse Bihi Abdi

Musa Bihi Abdi is a Somali politician and former military officer, President of Somaliland since December 2017. During the 1970s, he served as a pilot in the Somali Air Force under the Siad Barre administration. In 2010, Bihi was appointed the Chairman of the ruling Kulmiye in the self-declared Republic of Somaliland. In November 2015, Bihi was selected as the party's Presidential Candidate at the 5th annual central committee convention. On November 21, 2017 Muse Bihi was announced the winner of the 2017 presidential election, he became President of Somaliland on December 13, 2017. During the 1970s, he served as a pilot in the Somali Air Force under the Siad Barre administration. In 1985, he defected from the Somali Army and joined the rebel Somali National Movement that helped to oust the Somali dictator’s regime after a long armed struggle in 1991. From 1985 to 1988 Bihi took part in conducting intensive guerrilla war operations conducted by the SNM against the Siad Barre regime; until 1990, Bihi served as rebel commander before joining politics and serving as home affairs minister under the late President Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal in 1992.

After the rebirth and declaration of Independence of Somaliland in 1991, Col. Muse Bihi Abdi played a vital role in the reconciliation process of the Somaliland clans in Burao, Berbera and Borama. In 1993, Bihi served as Minister of Interior and National Security in late President Muhammad Haji Ibrahim Egal's government. In 2010, Mr Bihi became the chairman of Somaliland’s Kulmiye Party. In 2015, Bihi was elected by the Party Congress as the Kulmiye presidential candidate in the forthcoming elections of 2017 presidential election; the 2017 Somaliland presidential elections were held on November 13, 2017. On November 21, Bihi was announced as the winner of the election, becoming President-elect of Somaliland. Muse Bihi Abdi was sworn in as the 5th President of the Republic of Somaliland on December 13, 2017 in the capital Hargeisa with dignitaries from Ethiopia, the European Union and the United Kingdom in attendance

Diabetic coma

Diabetic coma is a reversible form of coma found in people with diabetes mellitus. It is a medical emergency. Three different types of diabetic coma are identified: Severe low blood sugar in a diabetic person Diabetic ketoacidosis advanced enough to result in unconsciousness from a combination of a increased blood sugar level and shock, exhaustion Hyperosmolar nonketotic coma in which an high blood sugar level and dehydration alone are sufficient to cause unconsciousness. In most medical contexts, the term diabetic coma refers to the diagnostical dilemma posed when a physician is confronted with an unconscious patient about whom nothing is known except that they have diabetes. An example might be a physician working in an emergency department who receives an unconscious patient wearing a medical identification tag saying DIABETIC. Paramedics may be called to rescue an unconscious person by friends. Brief descriptions of the three major conditions are followed by a discussion of the diagnostic process used to distinguish among them, as well as a few other conditions which must be considered.

An estimated 2 to 15 percent of people with diabetes will suffer from at least one episode of diabetic coma in their lifetimes as a result of severe hypoglycemia. People with type 1 diabetes mellitus who must take insulin in full replacement doses are most vulnerable to episodes of hypoglycemia, it is mild enough to reverse by eating or drinking carbohydrates, but blood glucose can fall fast enough and low enough to produce unconsciousness before hypoglycemia can be recognized and reversed. Hypoglycemia can be severe enough to cause unconsciousness during sleep. Predisposing factors can include eating less prolonged exercise earlier in the day; some people with diabetes can lose their ability to recognize the symptoms of early hypoglycemia. Unconsciousness due to hypoglycemia can occur within 20 minutes to an hour after early symptoms and is not preceded by other illness or symptoms. Twitching or convulsions may occur. A person unconscious from hypoglycemia is pale, has a rapid heart beat, is soaked in sweat: all signs of the adrenaline response to hypoglycemia.

The individual is not dehydrated and breathing is normal or shallow. Their blood sugar level, measured by a glucose meter or laboratory measurement at the time of discovery, is low but not always and in some cases may have risen from the nadir that triggered the unconsciousness. Unconsciousness due to hypoglycemia is treated by raising the blood glucose with intravenous glucose or injected glucagon. Diabetic ketoacidosis, if it progresses and worsens without treatment, can cause unconsciousness, from a combination of a high blood sugar level and shock, exhaustion. Coma only occurs at an advanced stage after 36 hours or more of worsening vomiting and hyperventilation. In the early to middle stages of ketoacidosis, patients are flushed and breathing and but visible dehydration, pale appearance from diminished perfusion, shallower breathing, a fast heart rate are present when coma is reached; however these features are not always as described. If the patient is known to have diabetes, the diagnosis of diabetic ketoacidosis is suspected from the appearance and a history of 1–2 days of vomiting.

The diagnosis is confirmed when the usual blood chemistries in the emergency department reveal a high blood sugar level and severe metabolic acidosis. Treatment of diabetic ketoacidosis consists of isotonic fluids to stabilize the circulation, continued intravenous saline with potassium and other electrolytes to replace deficits, insulin to reverse the ketoacidosis, careful monitoring for complications. Nonketotic hyperosmolar coma develops more insidiously than diabetic ketoacidosis because the principal symptom is lethargy progressing to obtundation, rather than vomiting and an obvious illness. High blood sugar levels are accompanied by dehydration due to inadequate fluid intake. Coma occurs most in patients who have type 2 or steroid diabetes and have an impaired ability to recognize thirst and drink, it can occur in all ages. The diagnosis is discovered when a chemistry screen performed because of obtundation reveals an high blood sugar level and dehydration; the treatment consists of insulin and gradual rehydration with intravenous fluids.

Diabetic coma was a more significant diagnostic problem before the late 1970s, when glucose meters and rapid blood chemistry analyzers were not available in all hospitals. In modern medical practice, it takes more than a few questions, a quick look, a glucose meter to determine the cause of unconsciousness in a patient with diabetes. Laboratory confirmation can be obtained in half an hour or less. Other conditions that can cause unconsciousness in a person with diabetes are stroke, uremic encephalopathy, drug overdose, head injury, or seizure. Most patients do not reach the point of unconsciousness or coma in cases of diabetic hypoglycemia, diabetic ketoacidosis, or severe hyperosmolarity before a family member or caretaker seeks medical help. Treatment depends upon the underlying cause: Hypoglycaemic diabetic coma: administration of the hormone glucagon to reverse the effects of insulin, or glucose given intravenously. Ketoacidotic diabetic coma: intravenous fluids and administration of potassium and sodium.

Hyperosmolar diabetic coma: plenty of intravenous fluids, insulin and sodium given as soon as possible

Pasukan Gerakan Khas

Pasukan Gerakan Khas is a special operations command of the Royal Malaysia Police. The PGK has two distinct sub-units. Operators of UTK and VAT 69 are specially trained to intervene in high-risk events like hostage and barricade situations by hostile forces terrorists and/or criminals, it had over 4,000 full-time operators, but its actual size and organisation are classified. Both units function as a high-level national tactical team in sensitive or dangerous situations. On 20 October 1997, the RMP setting back their special operations force. Although amalgamated into one directorate, they are still two separate entities operating in two distinct operational environments; the 69 Commando Battalion known as Very Able Troopers 69, Task Force, Charlie Force and Special Project Team, is modeled on and trained by the British Special Air Service and New Zealand Special Air Service. It was founded in 1969 as a small combat unit to counter the tactics and techniques of the communist terrorists. Established as an elite counter-insurgency force, the roles of counter-terrorism were added to the VAT 69 in the 1990s after the Second Malayan Emergency ends.

Unit Tindakhas, popularly known with its acronym UTK, is a special forces unit of RMP and the oldest and most experienced counter-terrorism unit in Malaysia. This unit performs as a high-level national Police Tactical Unit, providing 24 hours of close protection to high ranking government executives and their spouse, the unit's members undertake undercover missions. Founded on 1 January 1975, UTK is the brainchild of Inspector-General of Police Tun Hanif Omar. UTK were trained by the 22nd SAS for urban warfare on its early establishment. However, this unit does not only perform close-quarter combat and close-protection only, but they have the capability to perform underwater mission, airborne mission, sometimes jungle operation since 1975 to encounter various type of terrorism. In 2016, main counter-terrorism operators in Malaysia are formed into one special operations task force. Few operators from PGK are selected to be part of the National Special Operations Force. PGK roles are believed to include: Intelligence collection in deep reconnaissance missions and warfare.

Special operations to support the RMP Special Branch in combating subversive organisations or terrorist activities. Counter-terrorism operations inside Malaysian territory in conjunction with armed forces. Law enforcement operations in dealing with armed criminals inside Malaysian territory. Counter-terrorism operations outside Malaysian territory. Search and rescue operations inside or outside Malaysian territory, such as aid operations in the aftermath of the 2004 tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia. Protection of senior Malaysian dignitaries, ministers and VIPs. Assist other RMP's Special Forces Equivalent Units in terms of training and tactics. Separate entities, both the VAT 69 and the UTK were amalgamated into the PGK Command on 20 October 1997, when it was launched by the 5th Inspector General of Police, Tan Sri Rahim Noor. However, the VAT 69 and the UTK are still operating as separate units; the UTK is now known as Pasukan Gerakan Khas Detachment A and VAT 69 has been deputised to Pasukan Gerakan Khas Detachment B.

Based at the Royal Malaysia Police Headquarters in Bukit Aman, Kuala Lumpur, the PGK is under the direct command of the RMP's Internal and Public Security Director. The unit commander holds the rank of Senior Assistant Commissioner and is the Deputy Director of the Internal and Public Security Branch. With the growing threat of terrorism since the 9/11 attacks, this unit has adapted itself to conduct counter-terrorism duties. With the aim of creating teams that are capable of dealing with a broad range of operations, the PGK small patrol team consist of six to ten operatives led by officers ranked from Police Inspector to Superintendent of Police with different expertise such as assault units, EOD experts, communications experts and field medics; the PGK has forged closer relations with the special forces units of the Malaysian Armed Forces, including the elite 10th Parachute Brigade, 21 Grup Gerak Khas, PASKAL and PASKAU, so as to enable them to enforce security within Malaysia's borders more effectively.

Both VAT 69's and UTK's snipers and explosive expertise cross-train with foreign special forces units, including the Special Air Service Regiments of Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom, the Royal Thai Border Patrol Police, the French GIGN, the German Federal Police Grenzschutzgruppe 9, a number of US services including the US Navy SEALs, Federal Bureau of Investigation, Special Weapons and Tactics and others. UTK members wear maroon berets while VAT 69 Commando members wear the sand coloured beret given to them by their founding trainers, the SAS. On 14 November 2006, for the first time in the history of PGK, the maroon and sand coloured berets were honoured as'Royal Berets' by Yang Dipertuan Agong Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin Syed Putera Jamalullail, the King of