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Music journalism

Music journalism is media criticism and reporting about music topics, including popular music, classical music and traditional music. Journalists began writing about music in the eighteenth century, providing commentary on what is now regarded as classical music. In the 1960s, music journalism began more prominently covering popular music like rock and pop after the breakthrough of The Beatles. With the rise of the internet in the 2000s, music criticism developed an large online presence with music bloggers, aspiring music critics, established critics supplementing print media online. Music journalism today includes reviews of songs and live concerts, profiles of recording artists, reporting of artist news and music events. Music journalism has its roots in classical music criticism, which has traditionally comprised the study, discussion and interpretation of music, composed and notated in a score and the evaluation of the performance of classical songs and pieces, such as symphonies and concertos.

Before about the 1840s, reporting on music was either done by musical journals, such as the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung and the Neue Zeitschrift für Musik, in London journals such as The Musical Times. An influential English 19th-century music critic, for example, was James William Davison of The Times; the composer Hector Berlioz wrote reviews and criticisms for the Paris press of the 1830s and 1840s. Modern art music journalism is informed by music theory consideration of the many diverse elements of a musical piece or performance, including its form and style, for performance, standards of technique and expression; these standards were expressed, for example, in journals such as Neue Zeitschrift für Musik founded by Robert Schumann, are continued today in the columns of serious newspapers and journals such as The Musical Times. Several factors—including growth of education, the influence of the Romantic movement and in music, among others—led to an increasing interest in music among non-specialist journals, an increase in the number of critics by profession of varying degrees of competence and integrity.

The 1840s could be considered a turning point, in that music critics after the 1840s were not practicing musicians. However, counterexamples include Alfred Brendel, Charles Rosen, Paul Hindemith, Ernst Krenek. In the early 1980s, a decline in the quantity of classical criticism began occurring "when classical-music criticism visibly started to disappear" from the media. At that time, magazines such as Time and Vanity Fair employed classical music critics, but by the early 1990s, classical critics were dropped in many magazines, in part due to "a decline of interest in classical music among younger people". Of concern in classical music journalism was how American reviewers can write about ethnic and folk music from cultures other than their own, such as Indian ragas and traditional Japanese works. In 1990, the World Music Institute interviewed four New York Times music critics who came up with the following criteria on how to approach ethnic music: A review should relate the music to other kinds of music that readers know, to help them understand better what the program was about.

"The performers be treated as human beings and their music be treated as human activity rather than a mystical or mysterious phenomenon." The review should show an understanding of the music's cultural intentions. A key finding in a 2005 study of arts journalism in America was that the profile of the "average classical music critic is a white, 52-year old male, with a graduate degree". Demographics indicated that the group was 74% male, 92% white, 64% had earned a graduate degree. One critic of the study pointed out that because all newspapers were included, including low-circulation regional papers, the female representation of 26% misrepresented the actual scarcity, in that the "large US papers, which are the ones that influence public opinion, have no women classical music critics", with the notable exceptions of Anne Midgette in the New York Times and Wynne Delacoma in the Chicago Sun-Times. In 2007, The New York Times wrote that classical music criticism, which it characterized as "a high-minded endeavor, around at least as long as newspapers", had undergone "a series of hits in recent months" with the elimination, downgrading, or redefinition of critics' jobs at newspapers in Atlanta and elsewhere, citing New York magazine's Peter G. Davis, "one of the most respected voices of the craft, said he had been forced out after 26 years".

Viewing "robust analysis and reportage as vital to the health of the art form", The New York Times stated in 2007 that it continued to maintain "a staff of three full-time classical music critics and three freelancers", noting that classical music criticism had become available on blogs, that a number of other major newspapers "still have full-time classical music critics", including the Los Angeles Times, The Washington Post, The Baltimore Sun, The Philadelphia Inquirer, The Boston Globe. Music writers only started "treating pop and rock music seriously" in 1964 "after the breakthrough of the Beatles". In their

Christian contemplation

Christian contemplation, from contemplatio, refers to several Christian practices which aim at "looking at", "gazing at", "being aware of" God or the Divine. It includes several practices and theological concepts, until the sixth century the practice of what is now called mysticism was referred to by the term contemplatio, c.q. theoria. Christianity took up the use of both the Greek and Latin terminology to describe various forms of prayer and the process of coming to know God. Eastern and Western traditions of Christianity grew apart as they incorporated the general notion of theoria into their respective teachings; the Catechism of the Catholic Church states that, "the Christian tradition comprises three major expressions of the life of prayer: vocal prayer and contemplative prayer. They have in common the recollection of the heart." Three stages are discerned in contemplative practice, namely purgative contemplation, contemplation proper, the vision of God. The Greek theoria, from which the English word "theory" is derived, meant "contemplation, speculation, a looking at, things looked at", from theorein "to consider, look at", from theoros "spectator", from thea "a view" + horan "to see".

It expressed the state of being a spectator. Both Greek θεωρία and Latin contemplatio meant looking at things, whether with the eyes or with the mind. Commenting on Aristotle's view of the lack of practical usefulness of the contemplation of theoria, Orthodox theologian Fr. Andrew Louth said: The word theoria is derived from a verb meaning to look, or to see: for the Greeks, knowing was a kind of seeing, a sort of intellectual seeing. Contemplation is knowledge, knowledge of reality itself, as opposed to knowing how: the kind of know-how involved in getting things done. To this contrast between the active life and contemplation there corresponds a distinction in our understanding of what it is to be human between reason conceived as puzzling things out, solving problems and making decisions - referred to by the Greek words phronesis and dianoia, or in Latin by ratio - and reason conceived as receptive of truth, looking - referred to by the Greek words theoria or sophia or nous, or in Latin intellectus.

Augustine expressed this distinction by using scientia for the kind of knowledge attained by ratio, sapientia, for the kind of knowledge received by intellectus. Human intelligence operates at two levels: a basic level concerned with doing things, another level concerned with beholding, knowing reality. According to William Johnston, until the sixth century the practice of what is now called mysticism was referred to by the term contemplatio, c.q. theoria. According to Johnston, "oth contemplation and mysticism speak of the eye of love, looking at, gazing at, aware of divine realities."Several scholars have demonstrated similarities between the Greek idea of theoria and the Indian idea of darśana, including Ian Rutherford and Gregory Grieve. The term theoria was used by the ancient Greeks to refer to the act of experiencing or observing, comprehending through nous. For Plato, what the contemplative contemplates are the Forms, the realities underlying the individual appearances, one who contemplates these atemporal and aspatial realities is enriched with a perspective on ordinary things superior to that of ordinary people.

Philip of Opus viewed theoria as contemplation of the stars, with practical effects in everyday life similar to those that Plato saw as following from contemplation of the Forms. Aristotle, on the other hand, separated the spectating of theoria from practical purposes, saw it as an end in itself, the highest activity of man. To indicate that it is the philosopher who devotes himself to pursuits most worthy of a free man, Heraclides of Pontus compared him to a spectator at the Olympic spectacle: unlike the other participants, he does not seek either glory, as does the competitor, or money, as does the businessman. Aristotle used the same image: As we go to the Olympian festival for the sake of the spectacle if nothing more should come of it – for the theoria itself is more precious than money. For we would not go to such trouble to see men imitating women and slaves, or athletes fighting and running, not consider it right to theorize without payment the nature and truth of reality. Indeed, Andrea Wilson Nightingale says that Aristotle considers that those who, instead of pursuing theoria for its own sake, would put it to useful ends would be engaging in theoria in the wrong way, Richard Kraut says that, for Aristotle, theoretical activity alone has limitless value.

Thomas Louis Schubeck says that, in Aristotle's view, the knowledge that guides ethical political activity does not belong to theoria. "Leading a contemplative life can be considered Aristotle's answer to the question what life humans ought to live. … The more humans engage in contemplation, the closer they are to their gods and the more perfect will be their happiness."Aristotle's view that the best life would be a purely contemplative one was disputed by the Stoics and others, such as the Epicureans, who saw speculation as inferior to practical ethics. Middle Platonism and Neoplatonism considered contemplation superior and saw as its goal the knowledge of God or union with hi

Edie Huggins

Edie Huggins was an American television reporter and broadcaster. In 1966 Huggins became one of the first African-American women to report on television in Philadelphia, remaining a fixture on WCAU-TV for 42 years. Huggins was born Edith "Eddie" Lou Thompson on August 14, 1935, in Missouri, she became known as Edie in life. She graduated from Bartlett High School in St. Joseph in 1953. Huggins, who still went by her given name of Edith at the time, graduated cum laude with a bachelor's degree in science from the State University of New York at Plattsburgh. Huggins began her career by working as a registered nurse in New York City, she was employed by Flower Fifth Avenue Hospital. Huggins was hired as a consultant for the NBC daytime soap opera, The Doctors, which began airing in 1963, her consulting working soon led to acting roles on the drama. Her other soap opera acting credits included Love of Life and The Edge of Night which were aired on CBS. Huggins was cast in the 1966 film, A Man Called Adam opposite Sammy Davis Jr, Ossie Davis, Frank Sinatra, Jr. and Louis Armstrong.

Huggins was hired as a features reporter at WCAU-TV of Philadelphia in 1966 for a show called The Big News Team with John Facenda following a chance encounter with a broadcast executive in a New York City restaurant. That executive was Bruce Bryan, the general manager of WCAU-TV, or Channel 10, a CBS network affiliate at the time. Huggins, a single mother, arrived in Philadelphia for her new job with her two children and just 65 dollars. In a 2006 interview for her 40th anniversary with WCAU, Huggins confided that she had been hired despite a lack on-air, live television experience, she stated that the reason that she was hired was to compete against the then-local NBC affiliate, KYW-TV, which had just hired its first African American woman reporter, Trudy Haynes. Huggins, made history when she joined WCAU by becoming the station's first African American female reporter. Following her success on WCAU, the management of the television station gave Huggins her own show, Morning Side. Huggins co-hosted a midday news show called What's Happening during the early 1970s with the late Herb Clarke, weatherman.

Her other shows on WCAU included Horizons and Huggins' Heroes, which focused on ordinary local people who had accomplished notable achievements for the benefit of the larger community. Huggins Heroes became a weekly profile feature on WCAU news broadcasts during the 1990s and 2000s, highlighted Huggins's reputation as a reporter who focused on "unsung heroes" throughout the Philadelphia region. In 2006, the Philadelphia City Council honored Huggins on her 40th anniversary at WCAU by proclaiming "Edie Huggins Day" in the city. "Edie Huggins Day" was proclaimed with a resolution on March 30, 2006. Huggins's other career honors included her induction into the Philadelphia Broadcast Pioneers Hall of Fame, she was chosen by the Urban League of Philadelphia as one of the "Outstanding African American Philadelphians of the 20th century." She was honored by the Philadelphia Chapter of American Women in Radio & Television as Communicator of the Year, awarded a lifetime achievement award by the Philadelphia Association of Black Journalists and earned an award from the National Academy of Television Arts & Sciences.

Huggins was a founding member of the National Association of Black Journalists. Professionally, Huggins was cited by colleagues as a mentor and was affectionately referred to as "Miss Edie" by younger reporters and staff throughout the Philadelphia television news industry. In 2006, Huggins was cast in the lead role in the independent film, So Big; the film debuted on May 2008, at International House in Philadelphia. The Broadcast Pioneers of Philadelphia inducted Edie Huggins into their Hall of Fame in 2002. Edie Huggins died of lung cancer on July 29, 2008, at the age of 72, she was survived by Hastings Edward Huggins and Laurie Linn. A memorial service held at Huggins's church, Bright Hope Baptist Church, in North Philadelphia was attended by many members of Philadelphia's media, she is interred at Mausoleum of Peace 75 of West Laurel Hill Cemetery in Bala Cynwyd. MSNBC: Huggins Says She Wants To Be Remembered As Someone Who Cares Broadcast Pioneers of Philadelphia website

Reagan Dunn

Reagan Dunn is a member of the King County Council, representing the ninth district of King County, Washington. He was appointed to the council in 2005, after Councilmember Rob McKenna was elected State Attorney General. Dunn was elected to his first full term in November 2005, he was re-elected in November 2009 with 77 percent of the vote. He is a son of former U. S. Congresswoman Jennifer Dunn, who raised Dunn and his brother, he grew up in Washington. Dunn graduated from Arizona State University with his undergraduate degree. In 1998, he earned his J. D. from University of Washington School of Law. After graduating from University of Washington, Dunn joined the law firm of Inslee, Doezie & Ryder, P. S. in Bellevue. In 2001, Dunn was appointed by President George W. Bush to serve in the United States Department of Justice as Senior Counsel to the Director for the Executive Office of United States Attorneys. In this capacity, he was the first National Coordinator of Project Safe Neighborhoods, which he helped to author.

He served as Counsel to the Assistant Attorney General for the Office of Justice Programs and Attorney Advisor for the Department of Justice's Office of Public Affairs. Following the September 11, 2001 attacks against the United States, Dunn was a Department of Justice delegate on President Bush's Task Force on Citizen Preparedness, where he helped form the USA Freedom Corps, Citizen Corps, the Volunteers in Police Service Program and led efforts to expand the National Neighborhood Watch Program to include terrorism awareness. Dunn participated in the investigation of Zacharias Moussaoui in the Eastern District of Virginia. Dunn was appointed to the King County Council in 2005, elected to the position that same year. In 2012, he ran for Washington State Attorney General, he received 47 percent of the vote. Dunn lives in Washington with his two children. In 2014, Dunn pleaded guilty in Kittitas County to driving under the influence. Http://reagandunn.com/about.html http://www.kingcounty.gov/dunn.aspx

Merle Haggard

Merle Ronald Haggard was an American country singer, songwriter and fiddler. Haggard was born in Oildale, during the Great Depression, his childhood was troubled after the death of his father, he was incarcerated several times in his youth. After being released from San Quentin State Prison in 1960, he managed to turn his life around and launch a successful country music career, he gained popularity with his songs about the working class that contained themes contrary to the prevailing anti-Vietnam War sentiment of much popular music of the time. Between the 1960s and the 1980s, he had 38 number-one hits on the US country charts, several of which made the Billboard all-genre singles chart. Haggard continued to release successful albums into the 2000s, he received many honors and awards for his music, including a Kennedy Center Honor, a Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award, a BMI Icon Award, induction into the Nashville Songwriters Hall of Fame, Country Music Hall of Fame and Oklahoma Music Hall of Fame.

He died on April 6, 2016 — his 79th birthday — at his ranch in Shasta County, having suffered from double pneumonia. Haggard's last recording, a song called "Kern River Blues," described his departure from Bakersfield in the late 1970s and his displeasure with politicians; the song was recorded February 9, 2016, features his son Ben on guitar. This record was released on May 12, 2016. Haggard's parents were Flossie Mae Haggard and James Francis Haggard, both were of Scottish descent; the family moved to California from their home in Checotah, during the Great Depression, after their barn burned in 1934. They settled with their two elder children and Lillian, in an apartment in Bakersfield, while James started working for the Santa Fe Railroad. A woman who owned a boxcar placed in Oildale, a nearby town, asked Haggard's father about the possibility of converting it into a house, he remodeled the boxcar, soon after moved in purchasing the lot, where Merle Ronald Haggard was born on April 6, 1937.

The property was expanded by building a bathroom, a second bedroom, a kitchen, a breakfast nook in the adjacent lot. His father died of a brain hemorrhage in 1945, an event that affected Haggard during his childhood and the rest of his life. To support the family, his mother worked as a bookkeeper; when Merle was 12, his brother, gave him his used guitar. Haggard learned to play alone, with the records he had at home, influenced by Bob Wills, Lefty Frizzell, Hank Williams; as his mother was absent due to work, Haggard became progressively rebellious. His mother sent him for a weekend to a juvenile detention center to change his attitude, but it worsened. Haggard committed a number of minor offenses, such as writing bad checks, he was sent to a juvenile detention center for shoplifting in 1950. When he was 14, Haggard ran away to Texas with his friend Bob Teague, he hitchhiked throughout the state. When he returned the same year, he and his friend were arrested for robbery. Haggard and Teague were released.

Haggard was sent to the juvenile detention center, from which he and his friend escaped again to Modesto, California. He worked a series of laborer jobs, including driving a potato truck, being a short order cook, a hay pitcher, an oil well shooter, his debut performance was with Teague in a Modesto bar named "Fun Center", for which he was paid US$5 and given free beer. He returned to Bakersfield in 1951 and was again arrested for truancy and petty larceny and sent to a juvenile detention center. After another escape, he was sent to the Preston School of a high-security installation, he was released 15 months but was sent back after beating a local boy during a burglary attempt. After Haggard's release, he and Teague saw Lefty Frizzell in concert. After hearing Haggard sing along to his songs backstage, Frizzell refused to sing unless Haggard was allowed to sing first, he sang songs. Because of this positive reception, Haggard decided to pursue a career in music. While working as a farmhand or in oil fields, he played in nightclubs.

Married and plagued by financial issues, he was arrested in 1957 shortly after he tried to rob a Bakersfield roadhouse. He was sent to Bakersfield Jail, after an escape attempt, was transferred to San Quentin Prison on February 21, 1958. While in prison, Haggard learned that his wife was expecting another man's child, which pressed him psychologically, he was fired from a series of prison jobs, planned to escape along with another inmate nicknamed "Rabbit" but was convinced not to escape by fellow inmates. While at San Quentin, Haggard started a brewing racket with his cellmate. After he was caught drunk, he was sent for a week to solitary confinement where he encountered Caryl Chessman, an author and death-row inmate. Meanwhile, "Rabbit" had escaped, only to shoot a police officer and be returned to San Quentin for execution. Chessman's predicament, along with the execution of "Rabbit," inspired Haggard to change his life, he soon earned a high school equivalency diploma and kept a steady job in the prison's textile plant.

He played for the prison's country music band, attributing a performance by Johnny Cash at the prison on New Year's Day 1959 as his main inspiration to join it. He was released from San Quentin on parole in 1960. In 1972, after Haggard had become an established country music star, then-California governor Ronald Reagan granted Haggard a full and unconditional pardon for his past crimes. Upon his release from San Quentin in 1960, Haggard started diggin

Dragon Ball FighterZ

Dragon Ball FighterZ is a 2D fighting game developed by Arc System Works and published by Bandai Namco Entertainment. Based on the Dragon Ball franchise, it was released for the PlayStation 4, Xbox One, Microsoft Windows in most regions in January 2018, in Japan the following month, was released worldwide for the Nintendo Switch in September 2018. Dragon Ball FighterZ received positive reviews from critics, with many citing the game as one of the best fighting games released in the eighth generation of video game consoles; the game's fighting system, character roster and music were all praised while its story mode and online functionality were subject to criticism. The gameplay is inspired by concepts from several other fighting games, namely the control scheme and team mechanics. Players each select three characters to form a team, from an initial roster of characters from the Dragon Ball franchise. One character can be switched with one of the other characters at any time. Players can call one of their other characters to perform an "Assist" move, allowing simultaneous attacks and combos with the entire team.

All three of the opponent's characters must be defeated to win the game. In addition to the unique moves of each character, players have several universal moves available. With the "Vanish Attack", the player can expend Ki to teleport behind an opponent's character and strike them in the back; this has multiple uses, from bypassing enemy projectiles to moving around the stage, or extending a combo. The "Dragon Rush" move can break through an opponent's guard and if successful, offers a choice between an aerial combo or forcing the opponent to switch to a different character; the "Super Dash" flying attack will home in on the opponent's lead character and is able to pass through weaker projectiles. Lastly, players can "Ki Charge" to manually increase their Ki gauge, similar to previous Dragon Ball fighting games; the game includes several other features, such as "Come on Shenron!", that allows players to gather the Dragon Balls one by one as the fight progresses by special moves and combos. Once all seven are assembled and a player performs a specific attack under certain conditions, Shenron appears to grant a wish and allows players to choose one among the following benefits: increasing their fighter's strength, reviving a fallen ally, recovering a fighter's health or regenerating health for the rest of the match.

Another feature is the "Dramatic Finishes", special cutscenes that appear at the end of a fight depending on the characters involved and stage, related to events from the Dragon Ball series, which can be applied after using Standing Hard normal attack or Vanish as the finisher/combo ender. Dragon Ball FighterZ features a ranking system in both its arcade mode as well as in online multiplayer, where players increase their rank with subsequent wins; the base roster includes 21 playable characters, with three additional characters being unlockable through gameplay and a further eight being released as paid downloadable content. Android 21 is a new character exclusive to the game, designed by series creator Akira Toriyama. Another wave of six paid downloadable characters, known as "FighterZ Pass 2", was released on January 31, 2019, while the rest of its DLC fighters were released over the months. At the Dragon Ball FighterZ World Tour Finals 2019, a third season of five DLC fighters was announced.

The total number of characters so far is 40, with three more to be announced. ^Z Unlockable characters The game takes place sometime between "Universe 6" and "Future Trunks" arcs of Dragon Ball Super. The game's main antagonist, Android 21, was a normal human who became an Android created by the Red Ribbon Army after her son became the model for Android 16. Once she awakens, she repairs 16 and uses the Dragon Balls to resurrect Frieza, Cell and the Ginyu Force, seals away the powers and souls of all of Earth's strongest warriors. Wanting to control the hungry monster within her, she and 16 develop a linking system created by Dr. Gero in which a human soul can possess the warriors and provide them strength; the player possesses Goku and awakens next to Bulma, who asks him to confront the Earth's current crisis. Clones of the other fighters and villains have been appearing and the other Z Warriors are nowhere to be seen. After confronting the resurrected 16, Beerus and Whis arrive to explain the soul's link to Goku.

Goku and Bulma leave to find 16 and the other Z warriors. Goku rescues Krillin, they battle Cell who appears to have knocked out 18 and endangered an unknown woman; the woman claims to be a Red Ribbon scientist and informs them that they need to find the base emitting the power-suppressing waves to restore their abilities. The reunited Z Fighters confront 16, where he explains that the Red Ribbon Army's current leader, Android 21, is behind everything; the scientist Goku and Krillin saved from Cell earlier arrives and reveals herself to be Android 21. She knocks out Goku when he tries to follow her; the player possesses Cell's body and battles 21 before returning to Goku's body again. 21 decides to wait for Goku and his friends to grow stronger. Goku brings her and the other Z Fighters to the Sacred World of the Kai to protect Earth from the fight. With their combined power and the Z Fighters obliterate 21. Whis expresses his disappointment over the unanswered questions about Android 21. 16 implants the player's soul within the revived Frieza, much to the tyrant's ire.

Frieza recruits the resurrected Nappa, Ginyu Force, Cell to battle the clones and confront