Musette de cour

The musette de cour or baroque musette is a musical instrument of the bagpipe family. Visually, the musette is characterised by the short, cylindrical shuttle-drone and the two chalumeaux. Both the chanters and the drones have a cylindrical bore and use a double reed, giving a quiet tone similar to the oboe; the instrument is blown by a bellows. The qualification "de cour" does not appear in the name for the instrument in original musical scores. First appearing in France, at the end of the sixteenth century, the musette was refined over the next hundred years by a number of instrument-making families; the best-known contributions came from the Hotteterre family: Martin Hotteterre added a second chanter, the petit chalumeau, extending the instrument's range by six semitones. The bourdon designed to accompany modal music, became simpler as the chalumeaux became more complicated; the final form of the musette is chromatic, with a range of an octave and half starting from F above middle C. The qualification de cour refers to the instrument's connection with the French court and aristocracy of the early seventeenth century.

"Exotic" - in the sense of imported or out of place - elements were fashionable, resulting in the appearance of traditional instruments such as bagpipe, hurdy-gurdy and galoubet in compositions for professionals and amateurs alike. The musette may well have benefited from being a bellows-blown instrument, too. Borjon de Scellery, does explicitly identify grimacing and pulling faces as a habit of ill-trained musette-players. At the height of its popularity, the musette was used not just for chamber-music but in larger-scale compositions such as operas, where it was associated with shepherds and other pastoral elements. After the French Revolution, the musette seems to have fallen out of favour while simpler forms of bagpipe remained popular as folk-instruments; as a result, musicologists examining French baroque music at the end of the 19th century found it difficult to imagine that what they took to be the same as a simple folk bagpipe could have had a place in sophisticated music for the court.

The "authentic performance" approach familiar from the 1970s onward, plus skillful restoration of original instruments by makers such as Rémi Dubois, has made it possible to hear works such as Chédeville's "Pastor Fido", chamber-music by Boismortier and Rameau's opéra-ballet "Les Fêtes d'Hébé" in their original form. The frontispiece in Borjon de Scellery's Traité shows a shepherd surrounded by a number of instruments, they include an early musette, with a single chalumeau that appears to have six finger-holes and no keys. The first full-page plate illustrates a chalumeau with seven finger-holes and three keys, giving a range of one octave; the second full-page plate illustrates a more developed form of the musette, where a grand chalumeau with five keys is complemented by a petit chalumeau with six keys. Jacques Hotteterre's Méthode illustrates the most usual final form of the instrument; the petit chalumeau, as mentioned, was added by Martin Hotteterre. The lowest note on the petit chalumeau is an A flat a semi-tone below the higher A on the grand chalumeau, keeping the two chalumeaux in tune and in balance is one of the difficulties of the instrument.

The grand chalumeau is open, so it always sounds. The petit chalumeau is closed, like the Northumbrian pipes, so it sounds only when a hole is opened or a key is pressed; the fingering system on both chalumeaux is "closed". Following the principle of the rackett and the bassoon, the short cylinder of the musette drone contains airways that double back on themselves. Openings in each airway are uncovered by moving layettes fixed in four coulisses; the two lowest notes use the same airway, so cannot be played together. The earliest musettes had up to nine coulisses and twelve layettes, so that you could play music in a range of modes and always have a drone using the home-note of the mode; as the chalumeaux developed and became chromatic, it became possible to play music in different modes but starting on the same note. So, the bourdon still contains four or more separate reeds that have to be kept adjusted and in tune; the musette was an instrument both for professionals, members of ensembles and orchestras in the court or noble households, for amateurs.

As a result, the music written for the instrument ranges from simple transcriptions of popular tunes – folk-dances in Borjon de Scellery's Traité, songs from current operas in Hotteterre's Méthode – to quite demanding pieces by the best-known composers of the day. The bulk of music written for the musette is not solo music. Much of the music available for the instrument was described as suitable for musette, hurdy-gurdy, recorder or transverse flute. Modern editions for recorder, give people the chance to discover a lot of muse

A Quiet Night In

"A Quiet Night In" is the second episode of the British dark comedy television anthology series Inside No. 9. It first aired on 12 February 2014 on BBC Two. Written by Reece Shearsmith and Steve Pemberton, it stars the writers as a pair of hapless burglars attempting to break into the large, modernist house of a couple—played by Denis Lawson and Oona Chaplin—to steal a painting. Once the burglars make it into the house, they encounter obstacle after obstacle, while the lovers, unaware of the burglars' presence, argue; the episode progresses entirely without dialogue, relying instead on physical comedy and slapstick, though more sinister elements are present in the plot. In addition to Pemberton, Shearsmith and Chaplin, "A Quiet Night In" starred Joyce Veheary and Kayvan Novak. Shearsmith and Pemberton had considered including a dialogue-free segment in their television series Psychoville, but did not. Both journalists and those involved with the episode's production commented on the casting of Chaplin, a grandchild of the silent film star Charlie Chaplin, in an entirely dialogue-free episode, though her casting was not a deliberate homage.

Critics responded positively to the episode, a laudatory review by David Chater was published in The Times, prompting a complaint from a reader who found the episode more traumatic than comedic. On its first airing, "A Quiet Night In" was watched by 940,000 viewers. "A Quiet Night In" was submitted to the British Academy of Film and Television Arts for the 2015 awards, but it was not nominated. Pemberton and Shearsmith have said that they have no plans to do further silent episodes, but have compared "A Quiet Night In" to the highly-experimental "Cold Comfort" from Inside No. 9's second series, a sentiment echoed by some television critics. Writers Steve Pemberton and Reece Shearsmith, who had co-written and starred in The League of Gentlemen and Psychoville, took inspiration for Inside No. 9 from "David and Maureen", episode 4 of the first series of Psychoville, in turn inspired by Alfred Hitchcock's Rope. "David and Maureen" took place in a single room, was filmed in only two shots. At the same time, the concept of Inside No. 9 was a "reaction" to Psychoville, with Shearsmith saying that "we'd been so involved with labyrinthine over-arcing, we thought it would be nice to do six different stories with a complete new house of people each week.

That's appealing, because as a viewer you might not like this story, but you've got a different one next week." As an anthology series with horror themes, Inside No. 9 pays homage to Tales of the Unexpected, The Twilight Zone and Alfred Hitchcock Presents. The format of Inside No. 9 allowed Pemberton and Shearsmith to explore ideas which are less practical for other approaches to storytelling, such as the possibility of a script with little dialogue. Prior to writing "A Quiet Night In", Shearsmith had spoken with directors, including Ben Wheatley, about the possibility of producing television without speech; the directors had expressed doubts, Shearsmith explained, because the success of dialogue-free television comes down to the visuals and filming. "A Quiet Night In" was inspired by an idea Pemberton had discussed for Psychoville. The writers had considered omitting dialogue from a ten-minute section in an episode, or from the whole episode. Pemberton explained that this was not possible as there were "too many good jokes" which they wanted to fit into the sequence.

This episode, like "A Quiet Night In", dealt with a break-in. Inside No. 9, for Pemberton, offered the "perfect vehicle" for revisiting the possibility of dialogue-free television. Shearsmith said that, at the start of the writing process, the pair did not have the intention of scripting the entire episode without dialogue, that it would be "great" to have ten minutes without it. However, Pemberton said it was easier to write once they had entered the correct "mindset". Once half an episode had been written, Pemberton said, the pair thought "we've just got to keep going"; the only dialogue in the episode is right at the end. The story of "A Quiet Night In" revolves around a break-in, combined with an argument between the people living in the house, means that the characters all have a reason to be silent. At 18 pages of stage directions, the script contained every joke in the episode, an exercise in planning atypical for Shearsmith and Pemberton; the story contains multiple "reveals". There is always a desire to wrong-foot the viewer.

That's what you strive to do". Pemberton said that writing for a silent episode "makes you inventive in a different way"; the episode was filmed in Oxted, Surrey. The episode's burglars are played by the writers, but we know that, say, if we were writing something about two burglars, we'd be the burglars." Pemberton suggested that a partial influence for the episode may have been the children's television series Brum. He said that he and Shearsmith had "always wanted to be a couple of robbers in that, so that might be where the idea came from". Both writers agreed that their roles were "great to perform", Pemberton described the resulting episode by saying that it "worked out better than could have dreamed"; as the format of Inside No. 9 requires new characters each week, the writ

Stanton Township, Michigan

Stanton Township is a civil township of Houghton County in the U. S. state of Michigan. The population was 1,268 at the 2000 census. Stanton Township has the distinction of having, at 47%, the highest concentration of people with Finnish ancestry of any place in the United States. According to the United States Census Bureau, the township has a total area of 123.6 square miles, of which 122.3 square miles is land and 1.2 square miles is water. Beacon Hill is an unincorporated community in the township, it was a center of the Trimountain Mining Company backed by Boston financiers, the settlement was named after Beacon Hill neighborhood in that city. It was a station on the Copper Range Railroad. A post office operated from December 11, 1901 until August 31, 1952. Craig Roy was never developed. Coles Creek is located, in the township. Freda was the site of the Champion stamp mill. Liminga is an unincorporated community in the township. Obenhoff is an unincorporated community in the township. Onnela is a Finnish name meaning "a place of happiness".

The first settler was Iisakki Tolonen from Matarenki, who settled in 1886. Two years arrived Heikki Lampinen from Matarenki, Joonas Kovala from Suomussalmi and Paul Räisänen from Pudasjoki, Finland. Oskar is an unincorporated community in the township, it was named for Oskar Eliasson, a Finn who first came to Hancock Township about 1870 and became a charcoal tycoon. He was appointed the first postmaster of the settlement. A post office operated from February 2, 1888 until October 15, 1928. Redridge is an unincorporated community in the township; the Redridge Steel Dam is a notable landmark in Redridge. The area was the site of the Atlantic and Baltic stamp mills. Schmidt Corner is an unincorporated community in the township North Canal Township Park at the north end of the Keweenaw Canal and is across from McLain State Park; as of the census of 2000, there were 1,268 people, 475 households, 315 families residing in the township. The population density was 10.4 per square mile. There were 695 housing units at an average density of 5.7 per square mile.

The racial makeup of the township was 98.19% White, 0.24% African American, 0.55% Native American, 1.03% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 0.55% of the population. Some 46.9% of Stanton Township residents report Finnish ancestry, the highest such percentage in the United States. There were 475 households out of which 29.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.4% were married couples living together, 6.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.5% were non-families. 28.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.67 and the average family size was 3.36. In the township the population was spread out with 30.1% under the age of 18, 8.2% from 18 to 24, 22.6% from 25 to 44, 25.4% from 45 to 64, 13.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females, there were 111.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 120.4 males.

The median income for a household in the township was $38,200, the median income for a family was $41,771. Males had a median income of $35,455 versus $26,875 for females; the per capita income for the township was $16,338. About 5.1% of families and 7.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 7.1% of those under age 18 and 4.3% of those age 65 or over. Township data from Picture of a "herd of contented Holsteins graz in an oat pasture on the Wayne Rautio farm" at Obenhoff from Keweenaw Digital Archives, Michigan Technological University "Farmer Wayne Rautio holds some brome forage from the field on his farm in Obenhoff."