The music of India includes multiple varieties of classical music, folk music, Indian rock, Indian pop and Punjabi Music. Indian pop and Indian rock are derived from western roll. India's classical music tradition, including Hindustani music and Carnatic, has a history spanning millennia and developed over several areas. Music in India began as an integral part of socio-religious life; the 30,000 years old paleolithic and neolithic cave paintings at the UNESCO world heritage site at Bhimbetka rock shelters in Madhya Pradesh shows music instruments and dance. Mesolithic and chalcolithic cave art of Bhimbhetka illustrates various musical instruments such as harp, gongs, daf etc. Dancing Girl sculpture was found from the Indus Valley Civilization site. There are IVC-era paintings on pottery of a man with a dhol hanging from his neck and a woman holding a drum under her left arm. Vedas document rituals with performing arts and play. For example, Shatapatha Brahmana has verses in chapter 13.2 written in the form of a play between two actors.
Tala or taal is an ancient music concept traceable to Vedic era texts of Hinduism, such as the Samaveda and methods for singing the Vedic hymns. Smriti post-vedic Hindu texts include Valmiki's Ramayana which mentions dance and music and singing by Gandharvas, several string instruments, wind instruments, vocal registers, poetry recitation in Bala Kanda and in Uttara Kanda by Luv and Kusha in marga style. Under the Khiljis, there were competitions between Hindustani and Carnatic musicians. Madhava Kandali, 14th century Assamese poet and writer of Saptakanda Ramayana, lists several instruments in his version of "Ramayana", such as mardala, bhemachi, gratal, tabal, jinjiri, bheri mahari, dosari, dotara, rudra-vipanchi, etc.. The Indian system of notation is the world's oldest and most elaborate. Pann is the melodic mode used by the Tamil people in their music since the ancient times; the ancient panns over centuries evolved first into a pentatonic scale and into the seven note Carnatic Sargam. But from the earliest times, Tamil Music is heptatonic and known as Ezhisai.
There are several references to music and Panns in the ancient pre-Sangam and Sangam literature starting from the earliest known work Tholkappiyam. Among Sangam literature, Mathuraikkanci refers to women singing sevvazhi pann to invoke the mercy of God during childbirth. In Tolkappiyam, the five landscapes of the Sangam literature had each an associated Pann, each describing the mood of the song associated with that landscape. Among the numerous panns that find mention in the ancient Tamil literature are, Ambal Pann, suitable to be played on the flute, sevvazhi pann on the Yazh and Sevvazhi expressing pathos, the captivating Kurinji pann and the invigorating Murudappann; the two main traditions of Indian classical music are Carnatic music, found predominantly in the peninsular regions, Hindustan music, found in the northern and central regions. The basic concepts of this music includes shruti, alankar and tala, its tonal system divides the octave into 22 segments called Shrutis, not all equal but each equal to a quarter of a whole tone of the Western music.
The tradition of Hindustani music dates back to Vedic times where the hymns in the Sama Veda, an ancient religious text, were sung as Samagana and not chanted. It diverged from Carnatic music around the 13th-14th centuries CE due to Islamic influences. Developing a strong and diverse tradition over several centuries, it has contemporary traditions established in India but in Pakistan and Bangladesh. In contrast to Carnatic music, the other main Indian classical music tradition originating from the South, Hindustani music was not only influenced by ancient Hindu musical traditions, historical Vedic philosophy and native Indian sounds but enriched by the Persian performance practices of the Mughals. Classical genres are dhrupad, khyal and sadra, there are several semi-classical forms. Carnatic music can be traced to the 14th - 15th centuries AD and thereafter, it originated in South India during the rule of Vijayanagar Empire through the Keerthanas composed by Purandara Dasa. Like Hindustani music, it is melodic, with improvised variations, but tends to have more fixed compositions.
It consists of a composition with improvised embellishments added to the piece in the forms of Raga Alapana, Neraval and, in the case of more advanced students, Tala, Pallavi. The main emphasis is on the vocals as most compositions are written to be sung, when played on instruments, they are meant to be performed in a singing style. Around 300 ragams are in use today. Annamayya is the first known composer in Carnatic music, he is regard
Cold Comfort Farm is a comic novel by English author Stella Gibbons, published in 1932. It parodies the romanticised, sometimes doom-laden accounts of rural life popular at the time, by writers such as Mary Webb. Following the death of her parents, the book's heroine, Flora Poste, finds she is possessed "of every art and grace save that of earning her own living", she decides to take advantage of the fact that "no limits are set, either by society or one's own conscience, to the amount one may impose on one's relatives", settles on visiting her distant relatives at the isolated Cold Comfort Farm in the fictional village of Howling in Sussex. The inhabitants of the farm – Aunt Ada Doom, the Starkadders, their extended family and workers – feel obliged to take her in to atone for an unspecified wrong once done to her father; as is typical in a certain genre of romantic 19th-century and early 20th-century literature, each of the farm's inhabitants has some long-festering emotional problem caused by ignorance, hatred, or fear, the farm is badly run.
Flora, being a level-headed, urban woman in the dandy tradition, determines that she must apply modern common sense to their problems and help them adapt to the 20th century – bringing metropolitan values into the sticks. As parody of the "loam and lovechild" genre, Cold Comfort Farm alludes to a number of novels both in the past and in vogue when Gibbons was writing. According to Faye Hammill's "Cold Comfort Farm, D. H. Lawrence, English Literary Culture Between the Wars", the works of Sheila Kaye-Smith and Mary Webb are the chief influence: she considered that the farm is modelled on Dormer House in Webb's The House in Dormer Forest, Aunt Ada Doom on Mrs. Velindre in the same book; the farm-obsessed Reuben's original is in Kaye-Smith's Sussex Gorse, the Quivering Brethren on the Colgate Brethren in Kaye-Smith's Susan Spray. Others see John Cowper Powys's rural mysticism as a further target, as featured in his Wessex novel Wolf Solent: "He felt as if he enjoyed at that hour some primitive life-feeling, identical with what those pollarded elms felt."
Sheila Kaye-Smith said to be one of the rural writers parodied by Gibbons in Cold Comfort Farm, arguably gets her own back with a tongue-in-cheek reference to Cold Comfort Farm within a subplot of A Valiant Woman, set in a modernising village. Upper middle-class teenager, turns from writing charming rural poems to a great Urban Proletarian Novel: "… all about people who aren't married going to bed in a Manchester slum and talking about the Means Test." Her philistine grandmother is dismayed: she prefers "cosy" rural novels, knows Lucia is ignorant of proletarian life: That silly child! Did she think she could write a novel? Well, of course, modern novels might encourage her to think so. There was nothing written nowadays worth reading; the book on her knee was called Cold Comfort Farm and had been written by a young woman, said to be clever and had won an important literary prize. But she couldn't get on with it at all, it was about life on a farm, but the girl knew nothing about country life.
To anyone who, like herself, had always lived in the country, the whole thing was too ridiculous and impossible for words. Elizabeth Janeway responded to the lush ruralism of Cider with Rosie by suggesting an astringent counterblast might be found by "looking for an old copy of Stella Gibbons's Cold Comfort Farm". In order of appearance: In London: Flora Poste: the heroine, a nineteen-year-old from London whose parents have died Mary Smiling: a widow, Flora's friend in London Charles Fairford: Flora's cousin in London, studying to become a parsonIn Howling village Sussex: Judith Starkadder: Flora's cousin, wife of Amos, with an unhealthy passion for her own son Seth Seth Starkadder: younger son of Amos and Judith and over-sexed, with a passion for the movies Ada Doom: Judith's mother, a reclusive, miserly widow, owner of the farm, who complains of having seen "something nasty in the woodshed" when she was a girl Adam Lambsbreath: 90-year-old farm hand, obsessed with his cows and with Elfine Mark Dolour: farm hand, father of Nancy Amos Starkadder: Judith's husband and hellfire preacher at the Church of the Quivering Brethren Amos's half-cousins: Micah, married to Susan.
Patrick McGinnity is a former professional Australian rules footballer who played for the West Coast Eagles in the Australian Football League. He was recruited from the Claremont Football Club in the West Australian Football League with the seventh pick in the 2008 Pre-Season Draft, made his debut for the club in round 15 of the 2009 AFL season, he was delisted at the end of the 2016 season. McGinnity was born in Perth to Delys McGinnity, his father played 59 games for the East Perth Football Club, his maternal grandfather, Alvin Whittle, played 108 games for the West Perth Football Club. McGinnity attended Trinity College and played junior football for the Marist Junior Football Club, he represented the state under-18 team at the 2007 AFL Under 18 Championships, was named on the interchange in the 2007 Under-18 All-Australian team. McGinnity was recruited with the seventh pick in the 2008 Pre-Season Draft, made his debut for the West Coast Eagles in 2009 against St Kilda, playing 7 games in his debut year and 17 in 2010.
In round one of the 2010 season, he was one of the Eagles' best, winning 24 disposals and kicking a goal. In 2011 he has continued to play in a tagging role. In August 2011, McGinnity was fined A$2500 and suspended by the West Coast Eagles for one match after allegations that he had threatened to "rape" Ricky Petterd's mother during the Eagles' round 21 match against Melbourne. McGinnity is most remembered as the player Collingwood captain Nick Maxwell controversially took out of the game through a illegal shepherd during a NAB Cup match in early 2009; as a result, McGinnity was out of the side for 10 weeks. For his part, Maxwell was suspended for four matches, but his club launched a successful appeal which saw Maxwell exonerated. McGinnity was delisted at the conclusion of the 2016 AFL season, having managed only three games during that season. Patrick McGinnity's profile on the official website of the West Coast Eagles Patrick McGinnity's playing statistics from AFL Tables Patrick McGinnity player profile page at WAFL FootyFacts