The Chabot Museum is a museum dedicated to the Dutch painter and sculptor Hendrik Chabot in Rotterdam in the Netherlands. The museum is housed in a monumental villa in the Museumpark, near the Museum Boijmans van Beuningen and the Netherlands Architecture Institute; the museum opened in 1993. As of 2016 the Chabot Museum awards the Hendrik Chabot Prijs, an award for visual arts, created by the Prins Bernhard Cultuurfonds; the Chabot Museum is located at the Museumpark in Rotterdam Centrum, between the Netherlands Architecture Institute and the Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen. It is housed in a white villa designed in 1938 for C. H. Kraaijeveld in the style of New Objectivity by architects Gerrit Willem Baas, a former employee of Brinkman and Van der Vlugt, Leonard Stokla, a former bureau chief of Kromhout; the villa has been a rijksmonument since 2000. The museum is dedicated to sculptor Hendrik Chabot; the museum collection includes works from the 1920s from the Schortemeijer collection and 26 works from the Second World War from the private collection of Mrs. Toll-Breugem.
Natural History Museum Rotterdam
The Natuurhistorisch Museum Rotterdam is a natural history museum in Rotterdam in the Netherlands. The museum opened in 1927, it had 44,009 visitors in 2015. In 1922, the Rotterdam section of the Nederlandsche Natuurhistorische Vereeniging founded the Vereeniging tot Oprichting en Instandhouding van een Natuurhistorisch Museum. In 1927, the Natuurhistorisch Museum opened; the museum is located in Villa Dijkzigt at the Museumpark, close to the Kunsthal and Museum Boijmans Van Beuningen. The villa dates from 1852 and was built by J. F. Metzelaar for the Van Hoboken family. In 1995 it was extended with a modern glazed pavilion, designed by the Dutch architect Erick van Egeraat; the museum includes a library. The museum has a collection of an estimated 400,000 objects. Kees Moeliker has been the museum director since 2015. Bram Langeveld has been the museum curator since 2016; the museum had 37,814 visitors in 2012 and 44,009 in 2015. Natuurhistorisch Museum Rotterdam, official website
Rotterdam Centrum is a borough of Rotterdam. It was established on March 3, 2010; the center has 33,983 inhabitants. Rotterdam Centrum is bounded by the emplacement of the Rotterdam Centraal railway station and the Goudsesingel in the North, the Tunneltraverse of the Henegouwerlaan and's-Gravendijkwal in the West, the Nieuwe Maas River in the South and the Oostplein in the East; some landmarks include: Market Hall Euromast Beurstraverse, with the Beurs-World Trade Center Lijnbaan Coolsingel with the city hall and Hofplein Erasmusbrug Willemsbrug Various stations of the Rotterdam Metro Grote of Sint-Laurenskerk Library Rotterdam Cube houses The Schielandshuis The division into neighborhoods is as follows: Oude Westen Stadsdriehoek Cool C. S. kwartier Nieuwe Werk Dijkzigt Official site
Erasmus University Rotterdam
Erasmus University Rotterdam is a public university located in Rotterdam, Netherlands. The university is named after Desiderius Erasmus Roterodamus, a 15th-century humanist and theologian. Erasmus MC is the largest and one of the foremost academic medical centers and trauma centers in the Netherlands, whereas its economics and business school, Erasmus School of Economics and Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University are well known in Europe and beyond. In 2017, Erasmus University Rotterdam was ranked among top ten business schools in Europe by Financial Times. In 2015, Erasmus University Rotterdam is ranked by Times Higher Education as 20th in Europe and 72nd in the world, with its social sciences as 40th, clinical health as 35th in the world; the university has seven faculties and focuses on the following four areas: Health – Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences/Erasmus MC and Erasmus School of Health Policy & Management Wealth – Erasmus School of Economics and Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University Governance – Erasmus School of Law and Erasmus School of Social and Behavioural Sciences Culture – Erasmus School of History and Communication, Erasmus School of Social and Behavioural Sciences and Erasmus School of Philosophy Erasmus University Rotterdam has existed in its present form since 1973.
Its history, dates back to 1913, the year in which the Netherlands School of Commerce was founded through private initiative with broad support from the Rotterdam business community. The statutory recognition of higher education in commerce and economics as an academic discipline resulted in 1939 in a change of name; the NHH became Netherlands School of Economics. The growing complexity of society led in the 1960s to the arrival of the faculties of Law and Social Sciences, followed in decades by Philosophy and Arts, Business Administration. From 1950, the Foundation for Higher Clinical Education used its best efforts to get a full academic medical study programme established in Rotterdam, with success: In 1966, the government established the Medical Faculty Rotterdam, housed next to Dijkzigt Hospital. Together with the Sophia Children's Hospital and the Daniel den Hoed Clinic, it forms the University Hospital Rotterdam, which as of 1 January 2003 bears the name Erasmus MC. In 1973, the Medical Faculty Rotterdam and the Netherlands School of Economics merged to become Erasmus University Rotterdam – the first university in the Netherlands named after a person, a man to whom Rotterdam owes the reputation it has held for centuries in the academic world.
This domain includes the Erasmus MC, the Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management and the Institute for Medical Technology Assessment. Erasmus MC is the new name for the university medical centre in Rotterdam, a merger of the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences and the University Hospital Rotterdam; the biomedical cluster plays a leading role in the field of analysis of role of individual genes playing role in diseases. The Forensic Molecular Biology department works together with the Netherlands Forensic Institute. Major long-term genetic epidemiological studies among the elderly and children are Erasmus Rotterdam Health for the Elderly and Generation R respectively; the Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management forms a bridge between medicine and the health sciences on the one hand and social sciences on the other. The institute for Medical Technology Assessment conducts health economic research in collaboration with both the Erasmus MC and the Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management.
This area includes the Erasmus School of Economics and the Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University. Its economics programmes and management programmes attract students and postgraduates from all over the world; the research schools Erasmus Institute for Management and the Tinbergen Institute attract PhD students, research fellows, PostDocs and visiting professors of repute from all corners of the world. Other joint ventures are the English-language programme International Business Administration, the Erasmus Executive Development programme and the Erasmus University Centre for Contract Research and Business Support; the research focuses on the organisation of society. This area has ground in common not only with economics and management, but with medicine and health sciences; as one of four concentrations of Erasmus University, culture is defined broadly with focus on the areas of media, cultural economics, the high arts. Primary research is on society and the arts, including cultural policy and social identity in modern society.
Faculty has particular strengths in research, the students tend to graduate with strong research skills for both academic and field placement. Erasmus Research Institute of ManagementThe Erasmus Research Institute of Management is the joint research institute of the Rotterdam School of Management and the Erasmus School of Economics, both at Erasmus University Rotterdam, it aims to bring together top researchers in management. Econometric InstituteErasmus University today is seen as the leading university in Econometrics and Operational Research. Jan Tinbergen, Nobel Prize winner for Economics, Henri Theil founded the Econometric Institute and influenced both Econometrics & Management Science. Tinbergen's theories had a political inclination, with multiple objectives of price stability and employment and policies to achieve the desired results and
The Netherlands is a country located in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba— it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian. The six largest cities in the Netherlands are Amsterdam, The Hague, Utrecht and Tilburg. Amsterdam is the country's capital, while The Hague holds the seat of the States General and Supreme Court; the Port of Rotterdam is the largest port in Europe, the largest in any country outside Asia. The country is a founding member of the EU, Eurozone, G10, NATO, OECD and WTO, as well as a part of the Schengen Area and the trilateral Benelux Union.
It hosts several intergovernmental organisations and international courts, many of which are centered in The Hague, dubbed'the world's legal capital'. Netherlands means'lower countries' in reference to its low elevation and flat topography, with only about 50% of its land exceeding 1 metre above sea level, nearly 17% falling below sea level. Most of the areas below sea level, known as polders, are the result of land reclamation that began in the 16th century. With a population of 17.30 million people, all living within a total area of 41,500 square kilometres —of which the land area is 33,700 square kilometres —the Netherlands is one of the most densely populated countries in the world. It is the world's second-largest exporter of food and agricultural products, owing to its fertile soil, mild climate, intensive agriculture; the Netherlands was the third country in the world to have representative government, it has been a parliamentary constitutional monarchy with a unitary structure since 1848.
The country has a tradition of pillarisation and a long record of social tolerance, having legalised abortion and human euthanasia, along with maintaining a progressive drug policy. The Netherlands abolished the death penalty in 1870, allowed women's suffrage in 1917, became the world's first country to legalise same-sex marriage in 2001, its mixed-market advanced economy had the thirteenth-highest per capita income globally. The Netherlands ranks among the highest in international indexes of press freedom, economic freedom, human development, quality of life, as well as happiness; the Netherlands' turbulent history and shifts of power resulted in exceptionally many and varying names in different languages. There is diversity within languages; this holds for English, where Dutch is the adjective form and the misnomer Holland a synonym for the country "Netherlands". Dutch comes from Theodiscus and in the past centuries, the hub of Dutch culture is found in its most populous region, home to the capital city of Amsterdam.
Referring to the Netherlands as Holland in the English language is similar to calling the United Kingdom "Britain" by people outside the UK. The term is so pervasive among potential investors and tourists, that the Dutch government's international websites for tourism and trade are "holland.com" and "hollandtradeandinvest.com". The region of Holland consists of North and South Holland, two of the nation's twelve provinces a single province, earlier still, the County of Holland, a remnant of the dissolved Frisian Kingdom. Following the decline of the Duchy of Brabant and the County of Flanders, Holland became the most economically and politically important county in the Low Countries region; the emphasis on Holland during the formation of the Dutch Republic, the Eighty Years' War and the Anglo-Dutch Wars in the 16th, 17th and 18th century, made Holland serve as a pars pro toto for the entire country, now considered either incorrect, informal, or, depending on context, opprobrious. Nonetheless, Holland is used in reference to the Netherlands national football team.
The region called the Low Countries and the Country of the Netherlands. Place names with Neder, Nieder and Nedre and Bas or Inferior are in use in places all over Europe, they are sometimes used in a deictic relation to a higher ground that consecutively is indicated as Upper, Oben, Superior or Haut. In the case of the Low Countries / Netherlands the geographical location of the lower region has been more or less downstream and near the sea; the geographical location of the upper region, changed tremendously over time, depending on the location of the economic and military power governing the Low Countries area. The Romans made a distinction between the Roman provinces of downstream Germania Inferior and upstream Germania Superior; the designation'Low' to refer to the region returns again in the 10th century Duchy of Lower Lorraine, that covered much of the Low Countries. But this time the corresponding Upper region is Upper Lorraine, in nowadays Northern France; the Dukes of Burgundy, who ruled the Low Countries in the 15th century, used the term les pays de par deçà for the Low Countries as opposed to les pays de par delà for their original
The Erasmus University Medical Center based in Rotterdam, affiliated with Erasmus University and home to its faculty of medicine, is the "largest and one of the most authoritative scientific University Medical Centers in Europe." Furthermore, the hospital is the largest of the eight university medical centers in the Netherlands, both in terms of turnover and number of beds. The Erasmus MC ranks #1 of the top European institution in clinical medicine and #20 in the world according to the Times Higher Education rankings; the hospital has three locations: Erasmus MC – the main location. Erasmus MC – Sophia, the pediatric hospital connected to the main location by a raised glass hallway. Erasmus MC – Daniel den Hoed, specialized in oncologic care. Special units include: Neurosurgery Cardiothoracic surgery Neonatal and pediatric surgery and intensive care Pediatric oncology Level I trauma center The main location of Erasmus MC is located next to the Museumpark; the history of Erasmus MC goes back to the municipal Coolsingel Hospital, built in the period 1839 - 1848 by design of city architect Willem Nicolaas Rose.
Due to delays during construction, the hospital could not be used until 1851. The building was at the corner of the Van Oldebarneveltstraat and the Coolsingel in Rotterdam and had an imposing facade with a width of eighty-two meters; the first hospital director was Dr. Jan Bastiaan Molewater, a lecturer at the Clinical School, opened in Rotterdam in 1828; the hospital was destroyed during the German bombing of Rotterdam by the Luftwaffe in 1940. Only the Coolsingelpoort, the former gate to the hospital, now reminds of this hospital at the Lijnbaan. After a long period of temporary provisions, the new Dijkzigt Hospital could be used in 1961 at the location where the Erasmus MC is now located; the Dijkzigt Hospital was named after Villa Dijkzigt on the enormous estate called Land van Hoboken, the home of the Dutch shipowner's family Van Hoboken. In 1924, this land was sold to the Rotterdam municipality and on which since today the Natural History Museum Rotterdam is housed; the Foundation for Clinical Higher Education in Rotterdam, founded in 1950, was designated by the Dutch government in 1965 to become one of the seven major medical training centers in the Netherlands.
In 1966, this new medical training center was opened at the G. J. de Jonghweg with 160 medical students. The Dijkzig Hospital became its corresponding academic hospital. In 1970, the Dijkzigt Hospital merged with the Sophia Children's Hospital into the Academic Hospital Rotterdam. In 1973, the medical training center of Rotterdam became part of the Erasmus University Rotterdam, designated as Faculty of Medicine and Health Science, moved to the complex of the Dijkzigt Hospital. In 1993 the Sophia Children's Hospital moved to this location. In the same year the Daniel den Hoed Clinic - a main Dutch oncology center named after Daniël den Hoed, the founder of radiotherapy in the Netherlands - became part of the Academic Hospital Rotterdam. On 1 June 2002, the Dijkzigt Hospital, the Sophia Children's Hospital, the Daniel den Hoed Clinic, the Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, all formally merged into the current Erasmus University Medical Center, affiliated with Erasmus University Rotterdam.
The Erasmus MC started in May 2009 with a major new construction and renovation project at their location. The first part was put into use; the second part was completed in late 2017 and put into operation in 2018. A new main entrance was constructed close to the Dijkzigt metro station, on the Wytemaweg. Hereafter is planned the demolition of the old Dijkzigt Hospital and the renovation of the Faculty of Medicine tower and the buildings of the Sophia Children's Hospital. In May 2011 Erasmus Medical Center signed an agreement with California-based Complete Genomics, a life sciences company that has developed and commercialized a proprietary DNA sequencing platform for human genome sequencing and analysis. Complete Genomics signed a contract to produce genetic sequence for 250 Erasmus Medical Center samples. In September 2012 the Beijing Genomics Institute purchased Complete Genomics for $117M; the United States Committee on Foreign Investment in the United States cleared the purchase by December 2012.
The head of bioinformatics, Dr. Peter J. van der Spek, claimed that Complete Genomics' complete human genome sequencing service will allow us to study genetic variations at a higher resolution and greater sensitivity than has been possible." In the ongoing investigation of the MERS virus, a team from Erasmus Medical Center in Rotterdam received two patient samples from Dr. Ali Mohamed Zaki, an Egyptian scientist working in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. After sequencing the MERS DNA, EMC claimed ownership of the samples. EMC now requires scientists hoping to work on the MERS problem to sign legal agreements with Erasmus; the U. S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is still waiting to receive samples of MERS for testing that were collected in October 2012 because the legal teams from the CDC and Erasmus cannot negotiate agreeable terms for a material transfer agreement; as a result of these legal delays during a disease outbreak, Margaret Chan, director-general of the World Health Organization, publicly criticized Erasmus for putting patent laws ahead of protecting "your people".
Rotterdam is the second-largest city and a municipality of the Netherlands. It is located in the province of South Holland, at the mouth of the Nieuwe Maas channel leading into the Rhine–Meuse–Scheldt delta at the North Sea, its history goes back to 1270, when a dam was constructed in the Rotte, after which people settled around it for safety. In 1340, Rotterdam was granted city rights by the Count of Holland. A major logistic and economic centre, Rotterdam is Europe's largest port, it has a population of 633,471. Rotterdam is known for its Erasmus University, its riverside setting, lively cultural life and maritime heritage; the near-complete destruction of the city centre in the World War II Rotterdam Blitz has resulted in a varied architectural landscape, including sky-scrapers designed by renowned architects such as Rem Koolhaas, Piet Blom and Ben van Berkel. The Rhine and Scheldt give waterway access into the heart of Western Europe, including the industrialized Ruhr; the extensive distribution system including rail and waterways have earned Rotterdam the nicknames "Gateway to Europe" and "Gateway to the World".
The settlement at the lower end of the fen stream Rotte dates from at least 900 CE. Around 1150, large floods in the area ended development, leading to the construction of protective dikes and dams, including Schielands Hoge Zeedijk along the northern banks of the present-day Nieuwe Maas. A dam on the Rotte was located at the present-day Hoogstraat. On 7 July 1340, Count Willem IV of Holland granted city rights to Rotterdam, whose population was only a few thousand. Around the year 1350, a shipping canal, the Rotterdamse Schie was completed, which provided Rotterdam access to the larger towns in the north, allowing it to become a local trans-shipment centre between the Netherlands and Germany, to urbanize; the port of Rotterdam grew but into a port of importance, becoming the seat of one of the six "chambers" of the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, the Dutch East India Company. The greatest spurt of growth, both in port activity and population, followed the completion of the Nieuwe Waterweg in 1872.
The city and harbor started to expand on the south bank of the river. The Witte Huis or White House skyscraper, inspired by American office buildings and built in 1898 in the French Château-style, is evidence of Rotterdam's rapid growth and success; when completed, it was the tallest office building in Europe, with a height of 45 m. During World War I the city was the world's largest spy centre because of Dutch neutrality and its strategic location in between Great-Britain and German-occupied Belgium. Many spies who were arrested and executed in Britain were led by German secret agents operating from Rotterdam. MI6 had its main European office on de Boompjes. From there the British occupied Belgium. During World War I, an average of 25,000 Belgian refugees lived in the city, as well as hundreds of German deserters and escaped Allied prisoners of war. During World War II, the German army invaded the Netherlands on 10 May 1940. Adolf Hitler had hoped to conquer the country in just one day, but his forces met unexpectedly fierce resistance.
The Dutch army was forced to capitulate on 15 May 1940, following the bombing of Rotterdam on 14 May and the threat of bombing of other Dutch cities. The heart of Rotterdam was completely destroyed by the Luftwaffe; some 80,000 civilians were made homeless and 900 were killed. The City Hall survived the bombing. Ossip Zadkine attempted to capture the event with his statue De Verwoeste Stad; the statue stands near the Leuvehaven, not far from the Erasmusbrug in the centre of the city, on the north shore of the river Nieuwe Maas. Rotterdam was rebuilt from the 1950s through to the 1970s, it remained quite windy and open until the city councils from the 1980s on began developing an active architectural policy. Daring and new styles of apartments, office buildings and recreation facilities resulted in a more'livable' city centre with a new skyline. In the 1990s, the Kop van Zuid was built on the south bank of the river as a new business centre. Rotterdam was voted 2015 European City of the Year by the Academy of Urbanism.
A Guardian profile of Rem Koolhaas begins "If you put the last 50 years of architecture in a blender, spat it out in building-sized chunks across the skyline, you would end up with something that looked a bit like Rotterdam."'Rotterdam' is divided into a northern and a southern part by the river Nieuwe Maas, connected by: the Beneluxtunnel. The former railway lift bridge De Hef is preserved as a monument in lifted position between the Noordereiland and the south of Rotterdam; the city centre is located on the northern bank of the Nieuwe Maas, although recent urban development has extended the centre to parts of southern Rotterdam known as De Kop van Zuid. From its inland core, Rotterdam reaches the North Sea by a swathe of predominantly harbour area. Built behind di