Georg Philipp Telemann
Georg Philipp Telemann was a German Baroque composer and multi-instrumentalist. Almost completely self-taught in music, he became a composer against his familys wishes, after studying in Magdeburg and Hildesheim, Telemann entered the University of Leipzig to study law, but eventually settled on a career in music. He held important positions in Leipzig, Sorau and Frankfurt before settling in Hamburg in 1721, Telemanns music incorporates several national styles and is even at times influenced by Polish popular music. He remained at the forefront of all new musical tendencies and his music is an important link between the late Baroque and early Classical styles, Telemann was born in Magdeburg, the capital of the Duchy of Magdeburg, Brandenburg-Prussia. His father Heinrich, deacon at the Church of the Holy Spirit, the future composer received his first music lessons at 10, from a local organist, and became immensely interested in music in general, and composition in particular. Despite opposition from his mother and relatives, who forbade any musical activities, Telemann found it possible to study and compose in secret, even creating an opera at age 12.
Telemann was becoming equally adept both at composing and performing, teaching himself flute, violin, double bass, in 1701 he graduated from the Gymnasium and went to Leipzig to become a student at the Leipzig University, where he intended to study law. He ended up becoming a musician, regularly composing works for Nikolaikirche. In 1702 he became director of the opera house Opernhaus auf dem Brühl. Prodigiously productive, Telemann supplied a wealth of new music for Leipzig, including operas, one of which was his first major opera. However, he engaged in a conflict with the cantor of Thomaskirche. The conflict intensified when Telemann started employing numerous students for his projects, including those that were Kuhnaus, Telemann left Leipzig in 1705 at the age of 24 after receiving an invitation to become Kapellmeister for the court of Count Erdmann II of Promnitz at Sorau. He became Konzertmeister on 24 December 1708 and Secretary and Kapellmeister in August 1709, during his tenure at Eisenach Telemann created a very large amount of music, at least four annual cycles of church cantatas, dozens of sonatas and concertos, and other works.
In 1709 he married Amalie Louise Juliane Eberlin, lady-in-waiting to the Countess of Promnitz and their daughter was born in January 1711. The mother died soon afterwards, leaving Telemann depressed and distraught, after less than a year he sought another position, and moved to Frankfurt on 18 March 1712 at the age of 31 to become city music director and Kapellmeister at the Barfüsserkirche. In Frankfurt, he gained his mature personal style. Here, as in Leipzig, he was a force in the citys musical life. By 1720 he had adopted the use of the da capo aria, operas such as Narciso, which was brought to Frankfurt in 1719, written in the Italian idiom of composition, made a mark on Telemanns output
Ancient music is music that developed in literate cultures, replacing prehistoric music. Ancient music refers to the musical systems that were developed across various geographical regions such as Mesopotamia, Persia, China, Greece. Ancient music is designated by the characterization of the notes and scales. It may have been transmitted through oral or written systems, Music has been an integral part of Egyptian culture since antiquity. The ancient Egyptians credited one of the powerful gods Hathor with the invention of music, percussion instruments, and lutes were added to orchestras by the Middle Kingdom. Egyptian folk music, including the traditional Sufi dhikr rituals, are the closest contemporary music genre to ancient Egyptian music, having preserved many of its features, none of the many theories that have been formulated have any adequate foundation. In 1986, Anne Draffkorn Kilmer from the University of California at Berkeley published her decipherment of a tablet from Nippur dated to about 2000 BCE.
She demonstrated that they represent fragmentary instructions for performing music, that the music was composed in harmonies of thirds, the notation in that tablet was not as developed as the notation in the cuneiform tablet dated to about 1250 BCE. The interpretation of the system is still controversial, but it is clear that the notation indicates the names of strings on a lyre. These tablets represent the earliest recorded melodies, though fragmentary, from anywhere in the world, in 1929, Leonard Woolley discovered pieces of four harps while excavating in the ruins of the ancient city of Ur, located in what was Ancient Mesopotamia and is contemporary Iraq. Some of the fragments are now located at the University of Pennsylvania, in the British Museum in London and they have been dated to 2,750 BCE. Various reconstructions have been attempted, but none have been totally satisfactory, depending on various definitions, they could be classed as lyres rather than harps. The most famous is the harp, held in Baghdad.
The second Iraqi War led to the destruction of the bull-head lyre, among the Hurrian texts from Ugarit are some of the oldest known instances of written music, dating from c.1400 BCE and including one substantially complete song. A reconstruction of this hymn is presented at the Urkesh webpage, Musical instruments, such as the seven-holed flute and various types of stringed instruments have been recovered from the Indus valley civilization archaeological sites. In ancient India, memorization of the sacred Vedas included up to forms of recitation of the same text. The Nātya Shastra is an ancient Indian treatise on the arts, encompassing theatre, dance. It was written at a date in classical India
E. T. A. Hoffmann
Ernst Theodor Amadeus Hoffmann was a Prussian Romantic author of fantasy and Gothic horror, a jurist, music critic and caricaturist. His stories form the basis of Jacques Offenbachs famous opera The Tales of Hoffmann and he is the author of the novella The Nutcracker and the Mouse King, on which Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovskys ballet The Nutcracker is based. The ballet Coppélia is based on two stories that Hoffmann wrote, while Schumanns Kreisleriana is based on Hoffmanns character Johannes Kreisler. Hoffmanns stories highly influenced 19th century literature, and he is one of the authors of the Romantic movement. Hoffmanns ancestors, both maternal and paternal, were jurists and his father, Christoph Ludwig Hoffmann, was a barrister in Königsberg, Prussia, as well as a poet and amateur musician who played the viola da gamba. In 1767 he married his cousin, Lovisa Albertina Doerffer, ernst Theodor Wilhelm, born on 24 January 1776, was the youngest of three children, of whom the second died in infancy.
The household, dominated by the uncle, was pietistic and uncongenial, Hoffmann was to regret his estrangement from his father. Nevertheless, he remembered his aunts with great affection, especially the younger, between 1781 and 1792 he attended the Lutheran school or Burgschule, where he made good progress in classics. He was taught drawing by one Saemann, and counterpoint by a Polish organist named Podbileski, ernst showed great talent for piano-playing, and busied himself with writing and drawing. He had however read Schiller, Swift, Sterne and Jean Paul, and wrote part of a novel titled Der Geheimnisvolle. Around 1787 he became friends with Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel the Younger, the son of a pastor, and nephew of Theodor Gottlieb von Hippel the Elder, during 1792, both attended some of Kants lectures at the University of Königsberg. Their friendship, although tested by an increasing social difference, was to be lifelong. In 1794, Hoffmann became enamored of Cora Hatt, a woman to whom he had given music lessons.
She was ten years older, and in 1795 gave birth to her sixth child, in February 1796, her family protested against his attentions and, with his hesitant consent, asked another of his uncles to arrange employment for him in Glogau, Prussian Silesia. From 1796 Hoffmann obtained employment as a clerk for his uncle, Johann Ludwig Doerffer, after passing further examinations he visited Dresden, where he was amazed by the paintings in the gallery, particularly those of Correggio and Raphael. During the summer of 1798 his uncle was promoted to a court in Berlin, and it was there that Hoffmann first attempted to promote himself as a composer, writing an operetta called Die Maske and sending a copy to Queen Luise of Prussia. The official reply advised to him to write to the director of the Royal Theatre, from June 1800 to 1803 he worked in Prussian provinces in the area of Greater Poland and Masovia. This was the first time he had lived without supervision by members of his family, and he started to become what school principals, parsons and aunts call dissolute
Plato was a philosopher in Classical Greece and the founder of the Academy in Athens, the first institution of higher learning in the Western world. He is widely considered the most pivotal figure in the development of philosophy, unlike nearly all of his philosophical contemporaries, Platos entire work is believed to have survived intact for over 2,400 years. Along with his teacher and his most famous student, Plato laid the foundations of Western philosophy. Alfred North Whitehead once noted, the safest general characterization of the European philosophical tradition is that it consists of a series of footnotes to Plato. In addition to being a figure for Western science, philosophy. Friedrich Nietzsche, amongst other scholars, called Christianity, Platonism for the people, Plato was the innovator of the written dialogue and dialectic forms in philosophy, which originate with him. He was not the first thinker or writer to whom the word “philosopher” should be applied, few other authors in the history of Western philosophy approximate him in depth and range, perhaps only Aristotle and Kant would be generally agreed to be of the same rank.
Due to a lack of surviving accounts, little is known about Platos early life, the philosopher came from one of the wealthiest and most politically active families in Athens. Ancient sources describe him as a bright though modest boy who excelled in his studies, the exact time and place of Platos birth are unknown, but it is certain that he belonged to an aristocratic and influential family. Based on ancient sources, most modern scholars believe that he was born in Athens or Aegina between 429 and 423 BCE. According to a tradition, reported by Diogenes Laertius, Ariston traced his descent from the king of Athens, Codrus. Platos mother was Perictione, whose family boasted of a relationship with the famous Athenian lawmaker, besides Plato himself and Perictione had three other children, these were two sons and Glaucon, and a daughter Potone, the mother of Speusippus. The brothers Adeimantus and Glaucon are mentioned in the Republic as sons of Ariston, and presumably brothers of Plato, but in a scenario in the Memorabilia, Xenophon confused the issue by presenting a Glaucon much younger than Plato.
Then, at twenty-eight, Hermodorus says, went to Euclides in Megara, as Debra Nails argues, The text itself gives no reason to infer that Plato left immediately for Megara and implies the very opposite. Thus, Nails dates Platos birth to 424/423, another legend related that, when Plato was an infant, bees settled on his lips while he was sleeping, an augury of the sweetness of style in which he would discourse about philosophy. Ariston appears to have died in Platos childhood, although the dating of his death is difficult. Perictione married Pyrilampes, her mothers brother, who had served many times as an ambassador to the Persian court and was a friend of Pericles, Pyrilampes had a son from a previous marriage, who was famous for his beauty. Perictione gave birth to Pyrilampes second son, the half-brother of Plato and these and other references suggest a considerable amount of family pride and enable us to reconstruct Platos family tree
Christian Johann Heinrich Heine was a German poet, journalist and literary critic. He is best known outside Germany for his lyric poetry. Heines verse and prose are distinguished by their satirical wit and he is considered part of the Young Germany movement. His radical political views led to many of his works being banned by German authorities, Heine spent the last 25 years of his life as an expatriate in Paris. Heine was born at Düsseldorf in what was the Duchy of Berg and he was called Harry in childhood but became known as Heinrich after his conversion to Lutheranism in 1825. Heines father, Samson Heine, was a textile merchant and his mother Peira, née van Geldern, was the daughter of a physician. Heinrich was the eldest of four children, Heine was a third cousin once removed of philosopher and economist Karl Marx, born to a German Jewish family in the Rhineland, with whom he became a frequent correspondent in life. Düsseldorf was a town with a population of around 16,000. The French Revolution and subsequent Revolutionary and Napoleonic Wars involving Germany complicated Düsseldorfs political history during Heines childhood and it had been the capital of the Duchy of Jülich-Berg, but was under French occupation at the time of his birth.
It went to the Elector of Bavaria before being ceded to Napoleon in 1806 and it was first ruled by Joachim Murat, by Napoleon himself. Upon Napoleons downfall in 1815 it became part of Prussia, thus Heines formative years were spent under French influence. The adult Heine would always be devoted to the French for introduction of the Napoleonic Code and he glossed over the negative aspects of French rule in Berg, heavy taxation and economic depression brought about by the Continental Blockade. Heines parents were not particularly devout, as a young child they sent him to a Jewish school where he learned a smattering of Hebrew, but thereafter he attended Catholic schools. Here he learned French, which would be his second language - although he spoke it with a German accent. He acquired a love for Rhineland folklore. In 1814 Heine went to a school in Düsseldorf where he learned to read English. The most successful member of the Heine family was his uncle Salomon Heine, in 1816 Heine moved to Hamburg to become an apprentice at Heckscher & Co, his uncles bank, but displayed little aptitude for business.
He learned to hate Hamburg with its ethos, but it would become one of the poles of his life alongside Paris
History of music in the biblical period
Knowledge of the biblical period is mostly from literary references in the Bible and post-biblical sources. The study of ancient musical instruments has been practiced for centuries with some researchers studying instruments from Israel/Palestine dating to the biblical period and written data have demonstrated clearly that music was an integral part of daily life in ancient Israel/Palestine. Data describes outdoor scenes of music and dancing in sometimes prophetic frenzies, often with carefully orchestrated and choreographed musicians, according to ancient music historian Theodore Burgh, If we were able to step into the. Biblical period, we would find a culture filled with music, where people used music in their daily lives. Such music was capable of expressing a variety of moods and feelings or the broadly marked antitheses of joy and sorrow and fear, faith. In fact, every shade and quality of sentiment are found in the wealth of songs and psalms, Egypt was among the oldest cultures of the Near East and had a highly developed musical culture dating back to around 3000 BC.
Egyptian sources, include only pictorial relics, some instruments, on various pieces of sculpture there are reliefs of harpists and flutists taking part in religious ceremonies and social entertainments. A number of instruments have been identified as being used in Egypt, including the lyre, an instrument, various drums from Asia, the lute. Murals showing singers and instrumentalist performing have been found, according to music historian Homer Ulrich, it is likely that Egypt influenced the educational and ethical aspects of Greek music. Stephen Batuk equally observed that the link of music was consummated during the week of creation where birds in the air make sounds which could be seen as music. Although records are minimal, it is known that between 3000 and 2300 BC organized temple music with singers existed in Sumer and Babylonia, the oldest cultural groups in Mesopotamia, excavations have uncovered several musical instruments, including harps, double oboes, and a few others. Jewish music began in the years of tribal life.
After the Hebrews established a kingdom in Israel, their activities were to increase substantially. It is in the uses of music—sacred and secular, ethical. He adds that a stay of four centuries in so civilized a culture as Egypt must have added to their knowledge of the art. Following the French archaeomusicologist Suzanne Haik-Vantoura, some authorities now argue that these cantillation marks date from temple times, attempts have been made to decipher them in modern musical notation. The musical traditions of the Temple were rudely broken by the destruction of the First Temple, Hindley notes that most of the psalms seem to have been written in the years after the return of the Jews to Jerusalem. At this time too the practice of antiphonal singing between the cantor and the congregation seems to have become common, the music of ancient Israel represents almost fourteen centuries of change, roughly from 1300 BC to 70 AD, when Titus siege of Jerusalem took place
Leipzig is the largest city in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. With a population of 570,087 inhabitants it is Germanys tenth most populous city, Leipzig is located about 160 kilometres southwest of Berlin at the confluence of the White Elster and Parthe rivers at the southern end of the North German Plain. Leipzig has been a city since at least the time of the Holy Roman Empire. The city sits at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, Leipzig was once one of the major European centers of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing. Leipzig became an urban center within the German Democratic Republic after the Second World War. Leipzig played a significant role in instigating the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, through events which took place in, Leipzig today is an economic center and the most livable city in Germany, according to the GfK marketing research institution. Since the opening of the Leipzig City Tunnel in 2013, Leipzig forms the centerpiece of the S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland public transit system, Leipzig is currently listed as Gamma World City and Germanys Boomtown.
Outside of Leipzig the Neuseenland district forms a lake area of approximately 300 square kilometres. Leipzig is derived from the Slavic word Lipsk, which means settlement where the linden trees stand, an older spelling of the name in English is Leipsic. The Latin name Lipsia was used, the name is cognate with Lipetsk in Russia and Liepāja in Latvia. In 1937 the Nazi government officially renamed the city Reichsmessestadt Leipzig, the common usage of this nickname for Leipzig up until the present is reflected, for example, in the name of a popular blog for local arts and culture, Heldenstadt. de. Leipzig was first documented in 1015 in the chronicles of Bishop Thietmar of Merseburg as urbs Libzi and endowed with city, Leipzig Trade Fair, started in the Middle Ages, became an event of international importance and is the oldest remaining trade fair in the world. During the Thirty Years War, two battles took place in Breitenfeld, about 8 kilometres outside Leipzig city walls, the first Battle of Breitenfeld took place in 1631 and the second in 1642.
Both battles resulted in victories for the Swedish-led side, on 24 December 1701, an oil-fueled street lighting system was introduced. The city employed light guards who had to follow a schedule to ensure the punctual lighting of the 700 lanterns. The Leipzig region was the arena of the 1813 Battle of Leipzig between Napoleonic France and a coalition of Prussia, Russia and Sweden. It was the largest battle in Europe prior to the First World War, in 1913 the Monument to the Battle of the Nations celebrating the centenary of this event was completed. The railway station has two entrance halls, the eastern one for the Royal Saxon State Railways and the western one for the Prussian state railways
Italian opera is both the art of opera in Italy and opera in the Italian language. Opera was born in Italy around the year 1600 and Italian opera has continued to play a dominant role in the history of the form until the present day, many famous operas in Italian were written by foreign composers, including Handel and Mozart. Dafne by Jacopo Peri was the earliest composition considered opera, as understood today, peris works, did not arise out of a creative vacuum in the area of sung drama. An underlying prerequisite for the creation of opera proper was the practice of monody, from this, it was only a small step to fully-fledged monody. Such spectacles were staged to commemorate significant state events, military victories, and the like. They were lavishly staged, and led the scenography of the half of the 16th century. Another popular court entertainment at this time was the madrigal comedy and this consisted of a series of madrigals strung together to suggest a dramatic narrative, but not staged.
There were two staged musical pastorals, Il Satiro and La Disperazione di Fileno, both produced in 1590 and written by Emilio de Cavalieri. Other pastoral plays had long included some musical numbers, one of the earliest, the music of Dafne is now lost. The first opera for which music has survived was performed in 1600 at the wedding of Henry IV of France, the opera, with a libretto by Rinuccini, set to music by Peri and Giulio Caccini, recounted the story of Orpheus and Eurydice. The style of singing favored by Peri and Caccini was a form of natural speech. Recitative thus preceded the development of arias, though it became the custom to include separate songs. Both Dafne and Euridice included choruses commenting on the action at the end of each act in the manner of Greek tragedy. The theme of Orpheus, the demi-god of music, was popular and attracted Claudio Monteverdi who wrote his first opera, La Favola dOrfeo. Monteverdi insisted on a relationship between the words and music. When Orfeo was performed in Mantua, an orchestra of 38 instruments, Opera had revealed its first stage of maturity in the hands of Monteverdi.
LOrfeo has the distinction of being the earliest surviving opera that is regularly performed today. Within a few decades opera had spread throughout Italy, in Rome, it found an advocate in the prelate and librettist Giulio Rospigliosi
Charles Avison was an English composer during the Baroque and Classical periods. He was a church organist at St John The Baptist Church in Newcastle and he is most known for his 12 Concerti Grossi after Scarlatti and his Essay on Musical Expression, the first music criticism published in English. He composed in a style that alternated between Baroque and Classical idioms. The son of Richard and Anne Avison, Charles Avison was baptised on 16 February 1709, at St John the Baptist Church, according to The New Grove Dictionary, he was born in this city. His educational history, though unclear, could have been at one of the two charity schools serving St Johns parish, some sources claim that Charles was the fifth of nine children, while others claim that he was the seventh of ten children. Regardless, Avison was born into a family with a rate of infant mortality. His father was a musician and was likely to have been Charles’s first teacher, when Charles was 12, his father died, leaving his mother widowed with at least one and possibly two children at home.
In his twenties, Avison moved to London to further pursue his career as a musician and it was during this period of his life that he met and began to study with Francesco Geminiani. Avisons first documented performance was a benefit concert in London on 20 March 1734. This was his only concert in London and probably contained some of his early compositions written under Geminiani. Avison left London and, on 13 October 1735, was appointed organist of St. John’s and this appointment took effect once the church had installed a new organ in June 1736. Avison accepted a position as organist of St. Nicholas Church in October 1736 and he remained at these two posts until his death. Avison taught harpsichord and violin to private students on a weekly basis, much of Avisons income was generated through a series of subscription concerts which he helped organise in the North East region of England. These were the first concerts of their type to be held in Newcastle, despite numerous offers of more prestigious positions in life, he never again left Newcastle.
Avison was married to Catherine Reynolds on 15 January 1737, the couple had nine children, of whom only three – Jane and Charles – survived to adulthood. Edward succeeded his father as both the director of the Newcastle Musical Society and the St Nicholass organist after his father’s death, Charles was an organist and composer. Avison died in May 1770 of unknown causes, according to his will, he had become a very wealthy man between his collection of books, musical instruments, and his stock holdings, which were left to his children. Avison was one of the subjects in Robert Brownings Parleyings with Certain People of Importance in their Day and he tenders evidence/That music in his day as much absorbed/Heart and soul as Wagners music now
The Oxford Companion to Music
The Oxford Companion to Music is a music reference book in the series of Oxford Companions produced by the Oxford University Press. It was originally conceived and written by Percy Scholes and published in 1938, since then, it has undergone two distinct rewritings, one by Denis Arnold, in 1983, and the latest edition by Alison Latham in 2002. It is arguably the most successful book on music ever produced, the first edition, a single-volume work, was produced in 1938, edited by Percy Scholes, and was written almost entirely by him alone. The second edition, published 1939 includes a 64-page categorised List of books about music in the English language by Scholes, wherever possible, Scholes tried to use primary source material, rather than summarizing other peoples work. From this research, he produced about fifty-five volumes of notes, each of these was devoted to a separate branch of musical knowledge. He sought review of each of these volumes with specialists in the particular branch of musical knowledge.
Finally, these volumes were broken up and re-constituted in alphabetical order, Scholes intention was to produce a work relevant to a wide range of readers, from the professional musician to the concert-goer, gramaphonist, or radio-listener. The result was a work which was accessible to the general reader. While scholarly and well-researched, Scholes style was sometimes quirky, for instance, his original articles on some of the twentieth-century composers were highly dismissive, as were his articles on genres such as jazz. His entry on the can-can concludes Its exact nature is unknown to anyone connected with this Companion and he produced several revisions prior to his death, with the last full revision being the 9th edition in 1955. The Tenth Edition, published in 1970, was a revision of Scholes work by John Owen Ward, Ward considered it inappropriate to change radically the characteristic rich anecdotal quality of Dr. Scholes style. Although he brought some of the articles up to date, he left much of Scholes distinctive work intact, in 1983 a wholly revised two-volume work, titled The New Oxford Companion to Music, was introduced.
This was edited by Denis Arnold who made use of other specialist contributors. The work was significantly broader in coverage than Scholes original, and is the most extensively illustrated of the three versions, Arnold expressed his intention of adhering to Scholes’ principles and indeed included much of Scholes’ material in the new work. Nevertheless, he cut out much of the opinion and quirkiness which was characteristic of the original. For instance, he increased the coverage of female composers and performers. There were no revisions of this version, probably due to its relative unpopularity. In 2002, a work was produced
The Times is a British daily national newspaper based in London, England. It began in 1785 under the title The Daily Universal Register, the Times and its sister paper The Sunday Times are published by Times Newspapers, since 1981 a subsidiary of News UK, itself wholly owned by News Corp. The Times and The Sunday Times do not share editorial staff, were founded independently and have only had common ownership since 1967 and its news and its editorial comment have in general been carefully coordinated, and have at most times been handled with an earnest sense of responsibility. While the paper has admitted some trivia to its columns, its emphasis has been on important public affairs treated with an eye to the best interests of Britain. To guide this treatment, the editors have for long periods been in touch with 10 Downing Street. In these countries, the newspaper is often referred to as The London Times or The Times of London, although the newspaper is of national scope, in November 2006 The Times began printing headlines in a new font, Times Modern.
The Times was printed in broadsheet format for 219 years, the Sunday Times remains a broadsheet. The Times had a daily circulation of 446,164 in December 2016, in the same period. An American edition of The Times has been published since 6 June 2006 and it has been heavily used by scholars and researchers because of its widespread availability in libraries and its detailed index. A complete historical file of the paper, up to 2010, is online from Gale Cengage Learning. The Times was founded by publisher John Walter on 1 January 1785 as The Daily Universal Register, Walter had lost his job by the end of 1784 after the insurance company where he was working went bankrupt because of the complaints of a Jamaican hurricane. Being unemployed, Walter decided to set a new business up and it was in that time when Henry Johnson invented the logography, a new typography that was faster and more precise. Walter bought the patent and to use it, he decided to open a printing house. The first publication of the newspaper The Daily Universal Register in Great Britain was 1 January 1785, unhappy because people always omitted the word Universal, Ellias changed the title after 940 editions on 1 January 1788 to The Times.
In 1803, Walter handed ownership and editorship to his son of the same name, the Times used contributions from significant figures in the fields of politics, science and the arts to build its reputation. For much of its life, the profits of The Times were very large. Beginning in 1814, the paper was printed on the new steam-driven cylinder press developed by Friedrich Koenig, in 1815, The Times had a circulation of 5,000. Thomas Barnes was appointed editor in 1817
Plastic arts are art forms which involve physical manipulation of a plastic medium by moulding or modeling such as sculpture or ceramics. The term has applied more broadly to all the visual arts. Materials for use in the arts, in the narrower definition, include those that can be carved or shaped, such as stone or wood, concrete. Plastics meaning certain synthetic organic resins have been used ever since they were invented, the term should not be confused with Piet Mondrians concept of Neoplasticism. Visual arts Media Art materials Recording medium Handicraft Plastic in art Barnes, the Art in Painting, 3rd ed.1937, Brace & World, Inc. OCLC1572753 Bukumirovic, D. Maga Magazinovic, biblioteka Fatalne srpkinje knj. br.4. Between the pictorial and the expression of ideas, the plastic arts, enciclopedia de las artes plásticas dominicanas, 1844-2000