Lier is a municipality located in the Belgian province of Antwerp. It is composed of the village of Koningshooikt; the city center is surrounded by the river Nete, which cuts through it. Per January 1, 2010 Lier had a total population of 33,930; the total area is 49.70 km² which amounts to a population density of 669 inhabitants per km². Lier is known for its beers, its patron saint St. Lierse vlaaikes cake, it is home to the world headquarters of Van Hool, a global bus and coach manufacturer. Lier's two principal football clubs are Lierse Kempenzonen; the etymology of the name Lier is still under debate. It most refers to the river Nete and the muddy soils that surrounds it; the Latin name of Lier is Lyra, the suffix of, derived from the Germanic or Keltic reference to river. Alternatively, the origin might be the Germanic words Ledo or Ledi, which both refer to a location near the confluence of rivers. Other explanations include the word liere. There is a resemblance to the Swedish word leira, which means muddy shore, or the Icelandic word leir, which means clay.
An all together different explanation is the Germanic word hieura, which refers to a hillock type of country. There is scant record of Lier predating the 7th century. Saint Gummarus himself was born in the 7th century and died on 11 October 714, he was canonised in 754. In 1194 Lier in 1212 granted municipal rights; the Lier beguinage was founded in 1998 entered on the UNESCO heritage list. The last surviving beguine died in 1994. In the 14th century, Duke Jan II wished to reward the City of Lier for joining his fight against the City of Mechelen, he offered the city the choice of either hosting a livestock market. The city notoriously selected the livestock market option, upon which the Duke is reported to have sighed: "Oh, those wretched sheep heads". Today, a herd of bronze sheep near the Zimmer tower serves as a reminder to this fateful decision; the university was seeded in the city of Leuven, in 1425, as one of Europe's first and today most prominent universities. The nickname Schapekoppen is still used in Flanders to refer to inhabitants of Lier.in 1496 Lier was the scene of the marriage between Philip the Handsome, son of Maximilian of Austria, Joanna of Castile.
This marriage was pivotal to the history of Europe as Charles V, born to this marriage, would go on to rule both the Holy Roman Empire and the Spanish Empire. King Christian II of Denmark, accompanied by his spouse Isabella, lived in Lier until 1523, after having been expelled from Denmark by the local nobility while waiting in vain for military support from his brother in law, he attempted again to regain the Danish throne, but was taken prisoner and spent the rest of his life detained in the Danish castles of Sønderborg and Kalundborg. Isabella died in 1526 at the Castle of Zwijnaarde. A conspicuous feature of the market square is a headstone that marks the spot where Lier's last witchcraft related execution is traditionally believed to have taken place. In 1860 a skeleton of a mammoth was unearthed at the site of the current city hall buildings, it was the first mammoth skeleton to be discovered in Western Europe. At the start of the WWI, King Albert and his Chiefs of Staffs were temporarily headquartered in Lier, before retreating to Temse as German lines advanced.
Being part of the redoubt of Antwerp, the city suffered under German artillery fire, leaving much of its medieval structures damaged beyond repair. Most medieval-style structures that exist today are therefore replicas, built shortly after the War. Lier is referred to with the rhyme Liereke Pleziereke; this expression originates from a booklet Felix Timmermans wrote in 1928, in celebration of the 50th wedding anniversary of a neighbouring couple. The strong ties Lier had developed with the Belgian military since in 1888 artillery barracks were built, continued after the World Wars. From 1955 to 1997 the barracks housed the Dutch-language Royal School of Cadets|cadet school for the Belgian army. A prominent alumnus of this school is Belgian astronaut Frank De Winne; the site was vacated by the army in 1998, acquired by the city, now houses city hall and the police department. Two artillery pieces are on display on city hall's patio, as a reminder to the building's past; the city of Lier is patron city to the Belgian Army's Second Artillery Regiment.
The Beguinage and St. Margarite Church, 17th century; the St. Gummarus Church, gothic architecture, 14th century; the Timmermans-Opsomerhuis museum. The Stedelijk Museum Wuyts-Van Campen en Baron Caroly, a fine arts museum; the Town hall, rococo architecture, 18th century. The Saint-Peter's Chapel The Zimmer Tower has a unique clock built in the 1930s. Lier has an extensive downtown center. There are in excess of 70 bars within the city's medieval boundaries. During summertime, nightlife activity concentrates around the Zimmerplein; the city center is surrounded by the river Nete, which cuts through it. Lier is divided into five main districts: Leuvensepoort, Lisp, the city centre and Koningshooikt; the last is a historic village, administrative
Natural history is a domain of inquiry involving organisms including animals and plants in their environment. A person who studies natural history is called natural historian. Natural history is not limited to it, it involves the systematic study of any category of natural organisms. So while it dates from studies in the ancient Greco-Roman world and the mediaeval Arabic world, through to European Renaissance naturalists working in near isolation, today's natural history is a cross discipline umbrella of many specialty sciences; the meaning of the English term "natural history" has narrowed progressively with time. In antiquity, "natural history" covered anything connected with nature, or which used materials drawn from nature, such as Pliny the Elder's encyclopedia of this title, published circa 77 to 79 AD, which covers astronomy, geography and their technology and superstition, as well as animals and plants. Medieval European academics considered knowledge to have two main divisions: the humanities and divinity, with science studied through texts rather than observation or experiment.
The study of nature revived in the Renaissance, became a third branch of academic knowledge, itself divided into descriptive natural history and natural philosophy, the analytical study of nature. In modern terms, natural philosophy corresponded to modern physics and chemistry, while natural history included the biological and geological sciences; the two were associated. During the heyday of the gentleman scientists, many people contributed to both fields, early papers in both were read at professional science society meetings such as the Royal Society and the French Academy of Sciences – both founded during the seventeenth century. Natural history had been encouraged by practical motives, such as Linnaeus' aspiration to improve the economic condition of Sweden; the Industrial Revolution prompted the development of geology to help find useful mineral deposits. Modern definitions of natural history come from a variety of fields and sources, many of the modern definitions emphasize a particular aspect of the field, creating a plurality of definitions with a number of common themes among them.
For example, while natural history is most defined as a type of observation and a subject of study, it can be defined as a body of knowledge, as a craft or a practice, in which the emphasis is placed more on the observer than on the observed. Definitions from biologists focus on the scientific study of individual organisms in their environment, as seen in this definition by Marston Bates: "Natural history is the study of animals and Plants – of organisms.... I like to think of natural history as the study of life at the level of the individual – of what plants and animals do, how they react to each other and their environment, how they are organized into larger groupings like populations and communities" and this more recent definition by D. S. Wilcove and T. Eisner: "The close observation of organisms—their origins, their evolution, their behavior, their relationships with other species"; this focus on organisms in their environment is echoed by H. W. Greene and J. B. Losos: "Natural history focuses on where organisms are and what they do in their environment, including interactions with other organisms.
It encompasses changes in internal states insofar as they pertain to what organisms do". Some definitions go further, focusing on direct observation of organisms in their environment, both past and present, such as this one by G. A. Bartholomew: "A student of natural history, or a naturalist, studies the world by observing plants and animals directly; because organisms are functionally inseparable from the environment in which they live and because their structure and function cannot be adequately interpreted without knowing some of their evolutionary history, the study of natural history embraces the study of fossils as well as physiographic and other aspects of the physical environment". A common thread in many definitions of natural history is the inclusion of a descriptive component, as seen in a recent definition by H. W. Greene: "Descriptive ecology and ethology". Several authors have argued for a more expansive view of natural history, including S. Herman, who defines the field as "the scientific study of plants and animals in their natural environments.
It is concerned with levels of organization from the individual organism to the ecosystem, stresses identification, life history, distribution and inter-relationships. It and appropriately includes an esthetic component", T. Fleischner, who defines the field more broadly, as "A practice of intentional, focused attentiveness and receptivity to the more-than-human world, guided by honesty and accuracy"; these definitions explicitly include the arts in the field of natural history, are aligned with the broad definition outlined by B. Lopez, who defines the field as the "Patient interrogation of a landscape" while referring to the natural history knowledge of the Eskimo. A different framework for natural history, covering a similar range of themes, is implied in the scope of work encompassed by many leading natural history museums, which include elements of anthropology, geology and astronomy along with botany and zoology, or include both cultural and natural components of the world; the pl
Antwerp is a city in Belgium, is the capital of Antwerp province in Flanders. With a population of 520,504, it is the most populous city proper in Belgium, with 1,200,000 the second largest metropolitan region after Brussels. Antwerp is on the River Scheldt, linked to the North Sea by the river's Westerschelde estuary, it is about 40 kilometres north of Brussels, about 15 kilometres south of the Dutch border. The Port of Antwerp is one of the biggest in the world, ranking second in Europe and within the top 20 globally; the city is known for its diamond industry and trade. Both economically and culturally, Antwerp is and has long been an important city in the Low Countries before and during the Spanish Fury and throughout and after the subsequent Dutch Revolt. Antwerp was the place of the world's oldest stock exchange building built in 1531 and re-built in 1872; the inhabitants of Antwerp are nicknamed Sinjoren, after the Spanish honorific señor or French seigneur, "lord", referring to the Spanish noblemen who ruled the city in the 17th century.
The city hosted the 1920 Summer Olympics. According to folklore, notably celebrated by a statue in front of the town hall, the city got its name from a legend about a giant called Antigoon who lived near the Scheldt river, he extracted a toll from passing boatmen, for those who refused, he severed one of their hands and threw it into the river. The giant was killed by a young hero named Silvius Brabo, who cut off the giant's own hand and flung it into the river. Hence the name Antwerpen, from Dutch hand werpen, akin to Old English hand and wearpan, which has evolved to today's warp. A longstanding theory is that the name originated in the Gallo-Roman period and comes from the Latin antverpia. Antverpia would come from Ante Verpia, indicating land that forms by deposition in the inside curve of a river. Note that the river Scheldt, before a transition period between 600 and 750, followed a different track; this must have coincided with the current ringway south of the city, situating the city within a former curve of the river.
However, many historians think it unlikely that there was a large settlement which would be named'Antverpia', but more something like an outpost with a river crossing. However, John Lothrop Motley argues, so do a lot of Dutch etymologists and historians, that Antwerp's name derives from "anda" and "werpum" to give an't werf. Aan't werp is possible; this "warp" is a man-made hill or a river deposit, high enough to remain dry at high tide, whereupon a construction could be built that would remain dry. Another word for werp is pol hence polders. Alfred Michiels has suggested that derivations based on hand werpen, Antverpia, "on the wharf", or "at the warp" lack historical backing in the form of recorded past spellings of the placename, he points instead to Dado's Life of St. Eligius from the 7th century, which records the form Andoverpis, he sees in it a Celtic origin indicating "those who live on both banks". Historical Antwerp had its origins in a Gallo-Roman vicus. Excavations carried out in the oldest section near the Scheldt, 1952–1961, produced pottery shards and fragments of glass from mid-2nd century to the end of the 3rd century.
The earliest mention of Antwerp dates from the 4th century. In the 4th century, Antwerp was first named; the Merovingian Antwerp was evangelized by Saint Amand in the 7th century. At the end of the 10th century, the Scheldt became the boundary of the Holy Roman Empire. Antwerp became a margraviate in 980, by the German emperor Otto II, a border province facing the County of Flanders. In the 11th century, the best-known leader of the First Crusade, Godfrey of Bouillon, was Margrave of Antwerp, from 1076 until his death in 1100, though he was also Duke of Lower Lorraine and Defender of the Holy Sepulchre. In the 12th century, Norbert of Xanten established a community of his Premonstratensian canons at St. Michael's Abbey at Caloes. Antwerp was the headquarters of Edward III during his early negotiations with Jacob van Artevelde, his son Lionel, the Duke of Clarence, was born there in 1338. After the silting-up of the Zwin and the consequent decline of Bruges, the city of Antwerp part of the Duchy of Brabant, grew in importance.
At the end of the 15th century the foreign trading houses were transferred from Bruges to Antwerp, the building assigned to the English nation is mentioned in 1510. Antwerp became the sugar capital of Europe, importing the raw commodity from Portuguese and Spanish plantations; the city attracted Italian and German sugar refiners by 1550, shipped their refined product to Germany Cologne. Moneylenders and financiers developed a large business lending money all over Europe including the English government in 1544–1574. London bankers were too small to operate on that scale, Antwerp had a efficient bourse that itself attracted rich bankers from around Europe. After the 1570s, the city's banking business declined: England ended its borrowing in Antwerp in 1574. Fernand Braudel states that Antwerp became "the centre of the entire international economy, something Bruges had never been at its height." Antwerp was the richest city in Europe at this time. Antwerp's golden age is l
A museum is an institution that cares for a collection of artifacts and other objects of artistic, historical, or scientific importance. Many public museums make these items available for public viewing through exhibits that may be permanent or temporary; the largest museums are located in major cities throughout the world, while thousands of local museums exist in smaller cities and rural areas. Museums have varying aims, ranging from serving researchers and specialists to serving the general public; the goal of serving researchers is shifting to serving the general public. There are many types of museums, including art museums, natural history museums, science museums, war museums, children's museums. Amongst the world's largest and most visited museums are the Louvre in Paris, the National Museum of China in Beijing, the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D. C. the British Museum and National Gallery in London, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and Vatican Museums in Vatican City.
According to The World Museum Community, there are more than 55,000 museums in 202 countries. The English "museum" comes from the Latin word, is pluralized as "museums", it is from the Ancient Greek Μουσεῖον, which denotes a place or temple dedicated to the Muses, hence a building set apart for study and the arts the Musaeum for philosophy and research at Alexandria by Ptolemy I Soter about 280 BC. The purpose of modern museums is to collect, preserve and display items of artistic, cultural, or scientific significance for the education of the public. From a visitor or community perspective, the purpose can depend on one's point of view. A trip to a local history museum or large city art museum can be an entertaining and enlightening way to spend the day. To city leaders, a healthy museum community can be seen as a gauge of the economic health of a city, a way to increase the sophistication of its inhabitants. To a museum professional, a museum might be seen as a way to educate the public about the museum's mission, such as civil rights or environmentalism.
Museums are, above all, storehouses of knowledge. In 1829, James Smithson's bequest, that would fund the Smithsonian Institution, stated he wanted to establish an institution "for the increase and diffusion of knowledge."Museums of natural history in the late 19th century exemplified the Victorian desire for consumption and for order. Gathering all examples of each classification of a field of knowledge for research and for display was the purpose; as American colleges grew in the 19th century, they developed their own natural history collections for the use of their students. By the last quarter of the 19th century, the scientific research in the universities was shifting toward biological research on a cellular level, cutting edge research moved from museums to university laboratories. While many large museums, such as the Smithsonian Institution, are still respected as research centers, research is no longer a main purpose of most museums. While there is an ongoing debate about the purposes of interpretation of a museum's collection, there has been a consistent mission to protect and preserve artifacts for future generations.
Much care and expense is invested in preservation efforts to retard decomposition in aging documents, artifacts and buildings. All museums display objects; as historian Steven Conn writes, "To see the thing itself, with one's own eyes and in a public place, surrounded by other people having some version of the same experience can be enchanting."Museum purposes vary from institution to institution. Some favor education over conservation, or vice versa. For example, in the 1970s, the Canada Science and Technology Museum favored education over preservation of their objects, they displayed objects as well as their functions. One exhibit featured a historic printing press that a staff member used for visitors to create museum memorabilia; some seek to reach a wide audience, such as a national or state museum, while some museums have specific audiences, like the LDS Church History Museum or local history organizations. Speaking, museums collect objects of significance that comply with their mission statement for conservation and display.
Although most museums do not allow physical contact with the associated artifacts, there are some that are interactive and encourage a more hands-on approach. In 2009, Hampton Court Palace, palace of Henry VIII, opened the council room to the general public to create an interactive environment for visitors. Rather than allowing visitors to handle 500-year-old objects, the museum created replicas, as well as replica costumes; the daily activities, historic clothing, temperature changes immerse the visitor in a slice of what Tudor life may have been. This section lists the 20 most visited museums in 2015 as compiled by AECOM and the Themed Entertainment Association's annual report on the world's most visited attractions. For 2016 figures see List of most visited museums; the cities of London and Washington, D. C. contain more of the 20 most visited museums in the world than any others, with six museums and four museums, respectively. Early museums began as the private collections of wealthy individuals, families or institutions of art and rare or curious natural objects and artifacts.
These were displayed in so-called wonder rooms or cabinets of curiosities. One of the oldest museums known is Ennigaldi-Nanna's museum, built by Princess Ennigaldi at the end of the Neo-Babylonian Empire; the site dates from c. 530 BCE, contained artifacts from earlier M
Iguanodon is a genus of ornithopod dinosaur that existed halfway between the first of the swift bipedal hypsilophodontids of the mid-Jurassic and the duck-billed dinosaurs of the late Cretaceous. While many species have been classified in the genus Iguanodon, dating from the late Jurassic Period to the early Cretaceous Period of Asia and North America, research in the first decade of the 21st century suggests that there is only one well-substantiated species: I. bernissartensis, which lived from the late Barremian to the earliest Aptian ages in Belgium, Spain and elsewhere in Europe, between about 126 and 113 million years ago. Iguanodon were bulky herbivores. Distinctive features include large thumb spikes, which were used for defense against predators, combined with long prehensile fifth fingers able to forage for food; the genus was named in 1825 by English geologist Gideon Mantell but discovered by William Harding Bensted, based on fossil specimens found in England, some of which were subsequently assigned to Mantellodon.
Iguanodon was the second type of dinosaur formally named based on fossil specimens, after Megalosaurus. Together with Megalosaurus and Hylaeosaurus, it was one of the three genera used to define Dinosauria; the genus Iguanodon belongs to the larger group Iguanodontia, along with the duck-billed hadrosaurs. The taxonomy of this genus continues to be a topic of study as new species are named or long-standing ones reassigned to other genera. Scientific understanding of Iguanodon has evolved over time as new information has been obtained from fossils; the numerous specimens of this genus, including nearly complete skeletons from two well-known bone beds, have allowed researchers to make informed hypotheses regarding many aspects of the living animal, including feeding and social behaviour. As one of the first scientifically well-known dinosaurs, Iguanodon has occupied a small but notable place in the public's perception of dinosaurs, its artistic representation changing in response to new interpretations of its remains.
The discovery of Iguanodon has long been accompanied by a popular legend. The story goes that Gideon Mantell's wife, Mary Ann, discovered the first teeth of an Iguanodon in the strata of Tilgate Forest in Whitemans Green, Sussex, England, in 1822 while her husband was visiting a patient. However, there is no evidence. Furthermore, he admitted in 1851 that he himself had found the teeth, although he had stated in 1827 that Mrs. Mantell had indeed found the first of the teeth named Iguanodon. Other authors agree that the story is not false, it is known from his notebooks that Mantell first acquired large fossil bones from the quarry at Whitemans Green in 1820. Because theropod teeth were found, thus belonging to carnivores, he at first interpreted these bones, which he tried to combine into a partial skeleton, as those of a giant crocodile. In 1821 Mantell mentioned the find of herbivorous teeth and began to consider the possibility that a large herbivorous reptile was present in the strata. However, in his 1822 publication Fossils of the South Downs he as yet did not dare to suggest a connection between the teeth and his incomplete skeleton, presuming that his finds presented two large forms, one carnivorous, the other herbivorous.
In May 1822 he first presented the herbivorous teeth to the Royal Society of London but the members, among them William Buckland, dismissed them as fish teeth or the incisors of a rhinoceros from a Tertiary stratum. On 23 June 1823 Charles Lyell showed some to Georges Cuvier, during a soiree in Paris, but the famous French naturalist at once dismissed them as those of a rhinoceros. Though the next day Cuvier retracted, Lyell reported only the dismissal to Mantell, who became rather diffident about the issue. In 1824 Buckland described Megalosaurus and was on that occasion invited to visit Mantell's collection. Seeing the bones on 6 March he agreed that these were of some giant saurian—though still denying it was a herbivore. Emboldened Mantell again sent some teeth to Cuvier, who answered on 22 June 1824 that he had determined that they were reptilian and quite belonged to a giant herbivore. In a new edition that year of his Recherches sur les Ossemens Fossiles Cuvier admitted his earlier mistake, leading to an immediate acceptance of Mantell, his new saurian, in scientific circles.
Mantell tried to corroborate his theory further by finding a modern-day parallel among extant reptiles. In September 1824 he visited the Royal College of Surgeons but at first failed to find comparable teeth. However, assistant-curator Samuel Stutchbury recognised that they resembled those of an iguana he had prepared, albeit twenty times longer. In recognition of the resemblance of the teeth to those of the iguana, Mantell decided to name his new animal Iguanodon or "iguana-tooth", from iguana and the Greek word ὀδών. Based on isometric scaling, he estimated that the creature might have been up to 18 metres long, more than the 12-metre length of Megalosaurus, his initial idea for a name was Iguana-saurus, but his friend William Daniel Conybeare suggested that that name was more applicable to the iguana itself, so a better name would be Iguanoides or Iguanodon. He neglected to add a specific name to form a proper binomial, but one was supplied in 1829 by Friedrich Holl: I. anglicum, amended to I. anglicus.
Mantell sent a letter detailing his discovery to the local Portsmouth Philosophical Society in Decembe
Bernard du Bus de Gisignies
Jonkheer Bernard Amé Léonard du Bus de Gisignies was a Dutch nobleman and on a Belgian politician and paleontologist. He was the second son of Leonard Pierre Joseph du Bus de Gisignies, he married Petronilla Truyts on 19 May 1845, together they had two children. He soon became more interested in ornithology. In 1835 he presented a manuscript to the Royal Academy of Belgium in which described the bird Leptorhynchus pectoralis, he was a member of parliament for Soignies. He became the first director of the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences in 1846. On this occasion he donated 2474 birds from his own collection to the museum. In 1860, during the construction of new fortifications around Antwerp he became involved in paleontology; the fossils found were from whales. He obtained the skeletons from a bowhead whale and a young Blue Whale, which are still on display in the museum. In 1860 the skeleton of a mammoth was brought to the museum. At that time the only other skeleton of a mammoth was on display in the museum of Saint Petersburg.
In 1867 he became the director of the science section of the Royal Academy of Belgium. Bernard du Bus de Gisignies Heemkundige Kring van Malle, Camera Obscura op Oost- en Westmalle, 1980 Bart De Prins, Leonard du Bus de Gisignies, Heemkundige Kring van Malle, 1999
The Ishango bone is a bone tool, dated to the Upper Paleolithic era. It is a dark brown length of bone, the fibula of a baboon, with a sharp piece of quartz affixed to one end for engraving, it was first thought to be a tally stick, as it has a series of what has been interpreted as tally marks carved in three columns running the length of the tool, though it has been suggested that the scratches might have been to create a better grip on the handle or for some other non-mathematical reason. The Ishango bone was found in 1960 by Belgian Jean de Heinzelin de Braucourt while exploring what was the Belgian Congo, it was discovered in the area of Ishango near the Semliki River. Lake Edward empties into the Semliki; the bone was found among the remains of a small community that fished and gathered in this area of Africa. The settlement had been buried in a volcanic eruption; the artifact was first estimated to have originated between 9,000 BC and 6,500 BC. However, the dating of the site where it was discovered was re-evaluated, it is now believed to be more than 20,000 years old.
The Ishango bone is on permanent exhibition at the Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences, Belgium. The etchings on the bone are in three columns with marks asymmetrically grouped into sets, leading to "various tantalizing hypotheses", such as that the implement was used as a counting tool for simple mathematical procedures or to construct a numeral system; the third column has been interpreted as a "table of prime numbers", but it is more to be a coincidence. Historian of mathematics Peter S. Rudman argues that prime numbers were not understood until about 500 BC, were dependent on the concept of division, which he dates to no earlier than 10,000 BC. Alexander Marshack speculated; this has led Claudia Zaslavsky to suggest that the creator of the tool may have been a woman, tracking the lunar phase in relation to the menstrual cycle. This is countered with the argument that Marshack overinterprets the data and that the evidence does not support lunar calendars. During earlier excavations at the Ishango site in 1959, another bone was found.
It is lighter in color and was scraped, thinned and broken on one end, revealing it to be hollow. The artifact held a piece of quartz like the more well-known bone or it could have been a tool handle; the 14-cm long bone has 90 notches on six sides, which are categorized as "major" or "minor" according to their length. Jean de Heinzelin interpreted the major notches as being units or multiples and the minor notches as fractions or subsidiary, he believed the bone to be an "interchange rule between bases 10 and 12." Lebombo bone History of mathematics Paleolithic tally sticks Shurkin, J.: Engines of the mind: a history of the computer, W. W. Norton & Co. 1984. P21 Bogoshi, J. Naidoo, K. and Webb, J.: "The oldest mathematical artifact", Math. Gazette, 71:458 294. Africa: The true cradle of mathematical sciences Ishango, 22000 and 50 years later: the cradle of mathematics? OEIS sequence A100000 O. Keller, "The fables of Ishango, or the irresistible temptation of mathematical fiction", V. Pletser, D. Huylebrouck, "Contradictions and narrowness of views in "The fables of Ishango, or the irresistible temptation of mathematical fiction", answers and updates"