The Madrid Metro is a metro system serving the city of Madrid, capital of Spain. The system is the 7th longest metro in the world, having a length of 293 km. The Madrid Metro operates every day from 6 am until 1,30 am, a light rail system feeding the metro opened in 2007 called Metro Ligero. The Cercanias system works in conjunction with the metro servicing commuter train services to, some underground stations are large enough to hold public events, such as the three-day fitness festival in May 2011, which attracted 2,600 visitors. One station contains a 200-square-meter archaeological museum, the Madrid Metro has 1,698 escalators, the most of any system in the world. The first line of the Madrid metro opened on 17 October 1919 under the direction of the Compañía de Metro Alfonso XIII, the Madrid Metro is the first metro system in Spain and the second in the Spanish-speaking world after the Buenos Aires Underground. It was constructed in a section and the stations had 60 m platforms. The enlargement of this line and the construction of two others followed shortly after 1919, in 1924, traffic in Madrid switched from driving on the left, to driving on the right, but the lines of the Madrid Metro kept operating on the left hand side.
In 1936, the network had three lines and a line between Opera and Norte railway station. All these stations served as air raid shelters during the Spanish Civil War, after the Civil war, the public works to extend the network went on little by little. In the 1960s, a railway was constructed between Plaza de España and Carabanchel, linked to lines 2 and 3. A fifth metro line was constructed as well with narrow section but 90 m platforms, shortly after opening the first section of line 5, the platforms in line 1 were enlarged from 60 to 90 m, closing Chamberí station since it was too close to Iglesia. Chamberí has been closed ever since and has recently opened as a museum. In the early 1970s, the network was expanded to cope with the influx of population. New lines were planned with large 115 m platforms, lines 4 and 5 were enlarged as well. In 1979, bad management led to a crisis, Works already started were finished during the 1980s and all remaining projects were abandoned. After all those projects,100 km of track had been completed.
At the beginning of the 1990s, control of the network was transferred to a public enterprise, more large-scale expansion projects were carried out
Wassily Wassilyevich Kandinsky was a Russian painter and art theorist. He is credited with painting one of the first recognised purely abstract works, born in Moscow, Kandinsky spent his childhood in Odessa, where he graduated at Grekov Odessa Art school. He enrolled at the University of Moscow, studying law and economics, successful in his profession—he was offered a professorship at the University of Dorpat—Kandinsky began painting studies at the age of 30. In 1896 Kandinsky settled in Munich, studying first at Anton Ažbes private school and he returned to Moscow in 1914, after the outbreak of World War I. Kandinsky was unsympathetic to the theories on art in Communist Moscow. There, he taught at the Bauhaus school of art and architecture from 1922 until the Nazis closed it in 1933. He moved to France, where he lived for the rest of his life, becoming a French citizen in 1939 and he died at Neuilly-sur-Seine in 1944. Kandinskys creation of work followed a long period of development. He called this devotion to beauty, fervor of spirit.
Kandinsky was born in Moscow, the son of Lidia Ticheeva and Vasily Silvestrovich Kandinsky, Kandinsky learned from a variety of sources while in Moscow. He studied many fields while in school, including law and economics, in life, he would recall being fascinated and stimulated by colour as a child. His fascination with colour symbolism and psychology continued as he grew, in 1889, he was part of an ethnographic research group which travelled to the Vologda region north of Moscow. In Looks on the Past, he relates that the houses and churches were decorated with such shimmering colours that upon entering them and this experience, and his study of the regions folk art, was reflected in much of his early work. The artist is the hand plays, touching one key or another. Kandinsky was the uncle of Russian-French philosopher Alexandre Kojève, in 1896, at the age of 30, Kandinsky gave up a promising career teaching law and economics to enroll in the Munich Academy where his teachers would eventually include Franz von Stuck.
He was not immediately granted admission, and began learning art on his own and that same year, before leaving Moscow, he saw an exhibit of paintings by Monet. He was particularly taken with the style of Haystacks, this. Later, he would write about this experience, That it was a haystack the catalogue informed me and this non-recognition was painful to me
Modern art includes artistic work produced during the period extending roughly from the 1860s to the 1970s, and denotes the style and philosophy of the art produced during that era. The term is associated with art in which the traditions of the past have been thrown aside in a spirit of experimentation. Modern artists experimented with new ways of seeing and with ideas about the nature of materials. A tendency away from the narrative, which was characteristic for the traditional arts, more recent artistic production is often called contemporary art or postmodern art. Matisses two versions of The Dance signified a key point in his career and in the development of modern painting, analytic cubism was jointly developed by Picasso and Georges Braque, exemplified by Violin and Candlestick, from about 1908 through 1912. Synthetic cubism is characterized by the introduction of different textures, collage elements, papier collé, the notion of modern art is closely related to modernism. Although modern sculpture and architecture are reckoned to have emerged at the end of the 19th century, the beginnings of modern painting can be located earlier.
The date perhaps most commonly identified as marking the birth of art is 1863. Earlier dates have proposed, among them 1855 and 1784. In the words of art historian H, harvard Arnason, Each of these dates has significance for the development of modern art, but none categorically marks a completely new beginning. A gradual metamorphosis took place in the course of a hundred years, the strands of thought that eventually led to modern art can be traced back to the Enlightenment, and even to the 17th century. The important modern art critic Clement Greenberg, for instance, called Immanuel Kant the first real Modernist but drew a distinction, The Enlightenment criticized from the outside. The French Revolution of 1789 uprooted assumptions and institutions that had for centuries been accepted with little question and this gave rise to what art historian Ernst Gombrich called a self-consciousness that made people select the style of their building as one selects the pattern of a wallpaper. The pioneers of art were Romantics and Impressionists.
By the late 19th century, additional movements which were to be influential in art had begun to emerge. The advocates of realism stood against the idealism of the academic art that enjoyed public. The most successful painters of the day worked either through commissions or through public exhibitions of their own work. There were official, government-sponsored painters unions, while governments regularly held exhibitions of new fine
Robert Delaunay was a French artist who, with his wife Sonia Delaunay and others, cofounded the Orphism art movement, noted for its use of strong colours and geometric shapes. His works were abstract, reminiscent of Paul Klee. His key influence related to use of colour and a clear love of experimentation with both depth and tone. Robert Delaunay was born in Paris, the son of George Delaunay, while he was a child, Delaunays parents divorced, and he was raised by his mothers sister Marie and her husband Charles Damour, in La Ronchère near Bourges. When he failed his exam and said he wanted to become a painter. At age 19, he left Ronsin to focus entirely on painting and contributed six works to the Salon des Indépendants in 1904. He traveled to Brittany, where he was influenced by the group of Pont-Aven, and, in 1906, he contributed works he painted in Brittany to the 22nd Salon des Indépendants, where he met Henri Rousseau. Delaunay formed a friendship at this time with Jean Metzinger. The two of them were singled out by the art critic Louis Vauxcelles in 1907 as Divisionists who used large, mosaic-like cubes to construct small, Robert Herbert writes, Metzingers Neo-Impressionist period was somewhat longer than that of his close friend Delaunay.
The height of his Neo-Impressionist work was in 1906 and 1907, piet Mondrian developed a similar mosaic-like Divisionist technique circa 1909. The Futurists would incorporate the style, under the influence of Gino Severinis Parisian works, into their dynamic paintings, Delaunay is most closely identified with Orphism. From 1912 to 1914, he painted nonfigurative paintings based on the characteristics of brilliant colors that were so dynamic they would function as the form. Apollinaire was strongly influenced by Delaunay’s theories of color and often quoted from them to explain Orphism, Delaunay’s fixations with color as the expressive and structural means were sustained with his study of color. He believes painting is a visual art that depends on intellectual elements. The contrasts and harmonies of color produce in the eye simultaneous movements, vision becomes the subject of painting. His early paintings are deeply rooted in Neoimpressionism, night Scene for example has vigorous activity with the use of lively brushstrokes in bright colors against a dark background.
It doesn’t define solid object but the areas that surround them, spectral colors of Neoimpressionism were abandoned, the Eiffel Tower series, were fragmentation of solid objects and their merging with space was learned. Influences in this series were Cézanne, Analytical Cubism, and Futurism, in the Eiffel Tower the interpenetration of tangible objects and surrounding space is accompanies by intense movement of geometric plans that are more dynamic than static equilibrium of Cubist forms
Pierre Bonnard was a French painter and printmaker, as well as a founding member of the Post-Impressionist group of avant-garde painters Les Nabis. Bonnard preferred to work from memory, using drawings as a reference, the intimate domestic scenes, for which he is perhaps best known, often include his wife Marthe de Meligny. Identified as a practitioner of Impressionism in the early 20th century, Bonnard has since been recognized for his unique use of color. Bonnard was born in Fontenay-aux-Roses, Hauts-de-Seine on 3 October 1867 and he led a happy and carefree youth as the son of a prominent official of the French Ministry of War. He studied classics during his baccalaureate, at the insistence of his father, Bonnard studied law and briefly practicing as a barrister in 1888. However, he had attended art classes at Ecole des Beaux-Arts and Académie Julian. His earlier work such as Woman in Checkered Dress shows the influence of Japanese prints, in 1891, he met Toulouse-Lautrec and began showing his work at the annual exhibition of the Société des Artistes Indépendants.
In the same year Bonnard began an association with La Revue Blanche, for which he, Bonnards talent was appreciated early in his career, Claude Roger-Marx remarked in 1893 that he catches fleeting poses, steals unconscious gestures, crystallises the most transient expressions. His first show was at the Galerie Durand-Ruel in 1896, in his twenties Bonnard was a part of Les Nabis, a group of young artists committed to creating work of symbolic and spiritual nature. Other Nabis include Vuillard and Maurice Denis, in addition to his paintings, he became known for his posters and book illustrations, as well as for his prints and theater set designs. He left Paris in 1910 for the south of France, Bonnard was described, by his own friend and historians, as a man of quiet temperament and one who was unobtrusively independent. His life was free from the tensions and reversals of untoward circumstance. It has been suggested that, Like Daumier, whose life knew little serenity, Bonnard is known for his intense use of color, especially via areas built with small brush marks and close values.
His often complex compositions—typically of sunlit interiors and gardens populated with friends, Bonnards fondness for depicting intimate scenes of everyday life, has led to him being called an Intimist, his wife Marthe was an ever-present subject over the course of several decades. She is seen seated at the table, with the remnants of a meal, or nude. He painted several self-portraits, street scenes, and many still lifes, Bonnard did not paint from life but rather drew his subject—sometimes photographing it as well—and made notes on the colors. He painted the canvas in his studio from his notes, I have all my subjects to hand, he said, I go back and look at them. And before I start painting I reflect, I dream and he worked on numerous canvases simultaneously, which he tacked onto the walls of his small studio
Jacques Lipchitz was a Cubist sculptor, from late 1914. In 1920 Lipchitz held his first solo exhibition, at Léonce Rosenbergs Galerie LEffort Moderne in Paris, fleeing the Nazis he came to the US and settled in New York City and eventually Hastings-on-Hudson. Jacques Lipchitz was born Chaim Jacob Lipschitz, in a Litvak family, son of a contractor in Druskininkai, Lithuania. At first, under the influence of his father, he studied engineering, but soon after, supported by his mother he moved to Paris to study at the École des Beaux-Arts, living in this environment, Lipchitz soon began to create Cubist sculpture. In 1912 he exhibited at the Salon de la Société Nationale des Beaux-Arts, in 1922 he was commissioned by the Barnes Foundation in Merion, Pennsylvania to execute five bas-reliefs. With artistic innovation at its height, in the 1920s he experimented with abstract forms he called transparent sculptures, he developed a more dynamic style, which he applied with telling effect to bronze compositions of figures and animals.
With the German occupation of France during World War II, with the assistance of the American journalist Varian Fry in Marseille, he escaped the Nazi regime and went to the United States. There, he settled in Hastings-on-Hudson, New York. He was one of 250 sculptors who exhibited in the Third Sculpture International Exhibition held at the Philadelphia Museum of Art in the summer of 1949 and he has been identified among seventy of those sculptors in a photograph Life magazine published that was taken at the exhibition. In 1954 a Lipchitz retrospective traveled from The Museum of Modern Art in New York to the Walker Art Center in Minneapolis, in 1959, his series of small bronzes To the Limit of the Possible was shown at Fine Arts Associates in New York. Beginning in 1963 he returned to Europe for several months of year and worked in Pietrasanta. He developed a friendship with fellow sculptor, Fiore de Henriquez. In 1972 his autobiography, co-authored with H, harvard Arnason, was published on the occasion of an exhibition of his sculpture at the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York.
Jacques Lipchitz died in Capri and his body was flown to Jerusalem for burial. Hammacher, Abraham Marie, Jacques Lipchitz, His Sculpture, New York, Henry Radford, The Sculpture of Jacques Lipchitz, New York, Plantin press, printed for the trustees of the Museum of Modern Art,1954. Lipchitz, Jacques, My Life in Sculpture, New York, Deborah A. Jacques Lipchitz and Cubism, New York, Garland Pub. Van Bork, Jacques Lipchitz, The Artist at Work, New York, Alan G. Jacques Lipchitz, A Life in Sculpture, Canada, Art Gallery of Ontario,1989. The Israel Museum, Jerusalem donated by Mr. Hanno D. Mott, interactive online version published 2010 Lipchitz, Encyclopedia Treccani. it Jacques Lipchitz in American public collections, on the French Sculpture Census website
Man Ray was an American visual artist who spent most of his career in France. He was a significant contributor to the Dada and Surrealist movements and he produced major works in a variety of media but considered himself a painter above all. He was best known for his photography, and he was a renowned fashion, Man Ray is noted for his work with photograms, which he called rayographs in reference to himself. During his career as an artist, Man Ray allowed few details of his life or family background to be known to the public. He even refused to acknowledge that he ever had an other than Man Ray. Man Ray was born as Emmanuel Radnitzky in South Philadelphia, Pennsylvania and he was the eldest child of Russian Jewish immigrants. He had a brother and two sisters, the youngest born in 1897 shortly after settled in the Williamsburg neighborhood of Brooklyn. In early 1912, the Radnitzky family changed their surname to Ray, Man Rays brother chose the surname in reaction to the ethnic discrimination and antisemitism prevalent at the time.
Emmanuel, who was called Manny as a nickname, changed his first name to Man, Man Rays father worked in a garment factory and ran a small tailoring business out of the family home. He enlisted his children to assist him from an early age, Man Rays mother enjoyed designing the familys clothes and inventing patchwork items from scraps of fabric. Man Ray wished to disassociate himself from his background. Mannequins, flat irons, sewing machines, pins, swatches of fabric, Art historians have noted similarities between Rays collage and painting techniques and styles used for tailoring. Mason Klein, curator of a Man Ray exhibition at the Jewish Museum, titled Alias Man Ray, The Art of Reinvention, Man Ray was the uncle of the photographer Naomi Savage, who learned some of his techniques and incorporated them into her own work. Man Ray displayed artistic and mechanical abilities during childhood and his education at Brooklyns Boys High School from 1904 to 1909 provided him with solid grounding in drafting and other basic art techniques.
While he attended school, he educated himself with frequent visits to the art museums. After his graduation, Ray was offered a scholarship to study architecture, Man Rays parents were disappointed by their sons decision to pursue art, but they agreed to rearrange the familys modest living quarters so that Rays room could be his studio. The artist remained in the home over the next four years. During this time, he worked steadily towards becoming a professional painter, Man Ray earned money as a commercial artist and was a technical illustrator at several Manhattan companies
Donald Judd was an American artist associated with minimalism. In his work, Judd sought autonomy and clarity for the constructed object and it created an outpouring of seemingly effervescent works that defied the term minimalism. Nevertheless, he is considered the leading international exponent of minimalism. Judd was born in Excelsior Springs, Missouri, at Columbia, he earned a degree in philosophy and worked towards a masters in art history under Rudolf Wittkower and Meyer Schapiro. At this time he attended night classes at the Art Students League of New York. He supported himself by writing art criticism for major American art magazines between 1959 and 1965, in 1968 Judd bought a five-story cast-iron building, designed by Nicholas Whyte in 1870, at 101 Spring Street for under $70,000, serving as his New York residence and studio. Over the next 25 years, Judd renovated the floor by floor. In the late 1940s, Donald Judd began to practice as a painter and his first solo exhibition, of expressionist paintings, opened in New York in 1957.
His artistic style soon moved away from media and embraced constructions in which materiality was central to the work. He would not have one person show until the Green Gallery in 1963. By 1963 Judd had established an essential vocabulary of forms — ‘stacks’, ‘boxes’ and ‘progressions’ — which preoccupied him for the thirty years. Most of his output was in freestanding specific objects, that simple, often repeated forms to explore space. Humble materials such as metals, industrial plywood and color-impregnated Plexiglas became staples of his career, Judds first floor box structure was made in 1964, and his first floor box using Plexiglas followed one year later. While Judd executed early works himself, in 1964 he began delegating fabrication to professional artisans, in 1965, Judd created his first stack, an arrangement of identical iron units stretching from floor to ceiling. As he abandoned painting for sculpture in the early 1960s, he wrote the manifesto-like essay “Specific Objects” in 1964 and he pointed to evidence of this development in the works of an array of artists active in New York at the time, including H. C.
Westermann, Lucas Samaras, John Chamberlain, Jasper Johns, Dan Flavin, George Earl Ortman and that the categorical identity of such objects was itself in question, and that they avoided easy association with well-worn and over-familiar conventions, was a part of their value for Judd. He replied that methods should not matter as long as the results create art, in 1968, the Whitney Museum of American Art staged a retrospective of his work which included none of his early paintings. In 1968, Judd bought a building in New York that allowed him to start placing his work in a more permanent manner than was possible in gallery or museum shows
Mark Rothko, born Markus Yakovlevich Rothkowitz, was an American painter of Russian Jewish descent. Although Rothko himself refused to adhere to any art movement, he is identified as an abstract expressionist. With Jackson Pollock and Willem de Kooning, he is one of the most famous postwar American artists, Mark Rothko was born in Dvinsk, Vitebsk Governorate, in the Russian Empire. His father, Jacob Rothkowitz, was a pharmacist and an intellectual who initially provided his children with a secular and political, rather than religious, according to Rothko, his pro-Marxist father was violently anti-religious. In an environment where Jews were often blamed for many of the evils that befell Russia, despite Jacob Rothkowitzs modest income, the family was highly educated, and Rothko was able to speak Russian and Hebrew. Fearing that his sons were about to be drafted into the Imperial Russian Army. Markus remained in Russia, with his mother and elder sister Sonia and they arrived as immigrants, at Ellis Island, in late 1913.
From that point, they crossed the country, to join Jacob, jacobs death, a few months later, from colon cancer, left the family without economic support. Sonia operated a cash register, while Markus worked in one of his uncles warehouses and his fathers death led Rothko to sever his ties with religion. After he had mourned his fathers death for almost a year at a local synagogue, Markus had started school in the United States in 1913, quickly accelerating from third to fifth grade. In June 1921, he completed the level, with honors, at Lincoln High School in Portland. He learned his fourth language and became a member of the Jewish community center. Like his father, Rothko was passionate about issues such as workers’ rights, at the time, Portland was the epicentre of revolutionary activity in the U. S. and the region where revolutionary syndicalist union Industrial Workers of the World, was strongest. He heard Emma Goldman speak on one of her West Coast activist lecture tours, with the onset of the Russian Revolution, Rothko organised debates about it.
Despite the repressive political atmosphere, he wished to become a union organiser. Rothko received a scholarship to Yale, at the end of his freshman year in 1922, the scholarship was not renewed, and he worked as a waiter and delivery boy to support his studies. He found the Yale community to be elitist and racist, Rothko and a friend, Aaron Director, started a satirical magazine, The Yale Saturday Evening Pest, which lampooned the schools stuffy, bourgeois tone. In any event, Rothkos nature was more that of a man than a diligent pupil, One of his fellow students remembers that he hardly seemed to study
Madrid is the capital city of the Kingdom of Spain and the largest municipality in both the Community of Madrid and Spain as a whole. The city has a population of almost 3.2 million with an area population of approximately 6.5 million. It is the third-largest city in the European Union after London and Berlin, the municipality itself covers an area of 604.3 km2. Madrid lies on the River Manzanares in the centre of both the country and the Community of Madrid, this community is bordered by the communities of Castile and León. As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is the political, the current mayor is Manuela Carmena from Ahora Madrid. Madrid is home to two football clubs, Real Madrid and Atlético de Madrid. Madrid is the 17th most liveable city in the according to Monocle magazine. Madrid organises fairs such as FITUR, ARCO, SIMO TCI, while Madrid possesses modern infrastructure, it has preserved the look and feel of many of its historic neighbourhoods and streets.
Cibeles Palace and Fountain have become one of the monument symbols of the city, the first documented reference of the city originates in Andalusan times as the Arabic مجريط Majrīṭ, which was retained in Medieval Spanish as Magerit. A wider number of theories have been formulated on possible earlier origins, according to legend, Madrid was founded by Ocno Bianor and was named Metragirta or Mantua Carpetana. The most ancient recorded name of the city Magerit comes from the name of a built on the Manzanares River in the 9th century AD. Nevertheless, it is speculated that the origin of the current name of the city comes from the 2nd century BC. The Roman Empire established a settlement on the banks of the Manzanares river, the name of this first village was Matrice. In the 8th century, the Islamic conquest of the Iberian Peninsula saw the changed to Mayrit, from the Arabic term ميرا Mayra. The modern Madrid evolved from the Mozarabic Matrit, which is still in the Madrilenian gentilic, after the disintegration of the Caliphate of Córdoba, Madrid was integrated in the Taifa of Toledo.
With the surrender of Toledo to Alfonso VI of León and Castile, the city was conquered by Christians in 1085, Christians replaced Muslims in the occupation of the centre of the city, while Muslims and Jews settled in the suburbs. The city was thriving and was given the title of Villa, since 1188, Madrid won the right to be a city with representation in the courts of Castile. In 1202, King Alfonso VIII of Castile gave Madrid its first charter to regulate the municipal council, which was expanded in 1222 by Ferdinand III of Castile