Galerías Pacífico is a shopping centre in Buenos Aires, located at the intersection of Florida Street and Córdoba Avenue. The Beaux Arts building was designed by the architects Emilio Agrelo and Roland Le Vacher in 1889 to accommodate a shop called the Argentine Bon Marché, modelled on the Le Bon Marché in Paris. In 1896 part of the building was transformed into the first home for the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes and in 1908 the British-owned Buenos Aires and Pacific railway company acquired part of the building for offices; the company's name derived from the fact that its intention was to operate a train service linking Buenos Aires and Valparaíso in Chile, thereby giving access to the Pacific Ocean. From that time onwards the building became known as Edificio Pacífico. Harrods Buenos Aires Catalogue of Monuments Galerías Pacífico Pics Media related to Galerías Pacífico at Wikimedia Commons
Torcuato di Tella Institute
The Torcuato di Tella Institute is a non-profit foundation organized for the promotion of Argentine culture. The di Tella Foundation and its institute were created on July 22, 1958, the tenth anniversary of the death of industrialist and arts patron Torcuato di Tella. Funding for the project, organized by his sons and Guido di Tella, was raised using the United States model of corporate financing, as well as by the donation of 10% of the Siam di Tella corporation's public stock, its objective was limited to an arts program revolving around the display of the di Tella family's private collections, which prominently included works by Henry Moore, Pablo Picasso, Amedeo Modigliani and Jackson Pollock. The board of the foundation consisted of family members, though the institute was directed by a board that included academics and intellectuals from outside the family. Guido di Tella would serve as president, the post of director of the institute was offered to Enrique Oteiza, whose family were leading Pampas-area landowners.
The foundation received funding in the form of grants from the Ford and Rockefeller Foundations, after which the modest initiative expanded into theater and music, grew to become the most significant cultural institution in Buenos Aires of the 1960s. The institute continued to influence prevailing trends in the history of Argentine culture, it adopted and advanced a modernist trend in various artistic disciplines, its audiovisual center, established in 1960, directed by Roberto Villanueva, premiered with a play, El Desatino. The production's scenery backdrops were projected through slides, introduced audiences to Nacha Guevara and Les Luthiers; this format would be promoted in subsequent years for its ability to broadcast material through compact and portable media in a way that would stimulate a network of local groups active in the cultural field. Following its establishment, the di Tella art collection was transferred to the foundation, Jorge Romero Brest hosted a free show at the National Museum of Fine Arts, which the leading local art critic directed.
The activities were transferred to a small office in the Museum of Fine Arts in August 1960, this was followed by an annual award for national and international artists, many of which sold their works to the di Tella collection. As part of the awards program, the winners were awarded scholarships covering study abroad and an exhibition of works in a North American or European gallery. Growing local interest in Latin American art was accompanied by an initiative to show the di Tella collection across the Argentine hinterland, for which a minibus was purchased in 1963. An initiative by Guido di Tella led to the institute's relocation into a modern, newly completed Florida Street building in August 1963; the offices were rented by SIAM di Tella at the northern end of Florida Street, near Plaza San Martín, a busy pedestrian intersection in the upscale Retiro district that could attract larger audiences. The building was refurbished with the addition of three stage theatres, interiors designed to be inviting, with a floor-to-ceiling glass panel façade featuring publicity photos taken by Humberto Rivas, a large lobby.
The modern, air-conditioned building was propitious for exhibits and artistic events year-round. Its café, like the gallery, was staffed by attendants who wore no uniforms, allowed patrons to smoke and take photographs at their leisure. Founded by classical composer Alberto Ginastera, CLAEM was made part of the institute in 1962, yielding numerous productions of dodecaphonic and acoustic music. A visual arts center was inaugurated at the new address. Directed by Romero Brest, CAV became the leading Buenos Aires center for the display and promotion for avant-garde creations. CAV introduced art patrons to sculptors Juan Carlos Distéfano, Julio Le Parc, Clorindo Testa, as well as painters Romulo Macció, Luis Felipe Noé, Jorge de la Vega, Ernesto Deira, Antonio Seguí, conceptual artists such as Edgardo Giménez and Marta Minujín; the latter garnered interest after earning the institute's first National Award in 1964, became known for her "happenings." Erotic in some aspects, provocative to conservative local audiences, her early di Tella Institute events included Eróticos en technicolor and the interactive Revuélquese y viva.
She joined Rubén Santantonín in 1965 to create La Menesunda, where participants were asked to go through sixteen chambers, each separated by a human-shaped entry. Led by neon lights, groups of eight visitors would encounter rooms with television sets at full blast, couples making love in bed, a cosmetics counter, a dental office from which dialing an oversized rotary phone was required to leave, a walk-in freezer with dangling fabrics, a mirrored room with black lighting, falling confetti, the scent of frying food; the use of advertising throughout suggested the influence of pop art in Minujín's "mayhem." Established as the leading local center for pop art, the di Tella Institute became a forum for art as political commentary. This was dramatized by what became the center's most contentious display, sculptor León Ferrari's La civilización occidental y cristiana, in October 1965; the work displays Christ crucified not by the traditional cross. A turn of historical events in 196
Marcelo Pombo is an Argentine artist. His work is in the collections of the Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes, the Museo de Arte Moderno de Buenos Aires, the Museo Castagnino + macro, the Blanton Museum of Art of The University of Texas at Austin, among others. In the late eighties, he began exhibiting small works with images connected to rock, "gay culture". At the beginning of his career, he formed part of the group of artists that exhibited at the Galería de Artes Visuales at the Centro Cultural Rojas under the direction of Jorge Gumier Maier. During that period, Pombo's work was characterized by the use of materials and procedures associated with decoration and domestic handicrafts of the sort taught in school. Starting in 1999, his production revolved around paintings in synthetic enamel on panel that brought together different styles: surrealist or visionary landscape, geometric art, abstract expressionism. From 2008 to 2015, his production centered on Argentine and Latin American art of the past—works produced at the margins of modernism or rendered invisible by art history.
He grew up in Buenos Aires, at the age of eight, he attended the "Taller de la flor" directed by Ana Srezovic, where he drew and experimented with clay and enamel on metal. His childhood was marked by an identification with the universe of rock -music, lifestyle-, influenced by the reading of Argentinian rock n' roll magazine Pelo and by listening Argentinian rock, he studied in San Isidro National High School. In 1978, after graduating from high school, he began working as a gofer at an advertising agency; that same year, he enrolled in the Escuela Nacional de Bellas Artes Prilidiano Pueyrredón. He dropped out after only one month, he travelled to Tartagal, in the northern province of Salta, to coordinate a crafts workshop in a Wichí community and went on to visit the rest of northern Argentine, venturing as far north as the Bolivian border. When he returned to Buenos Aires, he worked as an apprentice at a print shop in San Telmo. In 1982, at the outbreak of the Falkland's War during the last military dictatorship, Marcelo Pombo traveled to São Paulo, Brazil.
While there, he produced a series of drawings that make reference to the gay night life in that city. In their style, those drawings bear the influence of Walt Disney, low-budget films, underground comics by artists ranging from Robert Crumb to Nazario, he resumed his work at print shops. He soon began working as an art teacher at a special education school in Buenos Aires. In 1984, he got involved in the political group Grupo de Acción Gay, where he met cultural journalist and curator Jorge Gumier Maier and left-wing activist and university professor Carlos R. Luis—both of whom would prove decisive to his professional career and to his personal life. Starting in 1985, he began making works in which he would drip synthetic enamel paint on existing objects like LPs and, in the case of the emblematic work "Winco", a record player, collages with photographs from magazine, his first solo show was held at the Espacio Joven of the Centro Cultural Recoleta in 1987. In 1989, he showed at the Galería de Artes Visuales at the Centro Cultural Rojas for the first time, exhibiting works like Michael y yo.
The first in a series of group shows featuring Pombo, Pablo Suárez, Miguel Harte would take place at that same venue some months later. In 1991 and 1992, he made three works related to San Francisco Solano, the town outside of Buenos Aires where he worked as a special education teacher. In their procedures and materials, those works make use of a complex network of references, combining the festive and the bitter. In 1993, he traveled to New York City for the first time—in the company of Pablo Siquier—to participate in the exhibition “Space of Time” at the Americas Society. Other artists in the show included Félix González Torres, Larry Pittman, Rosângela Rennó, Jana Sterbak. During these years, he produced works like Xuxa, Ramonesmanía and Telefe, which evidence a renewed interest in show business. Jorge López Anaya, an art historian and La Nación critic, stated the idea of a "light art" as synonymous of a futile, shallow and de-ideologized aesthetic linked to the artists from Rojas scene. In 1995, Pombo made a series of drawings entitled Dibujos de Puerto Madryn, produced in the Patagonian city of that name in the province of Chubut.
In the late nineties, Pombo’s production veered toward works in synthetic enamel paint on panel that made use of a meticulous drop-on-drop technique to generate a hypnotic effect. During this decade, Pombo consolidated his career on the West Coast of the United States. Pombo would gain critical attention in media like Flash Art, The New York Times, The Los Angeles Times, Frieze. In 2006, he developed the show “Ocho pinturas y un objeto” where he exhibited works in enamel that depict floating scenes with small farmhouses, demonstrations and rubble; those works entail an eccentric appropriation of French rococo, Latin American folklore, metaphysical painting, other influences. That same year, the book Pombo with texts by Inés Katzenstein, Marcelo Pacheco, Amalia Sato, was published. In 2008, he organized the show "Nuevos Artistas del Grupo Litoral" featuring artists from the Grupo Litoral active in Rosario in the fifties; the exhibition was held at the Museo Castagnino + macro in Rosario. In 2009, he developed the project “Ornaments in the Landscape and the Museum as a Hotel Room” for the Blanton Museum of Art at the University of Texas, Austin.
The project consisted of an installation recreatin
Ernesto de la Cárcova
Ernesto de la Cárcova y Arrotea was an Argentine painter of the Realist school. Ernesto de la Cárcova was born in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 1866. Taking an early interest in the canvas, he studied at the local Society for the Stimulus of Fine Arts under painter Francisco Romero, he attended the prestigious Accademia Albertina in Turin, where he was trained by painter Giacomo Grosso. At the 31st Turin Fine Arts Exposition in 1890, he presented The Head of An Old Man, a pastel drawing he sold to the King of Italy, Umberto I, for display at the Palazzo Quirinale in Rome. Returning to Argentina, he completed his best-known work, Without Bread or Work, in 1893. Set in Buenos Aires' industrial southside during the severe recession that followed the Panic of 1890, the work is today displayed in the National Museum of Fine Art. Gaining increasing renown, he was invited to direct the Argentine Artists' Fellowship Program in Paris in 1902 and received a gold medal for his work at the Universal Exposition of 1904 in St. Louis.
During his stay in Europe, he took an interest in sculpture, purchasing a number of reproductions of works in the Berlin State Museums collections, including those of a number of ancient Egyptian and Greek busts and bronzes. Returning to Buenos Aires, he displayed a number of these works at the Buenos Aires Centennial Exposition in 1910 and was invited into the National Fine Arts Academy by its founder, fellow Realist painter Eduardo Sívori, he accepted a professorship at the University of Buenos Aires and, continuing to participate in international events, he garnered a silver medal at a 1916 Paris Arts Exposition. De la Cárcova's designs were chosen to represent the Argentine Centennial as the official medal, as the great seal of the University of Buenos Aires in 1921. Founder of the School Superior of Fine Arts in 1923. An institution that absorbed Sívori's academy; the school is today part of the National University Art Institute, Argentina's foremost institution of its type. Professor de la Cárcova bequeathed his collection of German sculptures for the creation of the Museum of Reproductions and Comparative Sculpture, named in his honor following his death in 1927.
He was buried in La Recoleta Cemetery. Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes: obras de Ernesto de la Cárcova Museo Castagnino: obras de Ernesto de la Cárcova obras Universidad Nacional de las Artes: Museo de Calcos y Escultura Comparada Ernesto de la Cárcova
Baroque painting is the painting associated with the Baroque cultural movement. The movement is identified with Absolutism, the Counter Reformation and Catholic Revival, but the existence of important Baroque art and architecture in non-absolutist and Protestant states throughout Western Europe underscores its widespread popularity. Baroque painting encompasses a great range of styles, as most important and major painting during the period beginning around 1600 and continuing throughout the 17th century, into the early 18th century is identified today as Baroque painting. In its most typical manifestations, Baroque art is characterized by great drama, deep colour, intense light and dark shadows, but the classicism of French Baroque painters like Poussin and Dutch genre painters such as Vermeer are covered by the term, at least in English; as opposed to Renaissance art, which showed the moment before an event took place, Baroque artists chose the most dramatic point, the moment when the action was occurring: Michelangelo, working in the High Renaissance, shows his David composed and still before he battles Goliath.
Baroque art was meant to evoke emotion and passion instead of the calm rationality, prized during the Renaissance. Among the greatest painters of the Baroque period are Velázquez, Rembrandt, Rubens and Vermeer. Caravaggio is an heir of the humanist painting of the High Renaissance, his realistic approach to the human figure, painted directly from life and spotlit against a dark background, shocked his contemporaries and opened a new chapter in the history of painting. Baroque painting dramatizes scenes using chiaroscuro light effects; the Flemish painter Anthony van Dyck developed a graceful but imposing portrait style, influential in England. The prosperity of 17th century Holland led to an enormous production of art by large numbers of painters who were highly specialized and painted only genre scenes, still lifes, portraits or history paintings. Technical standards were high, Dutch Golden Age painting established a new repertoire of subjects, influential until the arrival of Modernism; the Council of Trent, in which the Roman Catholic Church answered many questions of internal reform raised by both Protestants and by those who had remained inside the Catholic Church, addressed the representational arts in a short and somewhat oblique passage in its decrees.
This was subsequently interpreted and expounded by a number of clerical authors like Molanus, who demanded that paintings and sculptures in church contexts should depict their subjects and powerfully, with decorum, without the stylistic airs of Mannerism. This return toward a populist conception of the function of ecclesiastical art is seen by many art historians as driving the innovations of Caravaggio and the Carracci brothers, all of whom were working in Rome around 1600, although unlike the Carracci, Caravaggio persistently was criticised for lack of decorum in his work. However, although religious painting, history painting and portraits were still considered the most noble subjects, still life, genre scenes were becoming more common in Catholic countries, were the main genres in Protestant ones; the term "Baroque" was used with a derogatory meaning, to underline the excesses of its emphasis. Others derive it from the mnemonic term "Baroco" denoting, in logical Scholastica, a laboured form of syllogism.
In particular, the term was used to describe its eccentric redundancy and noisy abundance of details, which contrasted the clear and sober rationality of the Renaissance. It was first rehabilitated by the Swiss-born art historian, Heinrich Wölfflin in his Renaissance und Barock, he did not make the distinctions between Mannerism and Baroque that modern writers do, he ignored the phase, the academic Baroque that lasted into the 18th century. Writers in French and English did not begin to treat Baroque as a respectable study until Wölfflin's influence had made German scholarship pre-eminent. Led by Italy, Mediterranean countries followed by most of the Holy Roman Empire in Germany and Central Europe adopted a full-blooded Baroque approach. A rather different art developed out of northern realist traditions in 17th century Dutch Golden Age painting, which had little religious art, little history painting, instead playing a crucial part in developing secular genres such as still life, genre paintings of everyday scenes, landscape painting.
While the Baroque nature of Rembrandt's art is clear, the label is less use for Vermeer and many other Dutch artists. Most Dutch art lacks the idealization and love of splendour typical of much Baroque work, including the neighbouring Flemish Baroque painting which shared a part in Dutch trends, while continuing to produce the traditional categories in a more Baroque style. In France a dignified and graceful classicism gave a distinctive flavour to Baroque painting, where the 17th century is regarded as a golden age for painting. Two of the most important artists, Nicolas Poussin and Claude Lorrain, remained based in Rome, where their work all in easel paintings, was much appreciated by Italian as well as French patrons. William Dobson George Jamesone Godfrey Kneller Peter Lely Daniël Mijtens John Michael Wright
Argentina the Argentine Republic, is a country located in the southern half of South America. Sharing the bulk of the Southern Cone with Chile to the west, the country is bordered by Bolivia and Paraguay to the north, Brazil to the northeast and the South Atlantic Ocean to the east, the Drake Passage to the south. With a mainland area of 2,780,400 km2, Argentina is the eighth-largest country in the world, the fourth largest in the Americas, the largest Spanish-speaking nation; the sovereign state is subdivided into twenty-three provinces and one autonomous city, Buenos Aires, the federal capital of the nation as decided by Congress. The provinces and the capital exist under a federal system. Argentina claims sovereignty over part of Antarctica, the Falkland Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands; the earliest recorded human presence in modern-day Argentina dates back to the Paleolithic period. The Inca Empire expanded to the northwest of the country in Pre-Columbian times; the country has its roots in Spanish colonization of the region during the 16th century.
Argentina rose as the successor state of the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a Spanish overseas viceroyalty founded in 1776. The declaration and fight for independence was followed by an extended civil war that lasted until 1861, culminating in the country's reorganization as a federation of provinces with Buenos Aires as its capital city; the country thereafter enjoyed relative peace and stability, with several waves of European immigration radically reshaping its cultural and demographic outlook. The almost-unparalleled increase in prosperity led to Argentina becoming the seventh wealthiest nation in the world by the early 20th century. Following the Great Depression in the 1930s, Argentina descended into political instability and economic decline that pushed it back into underdevelopment, though it remained among the fifteen richest countries for several decades. Following the death of President Juan Perón in 1974, his widow, Isabel Martínez de Perón, ascended to the presidency, she was overthrown in 1976 by a U.
S.-backed coup which installed a right-wing military dictatorship. The military government persecuted and murdered numerous political critics and leftists in the Dirty War, a period of state terrorism that lasted until the election of Raúl Alfonsín as President in 1983. Several of the junta's leaders were convicted of their crimes and sentenced to imprisonment. Argentina is a prominent regional power in the Southern Cone and Latin America, retains its historic status as a middle power in international affairs. Argentina has the second largest economy in South America, the third-largest in Latin America, membership in the G-15 and G-20 major economies, it is a founding member of the United Nations, World Bank, World Trade Organization, Union of South American Nations, Community of Latin American and Caribbean States and the Organization of Ibero-American States. Despite its history of economic instability, it ranks second highest in the Human Development Index in Latin America; the description of the country by the word Argentina has been found on a Venetian map in 1536.
In English the name "Argentina" comes from the Spanish language, however the naming itself is not Spanish, but Italian. Argentina means in Italian " of silver, silver coloured" borrowed from the Old French adjective argentine " of silver" > "silver coloured" mentioned in the 12th century. The French word argentine is the feminine form of argentin and derives from argent "silver" with the suffix -in; the Italian naming "Argentina" for the country implies Terra Argentina "land of silver" or Costa Argentina "coast of silver". In Italian, the adjective or the proper noun is used in an autonomous way as a substantive and replaces it and it is said l'Argentina; the name Argentina was first given by the Venetian and Genoese navigators, such as Giovanni Caboto. In Spanish and Portuguese, the words for "silver" are plata and prata and " of silver" is said plateado and prateado. Argentina was first associated with the silver mountains legend, widespread among the first European explorers of the La Plata Basin.
The first written use of the name in Spanish can be traced to La Argentina, a 1602 poem by Martín del Barco Centenera describing the region. Although "Argentina" was in common usage by the 18th century, the country was formally named "Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata" by the Spanish Empire, "United Provinces of the Río de la Plata" after independence; the 1826 constitution included the first use of the name "Argentine Republic" in legal documents. The name "Argentine Confederation" was commonly used and was formalized in the Argentine Constitution of 1853. In 1860 a presidential decree settled the country's name as "Argentine Republic", that year's constitutional amendment ruled all the names since 1810 as valid. In the English language the country was traditionally called "the Argentine", mimicking the typical Spanish usage la Argentina and resulting from a mistaken shortening of the fuller name'Argentine Republic'.'The Argentine' fell out of fashion during the mid-to-late 20th century, now the country is referred to as "Argentina".
In the Spanish language "Argentina" is feminine, taking the feminine article "La" as the i
La Nymphe surprise
La Nymphe surprise, or Nymph Surprised, is a painting by the French impressionist painter Édouard Manet, created in 1861. The model was a pianist and his secret beloved for years, whom he married two years later; the painting is a key work in Manet's production, marking the beginning of a new period in his artistic career and in the history of modernism in French painting. It is in National Museum of Fine Arts in Buenos Aires and it is considered as one of the collection's highlights. Manet had special feelings for this painting, La Nymphe surprise remained in the artist's possession his entire life, there is evidence that points to the fact that, apart from the emotional significance it represented for the artist, Manet considered this painting as one of his most important works; the model of the painting is Édouard Manet's lover, his piano teacher, the Dutch girl Suzanne Leenhoff, with whom he had a secret love affair. This love affair developed; the girl was three years older than the 17-year-old Manet and their relationship was kept secret from his family for a long time.
Manet and Suzanne married after ten years of love relationship in 1863, two years after the completion of this painting in 1861. The relationship lasted throughout their lives. Nymphs were female spirits of nature, female deities from Greek mythology depicted as young women, who dwell in mountains and small woods, by springs and rivers. Several authors think that the motif is similar to Rembrandt's Susanna and the Elders, considering that the model's name is Suzanne, she was Dutch and the figure's pose is identical with the one in the painting. Manet kept this painting in his atelier; the painting was exhibited at the Salon des Artistes Français in 1865. This painting was painted two years before Olympia; the painting was purchased by the National Museum of Fine Arts in Buenos Aires and was placed on display at the Museum, as one of the institution's highlights. Manet's La Nymphe surprise depicts a young woman sitting in a wooded landscape beside a lake, looking surprised at the viewer. There is a blue iris growing at her feet, she wears nothing on her body except the white pearls around her neck and a ring on her little finger.
The nymph's glance, contrary to Olympia's provocative glance, is surprised and shy, as if she has found the viewer watching her, invading her privacy, disturbing her. Boy Carrying a Sword, depicting Manet's and Suzanne's son The Reading Luncheon in the Studio Impressionism Nana The ten most popular nymphs in paintings