Government of New South Wales
The Government of New South Wales, referred to as the New South Wales Government or NSW Government, is the Australian state democratic administrative authority of New South Wales, in Australia. The Government of New South Wales, a constitutional monarchy, was formed in 1856 as prescribed in its Constitution. Since the Federation of Australia in 1901, New South Wales has been a state of the Commonwealth of Australia, under the Australian Constitution, New South Wales ceded legislative and judicial supremacy to the Commonwealth, but retained powers in all matters not in conflict with the Commonwealth. Section 109 of the Australian Constitution provides that, where a State law is inconsistent with a federal law, initially the Australian states retained significant independence. Over time, that independence has been eroded by both the proliferation of Commonwealth Law, and the increasing financial domination of the Commonwealth. New South Wales is governed according to the principles of the Westminster system, Executive power rests formally with the Executive Council, which consists of the Governor and senior ministers.
The Governor, as representative of the Crown, is the repository of power, which is exercised by him or her on the advice of the Premier of New South Wales. The Premier and Ministers are appointed by the Governor, and hold office by virtue of their ability to command the support of a majority of members of the Legislative Assembly. In 2006, the Sesquicentenary of Responsible Government in New South Wales, the Act was assented to by the Queen on 3 April 2006. The following individuals serve as government ministers, at the pleasure of the Queen, the government ministers are listed in order of seniority, while their opposition counterparts are listed to correspond with the government ministers. All Opposition counterparts are members of the Parliament of New South Wales
Cadmans Cottage is the second oldest surviving residential building in Sydney, having been built in 1816 for the use of the governmental coxswains and their crews. The building is steeped in the history of Sydney, claiming the title as the first building to have been built on the shoreline of The Rocks area. The building has had different uses in its lifetime—first and foremost as the abode of the four governmental coxswains. A major archaeological investigation occurred in 1988 and since then, only minor works have been completed on the building. The building is now used as the home for the Sydney Harbour National Parks Information Centre, john Cadman was born in January 1758 and transported to Australia in 1798 at the age of 40 for the crime of stealing a horse. He was pardoned by Governor Macquarie in 1821, john Cadmans Cottage provides a unique insight into the early development of the Circular Quay area, although some of the heritage may have been lost during the 1972 restoration of the cottage.
Http, //www. environment. nsw. gov. au/NationalParks/parkHome. aspx. id=N0201 – New South Wales Parks and Wildlife Service, Official Webpage for Cadmans Cottage Laila Ellmoos
Circular Quay ferry wharf
Circular Quay ferry wharf is a complex of wharves at Circular Quay, on Sydney Cove, that serves as the hub for the Sydney Harbour ferry network. The Circular Quay ferry wharf complex consists of five double sided wharves at 90 degrees to the shoreline, wharves 2 to 5 are used exclusively by Sydney Ferries, while wharf 6 is used by operators including Captain Cook Cruises and Manly Fast Ferries. Each wharf has ticket selling facilities on both sides of the barriers as most other wharves do not have such facilities, on the eastern side alongside Bennelong Apartments, is the Eastern Pontoon used by charter operators. On the western side, lie the Commissioners Steps and Harbour Masters Steps that are used by charter operators and this was removed when the hydrofoils were replaced by JetCats in 1991. Wharf 3 is exclusively used by ferries on the Manly service, when the Freshwater class ferries were introduced in the 1980s, the wharf was rebuilt to accommodate their onboard gangways. It has a level allowing ferries to disembark passengers from their upper decks.
It houses an office for Harbour City Ferries, to better accommodate the larger ferries, wharf 3 is built higher from the water and this combined with differently configured Opal card readers, means only Manly ferries can use the wharf. Wharves 2,3,4 and 5 are used interchangeably by Sydney Ferries, the Circular Quay ferry wharf complex is adjacent to an elevated railway station of the same name. The station is served by Sydney Trains services on the Airport, Inner West & South Line, South of the railway station is the Alfred Street bus terminus. A large number of Sydney Buses routes originate from there as well as two Sydney Explorer routes, media related to Circular Quay ferry wharf at Wikimedia Commons
Circular Quay railway station
Circular Quay railway station is located on the City Circle, serving the Circular Quay precinct of the Sydney central business district. It is served by Sydney Trains T2 Airport, Inner West & South, Circular Quay is an area of historical significance for Sydney, as it was for a long time the central harbour of a settlement which relied on shipping for its connection to the outside world. By the 20th century, ferry commuter wharves began to eclipse commercial shipping wharves as the dominant feature of the Quay area, the area became a transport hub as it served as the terminus of both ferry and tram services. Planning for a station here to complement this transport hub began in 1909. Tunnels to link the stations to the future Circular Quay station were built from Central between 1917 and 1926 to St James and 1932 to Wynyard. Work on the section of the railway through Circular Quay began in 1936, was interrupted by World War II, work was again interrupted between 1951 and 1953 with the viaduct finally completed in 1954.
The supporting beams were fabricated at Chullora Railway Workshops in the 1930s and they were used during the construction of the Hawkesbury River Railway Bridge in the 1940s, before being returned to Chullora. The completion of Circular Quay station marked the completion of the City Circle railway as originally envisaged by John Bradfield making it the newest station on the line. The construction and placement of the station was controversial due to its prominent location at the head of Circular Quay. When the Cahill Expressway opened above the station in 1958, the controversy over the structure only intensified. There have been proposals to relocate the station underground in conjunction with the demolition of the Cahill Expressway. In 2006 RailCorp performed maintenance and cleaning of the stations 50-year-old facade, a refurbishment in 2007 introduced sun-shading awnings on the platforms, removed advertising hoarding between the tracks, and improved facilities on the concourse level. Circular Quay station features a central concourse, and elevated platforms on a second level.
Viaducts lead from the platforms to tunnels through surrounding elevated terrain that lead to neighbouring stations. The station has two main, double-storey facades, facing Circular Quay to the north, and Customs House to the south respectively, the northern facade is faced with polished granite tiles, while the southern one features polished granite and sandstone. The station name is featured in steel lettering on both sides, the upper storey of the facades correspond to the central sections of the platforms, and feature steel-framed windows. The exterior of the remainder of the platform open, glass-railed galleries. The top of the northern, harbour-facing facade is incorporated into the viewing platform and this platform can be reached from the pedestrian walkway on the Cahill Expressway
CBD and South East Light Rail
The line will be part of Sydneys light rail network. Major construction commenced in October 2015, the project is being managed by Transport for NSW, a statutory authority of the New South Wales Government. Construction and maintenance of the line is contracted to the ALTRAC Light Rail consortium, since the light rail networks original line opened in 1997, a line through the Sydney central business district had been suggested numerous times but failed to achieve State Government support. This changed in February 2010 when the Keneally Government announced a new line from Haymarket to Circular Quay via Barangaroo, the final route was not decided, with the three options being to send the line north via George Street, Sussex Street or a loop using both. When the OFarrell Government took office in March 2011, it committed to building a line through the CBD to Barangaroo and it committed to conducting feasibility studies into the construction of lines from the City to Sydney University and the City to the University of New South Wales.
On 8 December 2011, the government announced shortlisted potential routes for these extensions, in 2012, Transport for NSW decided the routes to Sydney University and Barangaroo via The Rocks provided fewer customer benefits and were considered a lower priority. A route from Circular Quay to the University of New South Wales via Central station was seen as the best option, construction was expected to begin in 2014 and to take five to six years. The line services areas that were served by Sydneys former tram network. Some of the new route follows tram lines of the former network, the route is mostly on-street but includes an off-street section through Moore Park. The only major engineering works on the line are a new bridge over the Eastern Distributor, there will be between 8 and 10 new traffic light controlled intersections created along the route. Several changes to the design were announced in December 2014 and it was announced that the projected cost had increased from $1.6 billion to $2.2 billion.
A pedestrian zone will be established along approximately 40% of George Street, the section between Bathurst Street and Circular Quay will be wire-free. This was originally to have achieved by equipping the trams with batteries. This was changed to the proprietary ground-level power supply technology of the tram supplier, the line is designed to handle special events in the Moore Park precinct and at Royal Randwick Racecourse. Events at Moore Park were initially planned to be served using two coupled trams 90 metres long, with double length platforms at the Central Station and Moore Park stops. Following the decision to increase the length of the trams to 67 metres, a depot for the trams will be built at the north-western corner of Royal Randwick Racecourse, providing stabling facilities and allowing light maintenance. Heavy maintenance will be conducted at the former Rozelle railway yard at Lilyfield, a contract for early construction works was awarded to Laing ORourke in July 2014. Balfour Beatty was reportedly concerned about cost overruns for the project, on 23 October 2014, Connecting Sydney was announced as the preferred bidder
Sydney /ˈsɪdni/ is the state capital of New South Wales and the most populous city in Australia and Oceania. Located on Australias east coast, the metropolis surrounds the worlds largest natural harbour, residents of Sydney are known as Sydneysiders. The Sydney area has been inhabited by indigenous Australians for at least 30,000 years, the first British settlers, led by Captain Arthur Phillip, arrived in 1788 to found Sydney as a penal colony, the first European settlement in Australia. Since convict transportation ended in the century, the city has transformed from a colonial outpost into a major global cultural. As at June 2016 Sydneys estimated population was 5,005,358, in the 2011 census,34 percent of the population reported having been born overseas, representing many different nationalities and making Sydney one of the most multicultural cities in the world. There are more than 250 different languages spoken in Sydney and about one-third of residents speak a language other than English at home and it is classified as an Alpha+ World City by the Globalization and World Cities Research Network, indicating its influence in the region and throughout the world.
Ranked eleventh in the world for economic opportunity, Sydney has a market economy with strengths in finance, manufacturing. Its gross regional product was $337 billion in 2013, the largest in Australia, there is a significant concentration of foreign banks and multinational corporations in Sydney and the city is promoted as one of Asia Pacifics leading financial hubs. Its natural features include Sydney Harbour, the Royal National Park, man-made attractions such as the Sydney Opera House, Sydney Tower and the Sydney Harbour Bridge are well known to international visitors. The first people to inhabit the now known as Sydney were indigenous Australians having migrated from northern Australia. Radiocarbon dating suggests human activity first started to occur in the Sydney area from around 30,735 years ago, the earliest British settlers called them Eora people. Eora is the term the indigenous used to explain their origins upon first contact with the British. Its literal meaning is from this place, prior to the arrival of the British there were 4,000 to 8,000 native people in Sydney from as many as 29 different clans.
Sydney Cove from Port Jackson to Petersham was inhabited by the Cadigal clan, the principal language groups were Darug and Dharawal. The earliest Europeans to visit the area noted that the people were conducting activities such as camping and fishing, using trees for bark and food, collecting shells. Development has destroyed much of the citys history including that of the first inhabitants, there continues to be examples of rock art and engravings located in the protected Ku-ring-gai Chase National Park. The first meeting between the people and the British occurred on 29 April 1770 when Lieutenant James Cook landed at Botany Bay on the Kurnell Peninsula. He noted in his journal that they were confused and somewhat hostile towards the foreign visitors, Cook was on a mission of exploration and was not commissioned to start a settlement
Contemporary art is the art of today, produced by artists who are living in the twenty-first century. Contemporary art provides an opportunity to reflect on contemporary society and the relevant to ourselves. Contemporary artists work in a globally influenced, culturally diverse, and their art is a dynamic combination of materials, methods and subjects that challenge traditional boundaries and defy easy definition. In vernacular English and contemporary are synonyms, resulting in some conflation of the modern art. Some define contemporary art as art produced within our lifetime, recognizing that lifetimes, there is a recognition that this generic definition is subject to specialized limitations. The classification of art as a special type of art, rather than a general adjectival phrase. In London, the Contemporary Art Society was founded in 1910 by the critic Roger Fry and others, as a private society for buying works of art to place in public museums. A number of other institutions using the term were founded in the 1930s, such as in 1938 the Contemporary Art Society of Adelaide, particular points that have been seen as marking a change in art styles include the end of World War II and the 1960s.
There has perhaps been a lack of natural break points since the 1960s, and definitions of what contemporary art in the 2010s vary. Art from the past 20 years is likely to be included, and definitions often include art going back to about 1970, the art of the late 20th and early 21st century. Many use the formulation Modern and Contemporary Art, which avoids this problem, smaller commercial galleries and other sources may use stricter definitions, perhaps restricting the contemporary to work from 2000 onwards. One of the many people have in approaching contemporary artwork is its diversity - diversity of material, subject matter. It is distinguished by the lack of a uniform organizing principle, ideology, or -ism that we so often see in other. Broadly speaking, we see Modernism as looking at modernist principals - the focus of the work is self-referential, Impressionism looks at our perception of a moment through light and color as opposed to attempts at stark realism. Contemporary art, on the hand, does not have one.
Its view, instead, is refracted and multi-faceted, reflecting the diversity of the world today, in all of its complexities, contemporary art reflects life as we know it. It can be, contradictory and open-ended, there are, however, a number of common themes that have appeared in contemporary works. Post-modern, post-structuralist and Marxist theory have played important roles in the development of theories of art