Egyptian National Police
Egyptian National Police or ENP is a department of the Ministry of Interior of Egypt. In the early Twentieth Century, holder of the post of Interior Minister was called: "The Interior Superintendent"; the title was used until 1919 when World War I broke out and Britain declared Egypt as a protectorate. As a consequence, some political posts and titles were changed and the "superintendent" was among the titles included. Tahseen Rushdi Bashi was the first person to hold the title of Interior Minister in Egypt; as time went on, many Prime Ministers assumed the post of Interior Minister – in addition to their Premiership- being among the posts having major control over the internal events. The post enabled its holder to control elections, select executives and have an eye on political opponents; when Saad Zaghloul Pasha assumed the Interior Minister post in 1934 – along with his premiership- the Ministry was characterized with a political trend. He tended to dismiss persons who opposed his ideas and began to employ and promote those who struggled with him.
Since, for a long time, the Ministry employees were left under the mercy of political changes and election results. But when the famous thinker and lawyer Mr. Ahmed Lutfi el-Sayed was appointed as an Interior Minister, stability prevailed the Ministry; when Egypt was proclaimed a republic in 1953, Gamal Abdel Nasser. Interior Minister's post – like other major posts in Egypt- was assumed for a long time by non-Egyptian ministers with no police or security background, it is a must that the Interior Minister be a descendant of Egyptian parents and a graduate of Police College. Premiers are no longer capable of assuming both posts as Interior Minister's post has become separate due to the enormous and significant tasks it entails; the Interior Minister has to relinquish his title as a police general and his name is only preceded by the title. The Ministry of Interior divides the functions of the police and public security among four Deputy Ministers of Interior while the Minister of Interior himself retained responsibility for state security and overall organization.
There are four Deputy Ministers: Public Security responsible for public safety, Immigration, port security, criminal investigation. Special Police responsible for prison administration, the Central Security Forces, civil defense, police transport, police communications, traffic police, Tourism and Antiquities Police. Personnel Affairs was responsible for police-training institutions, personnel matters for police and civilian employees, the Policemen's Sports Association. Administrative and Financial Affairs responsible for general administration, budgets and legal matters. In each of the 27 Governorates of Egypt, the presidentially appointed governor and a director of police command all police and maintain public order. Both the governor and the director of police report to the Ministry of Interior on all security matters; the governor reports directly to the minister or to a deputy while the director of police reports through regular police channels. In the governorate's subdivisions there are district police commandants with the authority and functions that were similar to the director at the governorate level.
The urban police have more modern facilities and equipment, such as computers and communications equipment, while the smaller more remote village police have less sophisticated facilities and equipment. The police became motorised and it is now rare to see an officer on foot patrol except in city or town centres, rarely alone. An increasing number of urban centres police bicycle units are used to provide a quick response in congested areas, pedestrianised areas and parkland, as well as carrying out patrols. All commissioned officers were graduates of the Police Academy at Cairo where police had to complete four years at the academy; the Police Academy is a modern institution equipped with laboratory and physical-training facilities. The police force sent some officers abroad for schooling; the Police Academy offers a four-year program which includes: security administration, criminal investigation, military drills, civil defense, fire fighting, forensic medicine, cryptology, first aid, sociology and foreign languages.
Included are: political orientation, public relations, military subjects, marksmanship and field exercises. Graduates are commissioned first lieutenants. Advanced officer training was given at the Academy's Institute for Advanced Police Studies, completion of, required for advancement beyond the rank of lieutenant colonel; the academy's three-month course for enlisted personnel is conducted in a military atmosphere but emphasizes police methods and techniques. Some police officers the special operations officers, are well trained by the Egyptian Armed Forces in Al-Sa'ka Military School. Egyptian police rank insignia are the same as those used by the Egyptian Army. Commissioned police ranks resemble those of the Egyptian Army; the highest-ranking Egyptian police officer is a Lieutenant General and officer ranks descend only to first lieutenant. Enlisted police ranks include master sergeant, sergeant and private. Egyptian police uniforms are similar t
Transport in Egypt
Transport in Egypt is centered in Cairo and follows the pattern of settlement along the Nile. The Ministry of Transportation and other government bodies are responsible for transportation in Egypt, whether by sea, land or air. With regards to rail and waterway travel, the main line of the nation's rail system follows along the Nile river and is operated by Egyptian National Railways. In addition to overseas routes, Egypt Air provides domestic air service to major tourist destinations from its Cairo hub; the Nile River system and the principal canals are important locally for transportation. People still travel via the Nile between Cairo and Aswan; the Suez Canal is a major waterway for international commerce and navigation, linking the Mediterranean and Red Sea. Major ports are Alexandria, Port Said, Damietta on the Mediterranean and Suez and Safaga on the Red Sea. With regards to driving, Egypt has one of the highest incidents of road fatalities, per miles driven, in the world; the badly maintained road network has expanded to over 21,000 miles, covering the Nile Valley and Nile Delta and Red Sea coasts, the Sinai and the Western oasis.
Traffic rules are ignored by impatient drivers. Two routes in the Trans-African Highway network originate in Cairo. Egypt has multiple highway links with Asia through the Arab Mashreq International Road Network. Egypt has connecting Cairo with Alexandria and other cities. Though most of the transport in the country is still done on the national highways, motorways are becoming an option in road transport within the country; the existing motorways in the country are: Cairo - Alexandria Desert Road: It runs between Cairo and Alexandria, with an extension of 215 km, it is the main motorway in Egypt. International Coastal Road: It runs from Alexandria to Port Said, along the Northern Nile Delta, it has a length of 280 km. Amongst other cities, it connects Damietta and Baltim. Geish Road: It runs between Helwan and Asyut, along the Nile River connecting Beni Suef and Minya, its length is 306 km. Ring Road: It serves as an inner ring-road for Cairo, it has a length of 103 km. Regional Ring Road: It serves as an outer ring road for Cairo connecting its suburbs like Helwan and 10th of Ramadan City.
Its length is 130 km. Plus, Egypt has developed an extensive system of 4-lane highways that can be classified as freeways, because they serve as normal roads and do not discriminate the traffic on it, thus rendering them slower than motorways; the Egyptian railway system is the oldest railway network in the Middle East. The first line between Alexandria and Kafer Eassa was opened in 1854. In 2018, the system is operated by the Egyptian National Railways. ENR carries 12 million tonnes of freight annually. A major investment programme was planned to begin in 2007 with the aim of modernizing the rail network and improving safety standards. Trains are a safe means of transportation in Egypt; the city of Cairo is served by the Cairo Metro, run by the National Authority for Tunnels. In addition to the city of Alexandria, served by the Alexandria Tram There are 3,500 km of waterways in Egypt, including the Nile, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, many smaller canals in the Nile Delta; the Suez Canal, 193.5 km, is used by oceangoing vessels, drawing up to 17.68 m of water.
As of 2018 the information in the CIA World Factbook states the following regarding Egypt's pipelines: "condensate 486 km. The specialized ports include 5 tourist seaports, 12 petroleum seaports, 6 mining seaports, 6 fishing seaports. Alexandria Port El-Dekheila Port Damietta Port Port Said Port East Port Said Port Arish Port Suez Port Petroleum Dock Port Adabiya Port Sokhna Port Nuwaiba Port Al-Tour Port Sharm El Sheikh Port Hurghada Port Safaga Port In 2018, the number of Egypt's sea vessels, according to the CIA World Factbook is 399 as follows: bulk carrier: 14 container ship: 8 general cargo: 33 petroleum tanker: 36 Other: 308 Cairo International Airport is used by numerous international airlines, including the country's own Egypt Air. In 2003, about 4.2 million passengers were carried on scheduled international flights. Total: 72 over 3,047 m: 15 2,438 to 3,047 m: 36 1,524 to 2,437 m: 15 914 to 1,523 m: 0 under 914 m: 6 total: 11 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 4 under 914 m: 3 7 Superjet Lines The Holding Company for Maritime and Land Transport List of bus companies in Egypt List of lighthouses in Egypt Map Egyptian National Railways The Holding Company for Maritime and Land Transport This article incorporates public domain material from the CIA World Factbook website https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/index.html
Egyptian cuisine makes heavy use of legumes and fruit from Egypt's rich Nile Valley and Delta. It shares similarities with the food of the Eastern Mediterranean region, such as rice-stuffed vegetables, grape leaves, shawerma and kofta. Examples of Egyptian dishes include ful medames, mashed fava beans. Pita bread, known locally as eish baladi is a staple of Egyptian cuisine, cheesemaking in Egypt dates back to the First Dynasty of Egypt, with domty being the most popular type of cheese consumed today. Common meats in Egyptian cuisine are rabbit, pigeon and duck. Lamb and beef are used for grilling. Offal is a popular fast food in cities, foie gras is a delicacy, prepared in the region since at least 2500 BCE. Fish and seafood are common in Egypt's coastal regions. A significant amount of Egyptian cuisine is vegetarian, due to both the high price of meat and the needs of the Coptic Christian community, whose religious restrictions require vegan diets for much of the year. Tea is the national drink of Egypt, beer is the most popular alcoholic beverage.
While Islam is the majority faith in Egypt and observant Muslims tend to avoid alcohol, alcoholic drinks are still available in the country. Popular desserts in Egypt include baqlawa and kunafa. Common ingredients in desserts include dates and almonds. Egyptian cuisine is notably conducive to vegetarian diets, as it relies on legume and vegetable dishes. Though food in Alexandria and the coast of Egypt tends to use a great deal of fish and other seafood, for the most part Egyptian cuisine is based on foods that grow out of the ground. Egypt's Red Sea ports were the main points of entry for spices to Europe. Easy access to various spices has, throughout the years, left its mark on Egyptian cuisine. Cumin is the most used spice. Other common spices include coriander, chili, bay leaves, parsley, cinnamon and cloves. Common meats featured in Egyptian cuisine are rabbit, pigeon and duck; these are boiled to make the broth for various stews and soups. Lamb and beef are the most common meats used for grilling.
Grilled meats such as kofta and grilled cutlets are categorically referred to as mashwiyat. Offal, variety meats, is popular in Egypt. Liver sandwiches, a specialty of Alexandria, are a popular fast-food in cities. Chopped-up pieces of liver fried with bell peppers, garlic and other spices are served in a baguette-like bread called eish fino. Cow and sheep brain are eaten in Egypt. Foie gras, a well-known delicacy, is still enjoyed today by Egyptians, its flavor is described as rich and delicate, unlike that of an ordinary duck or goose liver. Foie gras is sold whole, or is prepared into mousse, parfait, or pâté, may be served as an accompaniment to another food item, such as steak; the technique involves gavage, cramming food into the throat of domesticated ducks and geese, dates as far back as 2500 BC, when the ancient Egyptians began keeping birds for food. Cheese is thought to have originated in the Middle East. Two alabaster jars found at Saqqara, dating from the First Dynasty of Egypt, contained cheese.
These were placed in the tomb about 3,000 BC. They were fresh cheeses coagulated with acid or a combination of acid and heat. An earlier tomb, that of King Hor-Aha may have contained cheese which, based on the hieroglyphic inscriptions on the two jars, appears to be from Upper and Lower Egypt; the pots are similar to those used today. Although many rural people still make their own cheese, notably the fermented mish, mass-produced cheeses are becoming more common. Cheese is served with breakfast, it is included in several traditional dishes, in some desserts. Cheeses include the most widely-eaten in Egypt. Bread made from a simple recipe forms the backbone of Egyptian cuisine, it is consumed at all Egyptian meals. The local bread is a form of hearty, gluten-rich pita bread called eish baladi rather than the Arabic خبز ḫubz; the word "" comes from the Semitic root ع-ي-ش ʕ-Ī-Š with the meaning "to live, be alive." The word ʿayš itself has the meaning of "life, way of living.... In modern Egypt, the government subsidizes bread.
In 2008, a major food crisis caused ever-longer bread lines at government-subsidized bakeries where there would be none. Egyptian dissidents and outside observers of the former National Democratic Party regime criticized the bread subsidy as an attempt to buy off the Egyptian urban working classes in order to encourage acceptance of the authoritarian system. On a culinary level, bread is used as gamosa, a utensil, at the same time providing carbohydrates and protein to the Egyptian diet. Egyptians use bread to scoop up food and dips and to wrap kebabs, falafel, to keep the hands from becoming greasy. Most pita breads are baked at high temperatures, causing the flattened rounds of dough to pu
Tahtib is the term for a traditional stick-fighting martial art named fan a'nazaha wa-tahtib. The original martial version of tahtib evolved into an Egyptian folk dance with a wooden stick, it is described in English as a "stick dance", "cane dance", "stick-dancing game", or as ritual mock combat accompanied by music. Nowadays, the word tahtib encompasses both martial performance art, it is practiced today in Upper Egypt. A Nubian form of tahtib is performed for tourists in Aswan; the stick used in tahtib is about four feet in length and is called an asa, assaya, or nabboot. It is flailed in large figure-eight patterns across the body with such speed that the displacement of air is loudly discernible; the oldest traces of tahtib were found on engravings from the archaeological site of Abusir, an extensive necropolis of the Old Kingdom period, located in the south-western suburbs of Cairo. On some of the reliefs of the Pyramid of Sahure. Tahtib, with archery and wrestling, was among the three disciplines of warfare taught to soldiers.
Three of the 35 tombs of the Beni Hassan necropolis near the town of Minya, contain engravings showing scenes of tahtib. Similar engravings can be seen in the archaeological site of Tell el Amarna, some 60 km south of Minya. In addition to its role as military training, tahtib matches were popular among peasants and farmers; the first evidence of the festive representation of tahtib can only be seen in the New Empire, as shown by the engravings on the walls of Luxor and Saqqâra Early Christian writings mention tahtib as a leisure activity and a popular art performed by men during weddings and celebrations. It is believed that tahtib developed as a performance art in this civilian context; as with its combative counterpart, the dance form of tahtib was performed by men, but female versions were developed. In one form, the women imitate the males. Another female variant is performed flirtatiously and with less aggression; the latter, called ra's el assaya is incorporated into cabaret or Raqs sharqi performances.
The stick used for this dance is more lightweight and hooked at one end like a cane. It is embellished with metallic-coloured foil or sequins; the costume is a simple baladi dress. Performances include balancing the cane on the hip or shoulder. Music in tahtib features the mizmar; the right hand uses a heavier stick with a hooked head to beat out the dum which drive the heartbeat of the rhythm, while the left hand uses a light twig as a switch to produce rapid-fire staccato "taks". Modern tahtib is an attempt to re-explore the sources of tahtib as a fighting art, to enrich them as a martial practice by codifying the techniques and teaching them structurally; as in traditional tahtib, the main target is the opponent's head, as it is considered the most fragile and vulnerable part of the body. Techniques revolve around protecting one's own head while reaching the head of the opponent. Victory can be attained either by three touches to the body. Unlike its traditional counterpart, modern tahtib allows both women and men to practice in mixed groups.
Stick dance Beni Hasan by al.. Beni Hasan - Archaeowiki.org N. de G. Davies's "Rock Tombs of El Amarna", in openlibrary.org
Wildlife of Egypt
The wildlife of Egypt is composed of the flora and fauna of this country in northeastern Africa and southwestern Asia, is substantial and varied. Apart from the fertile Nile Valley, which bisects the country from south to north, the majority of Egypt's landscape is desert, with a few scattered oases, it has long coastlines on the Mediterranean Sea, the Gulf of Suez, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea. Each geographic region has a diversity of plants and animals each adapted to its own particular habitat. Egypt is bordered by Libya to the west and Sudan to the south. To the east lies the Red Sea, the Sinai Peninsula, the Asian part of the country, bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel. Egypt is a transcontinental nation, providing a land bridge between Asia; this is traversed by the Suez Canal which connects the Mediterranean Sea with the Indian Ocean by way of the Red Sea. This results in the flora and fauna having influences from both Africa and Asia, the marine life from both the Atlantic / Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea / Indian Ocean.
The River Nile enters Egypt as it flows through Lake Nasser, formed by the building of the Aswan Dam. In its lower reaches, the river is about the alluvial plain about 10 km wide; the annual flooding of the Nile no longer occurs and the fertility of the Nile Valley is now maintained by irrigation rather than the deposition of silt. Much of the Nile is bordered by flat land but in some places there are low cliffs. Where the river flows into the Mediterranean, there is an extensive fan-shaped delta area with channels and salt marshes. To the west of the Nile lies the Western Desert, occupying about two thirds of the area of the country, it consists of high stony and sandy plains with rocky plateaux in places. In the extreme southwest of the country on the border with Libya and Sudan, is Jebel Uweinat, a mountainous region and in the northwest lies the Qattara Depression, a large area of land some 133 m below sea level. Another depression, the Faiyum Oasis lies south west of Cairo and is connected to the Nile by a channel.
To the east of the Nile lies the much smaller Eastern Desert, a high mountain ridge running parallel with the Red Sea, seamed with wadis on either flank. At the border with Sudan this rises to the rocky massif of Gebel Elba; the Sinai Peninsula is a mountainous area cleft by canyon-like wadis that flow towards the Gulf of Aqaba, the Gulf of Suez and the Mediterranean Sea. In general, Egypt is a dry country; the Western Desert receives only occasional rainfall, the winters being mild and the summers hot. The Eastern Desert receives some precipitation in the south in the form of orographic rainfall from winds that have crossed the Red Sea; the winters here are mild and the summers hot, Gebel Elba is cooler and wetter than other parts. The northern areas of the country close to the coast, receive some precipitation from Mediterranean weather systems; the Nile is the lifeline of Egypt, the land bordering the river being rendered fertile by the irrigation it receives. Crops grown in the Nile Valley include cotton, sugarcane, oil seed crops and groundnuts.
Date palms grow here as well as sycamore and Acacia. Fruit trees are planted here and eucalyptus has been introduced; the rich delta soil is used for the cultivation of grapes and flowers. The papyrus reeds that used to line the river are now restricted to the far south of the country, as are the crocodiles and hippopotamuses that used to be plentiful. Large parts of the Western Desert are devoid of vegetation; the plants that do grow are adapted to the arid conditions and tend to be small and wiry, have small, leathery leaves, long shallow roots to exploit any available water, prickles or thorns to deter herbivores, sometimes thick stems or leaves to store water. They include acacia trees, succulents, spiny shrubs, grasses; some plants adopt an ephemeral life style, sprouting or springing into life when rain falls reaching the flowering stage and producing long-lived durable seed. In depressions in the Western Desert, some plant communities are dominated by Zygophyllum album, Nitraria retusa and Tamarix nilotica.
In the Siwa Oasis there are small lakes, reedbeds dominated by Phragmites australis and Typha domingensis, saltmarshes with Arthrocnemum macrostachyum, Juncus rigidus, Alhagi maurorum, Cladium mariscus and Cressa cretica. In the mountains of the Eastern Desert grows the tree Balanites aegyptiaca, the open patchy woodland being remnants of forests that used to cover this region. In the Gulf of Suez coastal area the rainfall is supplemented by condensation from clouds. Water may flow down runnels and collect in potholes. Here mosses and various vascular plants grow, Ficus pseudosycamorus and stunted date palms grow from cracks; the flora of the Sinai Peninsula mountains is varied and is of Irano-Turanian origin. Here soil and plant litter accumulates in crevices and depressions in the rock and provides anchorage for roots; the commonest plant is Artemisia inculta, rocky slopes support shrubs, semi-shrubs and trees. At one time Egypt had a cooler, wetter climate. Nor does the country have many endemic species, these being limited to the Egyptian weasel, pallid gerbil, Mackilligin's gerbil, Flower's shrew, Nile Delta toad, two but
Education in Egypt
In recent years the Government of Egypt has given greater priority to improving the education system. According to the Human Development Index, Egypt is ranked 115 in the HDI, 9 in the lowest 10 HDI countries in the Middle East and Northern Africa, in 2014. With the help of the World Bank and other multilateral organizations Egypt aims to increase access in early childhood to care and education and the inclusion of Information and Communication Technology at all levels of education at the tertiary level; the government is responsible for offering free education at all levels. The current overall expenditure on education is about 12.6 percent as of 2007. Investment in education as a percentage of GDP rose to 4.8 in 2005 but fell to 3.7 in 2007. The Ministry of Education is tackling a number of issues: trying to move from a centralized system to offering more autonomy to individual institutions, thereby increasing accountability; the public education system in Egypt consists of three levels: the basic education stage for 4–14 years old: kindergarten for two years followed by primary school for six years and preparatory school for three years.
The secondary school stage is for three years, for ages 15 to 17, followed by the tertiary level. Education is made compulsory for 9 academic years between the ages of 4 and 14. Moreover, all levels of education are free within any government run schools. According to the World Bank, there are great differences in educational attainment of the rich and the poor known as the "wealth gap." Although the median years of school completed by the rich and the poor is only one or two years but the wealth gap reaches as high as nine or ten years. In the case of Egypt, the wealth gap was a modest 3 years in the mid-1990s. Overall, the composite education Index in the MENA Flagship Report: The Road Not Traveled showed promising results of the people of singers relative educational achievements. Of the 14 MENA countries analyzed, Egypt achieved the education, bad over the years. There has been a lot of attacks in their schools. Egypt launched its National Strategic Plan for Pre-University Education Reform.
The Strategic Plan mirrors Egypt's commitment to a comprehensive and collective approach towards ensuring an education of quality for all and developing a knowledge society. Its key elements are: participation. Promotional examinations are held at all levels except in grades 6 and 9 at the basic education level and the grade 12 in the secondary stage, which apply standardized regional or national exams; the Ministry of Education is responsible for making decisions about the education system with the support of three Centers: the National Center of Curricula Development, the National Center for Education Research, the National Center for Examinations and Educational Evaluation. Each center has its own focus in formulating education policies with other state level committees. On the other hand, the Ministry of Higher Education supervises the higher education system. There is a formal teacher's qualification track in place for basic and secondary education levels; the teachers are required to complete four years of pre-service courses at university to enter the teaching profession.
With respect to teacher's professional development to raise mathematics and technology teaching standards, the Professional Academy for Teachers offer several programs. Local teachers take part in the international professional training programs. Starting in 2007, the Ministries of Education and Local Development started informal discussions to experiment with the decentralization of education. Working groups were established to make more formal proposals. Proposals included ideas for starting with recurrent expenditures, using a simple and transparent formula for carrying out fiscal transfers, making sure that transfers would reach the school itself. During 2008 design was carried out, three pilot governorates were chosen, monitoring and capacity building processes and manuals were agreed upon; the formula is quite simple, includes enrolment and stage of education as drivers. During 2009 funding was decentralized all the way to the school level, schools began to receive funding; as of late 2009, the pilot showed few if any problems, the expected results were materializing quite well, in terms of stimulating community participation, allowing schools to spend more efficiently and assess their own priorities, increasing the seriousness of school-based planning by creating a means to finance such plans, among other expected results.
An informal assessment of the pilot revealed that the funding formula money precipitated an increase in community donations. The survey results show that the ratio of the median values of community donations of the pilot year to the previous year was 2.20. Parallel to these efforts in the education sector, other sectors in Egypt are planning to decentralize decision-making and spending, now nationwide, in a phased approach. Education plans to be one of the lead sectors in this process. In addition to administrative and financial decentralization, there is an increasing emphasis on involving elected local popular councils in the horizontal oversight of expenditure and planning across the decentralizing sectors