Music of Turkey

The music of Turkey includes Turkic elements as well as partial influences ranging from Central Asian folk music, Arabic music, Greek music, Ottoman music, Persian music and Balkan music, as well as references to more modern European and American popular music. Turkey is a country on the northeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, is a crossroad of cultures from across Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus and South and Central Asia The roots of traditional music in Turkey span across centuries to a time when the Seljuk Turks migrated to Anatolia and Persia in the 11th century and contains elements of both Turkic and pre-Turkic influences. Much of its modern popular music can trace its roots to the emergence in the early 1930s drive for Westernization. With the assimilation of immigrants from various regions the diversity of musical genres and musical instrumentation expanded. Turkey has seen documented folk music and recorded popular music produced in the ethnic styles of Greek, Albanian, Polish and Jewish communities, among others.

Many Turkish cities and towns have vibrant local music scenes which, in turn, support a number of regional musical styles. Despite this however, western-style pop music lost popularity to arabesque in the late 1970s and 1980s, with its greatest proponents, Ajda Pekkan and Sezen Aksu, falling in status, it became popular again by the beginning of the 1990s, as a result of an opening economy and society. With the support of Aksu, the resurging popularity of pop music gave rise to several international Turkish pop stars such as Tarkan and Sertab Erener; the late 1990s saw an emergence of underground music producing alternative Turkish rock, hip-hop and dance music in opposition to the mainstream corporate pop and arabesque genres, which many believe have become too commercial. Ottoman court music has a large and varied system of modes or scales known as makams, other rules of composition. A number of notation systems were used for transcribing classical music, the most dominant being the Hamparsum notation in use until the gradual introduction of western notation.

Turkish classical music is taught in conservatories and social clubs, the most respected of, Istanbul's Üsküdar Musiki Cemiyeti. A specific sequence of classical Turkish musical forms become a fasıl, a suite an instrumental prelude, an instrumental postlude, in between, the main section of vocal compositions which begins with and is punctuated by instrumental improvisations taksim. A full fasıl concert would include four different instrumental forms and three vocal forms, including a light classical song, şarkı. A classical fasıl remains is the same makam throughout, from the introductory taksim and ending in a dance tune or oyun havası; however shorter şarkı compositions, precursors to modern day songs, are a part of this tradition, many of them old, dating back to the 14th century. Composers and PerformersOther famous proponents of this genre include Sufi Dede Efendi, Prince Cantemir, Baba Hamparsum, Kemani Tatyos Efendi, Sultan Selim III and Sultan Suleyman the Magnificent; the most popular modern Turkish classical singer is Münir Nurettin Selçuk, the first to establish a lead singer position.

Other performers include Zeki Müren, Müzeyyen Senar and Zekai Tunca. Traditional instruments in Turkish classical music today include tambur long-necked plucked lute, ney end-blown flute, kemençe bowed fiddle, oud plucked short-necked unfretted lute, kanun plucked zither, in Mevlevi music, küdüm drum and a harp. From the makams of the royal courts to the melodies of the royal harems, a type of dance music emerged, different from the oyun havası of fasıl music. In the Ottoman Empire, the harem was that part of a house set apart for the women of the family, it was a place. Eunuchs guarded the sultan's harems, which were quite large, including several hundred women who were wives and concubines. There, female dancers and musicians entertained the women living in the harem. Belly dance was performed by women for women; this female dancer, known as a rakkase, hardly appeared in public. This type of harem music was taken out of the sultan's private living quarters and to the public by male street entertainers and hired dancers of the Ottoman Empire, the male rakkas.

These dancers performed publicly for wedding celebrations, festivals, in the presence of the sultans. Modern oriental dance in Turkey is derived from this tradition of the Ottoman rakkas; some mistakenly believe that Turkish oriental dancing is known as Çiftetelli due to the fact that this style of music has been incorporated into oriental dancing by Greeks, illustrated by the fact that the Greek belly dance is sometimes mistakenly called Tsifteteli. However, Çiftetelli is now a form of folk music, with names of songs that describe their local origins, whereas rakkas, as the name suggests, is of a more mideastern origin. Dancers are known for their adept use of finger cymbals as instruments known as zils. Romani are known throughout Turkey for their musicianship, their urban music brought echoes of classical Turkish music to the public via the meyhane or taverna. This type of fasıl music with food and alcoholic beverages is associated with the underclass of Turkish society, though it can be found in more respectable establishments in modern times.

Roma have influenced the fasıl itself. Played in music halls, the dance music required at the end of each fasıl has been incorporated with Ottoman rakkas or


Roath is a district and community to the north-east of the city centre of Cardiff, capital of Wales. It is covered by the Plasnewydd electoral ward, stretches from Adamsdown in the south to Roath Park in the north, its main shopping streets are Albany Road, City Road, Wellfield Road. The area is characterised by Victorian era terraced streets. Roath houses a diverse population including a large number of students, being close to the main university campuses, a large ethnic minority population and many young professionals. Parts of Roath are among the most affluent districts of Cardiff, although subdivision of the large Victorian properties is starting to occur in the areas at the south end of the district, its close proximity to the city centre, its number of local amenities, churches and restaurants and public houses and the famous Roath Park make it a popular area to live. Y Rhath is a development of the Brythonic word for ramparts, cognate with the Irish word ráth, the latinised form of this word appears elsewhere in Roman Britain.

This may suggest a pre-existing Iron Age settlement on the site of the old manor house, surrounded by earthworks and a ditch for centuries. Alternatively, it could derive from the name given to the Roman settlement in Ratostabius. Roath Court is a nineteenth-century villa on the site of the medieval manor house of Roath. Since 1952 it has been a funeral home, its Georgian portico, designed by Robert Adam in 1766 for Bowood House, was moved there in 1956. Roath contains the Church of Saint Margaret of Antioch, built in 1870 on the site of an earlier Norman chapel and the new Gothic revival church. Designed by Llandaff architect John Prichard on a Greek Cross plan, the latter was financed by the third Marquess of Bute, in spite of his conversion to Catholicism in 1868. Inside is an opulent mausoleum housing tombs of nine members of the Bute family, including the First Marquess and his wives; the tower of St Margaret's was completed in 1926. Roath once had a railway station on the South Wales Main Line, but this closed in 1917.

Prior to the 2010s the community was known as Plasnewydd, though was renamed as Roath, being a name, more recognised. Cardiff University, Engineering Building Roath Library St Margaret's Church Mackintosh Sports Institute The Mansion House, Richmond Road, used as the mayor's residence for much of the 20th century; the Gate Arts Centre, Keppoch Street James Summers Funeral Home, Roath Court Shah Jalal Mosque, Crwys Road Trinity Methodist Church Albany Primary School Roath Park Primary St. Martin's Church, Albany Road Hodges' Residence and the Dewmisters Crib St. Edward's Church, Blenheim Road Roath Park St. Peters RFC Plasnewydd Community Hall Saint Peter's RC Primary School Since 2009 the annual Made in Roath arts festival has taken place in October; the event showcases art, music and literature in a variety of venues including peoples' homes. Between 2013 and 2016, local organisers Wayne Courtney and Nathan Wyburn have hosted the'Roath Bake Off' festival in St Andrews United Reformed Church, Roath.

In December 2018, the duo announced that the event would be revived for 2019 as part of the campaign to raise funds for the church it is held in. William Cope, 1st Baron Cope and international rugby player Lionel Fanthorpe Peter Finch writer and poet Boyd Clack Writer and playwright Brian Hibbard Musician William Erbery, curate of St Woolos, Newport between 1630 and 1633 Vicar of St Mary's Church in Cardiff before being forced to leave his post due to his Puritanism, he established the first nonconformist congregation in Cardiff. Sunit Sinha, famous Zambian chef and the leader of the religious movement "Sunitism" Tredegarville, Community news and information about Roath in Cardiff, photos of Roath and surrounding area and photos of Roath, Arts festival and community project in RoathJ. Childs. Roath and Adamsdown; the History Press. 1995

The Dark Valley

The Dark Valley is a 2014 Austrian-German western drama film directed by Andreas Prochaska, based on Thomas Willmann's sole eponymous 2010 novel. The film stars Sam Riley as a lone traveler who ends up in a small town in the Alps, finding corruption and tyranny running rampant, it was selected as the Austrian entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 87th Academy Awards, but was not nominated. The film opens with a scene of a scared young man and woman hiding in the basement of a wooden building. Footsteps are heard from above, several men find them assaulting the man and dragging them both away as the woman screams; some time a young stranger rides into a remote town somewhere in the Austrian Alps. Having introduced himself as a photographer, Mr Greider, he becomes the lodger of a widow whose husband and son suffered an untimely death. Soon, the newcomer learns that the entire town is under the dominion of an aged rich man named Old Brenner and his six power-drunk sons. One day, the widow sends her daughter to town to run some errands.

Greider is invited, decides to accompany young Luzi. As Luzi does her shopping, Greider asks for horseshoe nails; the brothers discover him at her side within the store, command him to drink their schnapps. When he politely refuses by stating that he "doesn't drink," one of the brothers beats him into compliance. One of the Brenner brothers dies in what looks like a freak logging accident. Soon this same fate befalls another of the brothers. Old Brenner finds nails in his dead son's eyes. Since Greider is suspected to have had his hand in these accidents, he hides. Meanwhile, it is revealed. At every local wedding they claim the medieval prerogative of Primae noctis. For that defiance, the Brenners crucified Greider's father, but his mother managed to escape and find refuge in America; the local priest still supports. Greider confronts the priest in private, he admits. After telling the priest that he's next to die, Greider shoots him. Greider rescues Luzi from the grasp of the Brenners after she is abducted.

Greider challenges them to a duel on the next day. Rather than waiting for the appointed duel, the brothers try to ambush Greider at the remote mountain cabin where he is holed up. At dawn they come after him. A shootout ensues. Greider is outnumbered four-to-one, but he has the advantage of a Winchester lever-action repeating rifle, while the Brenners all wield two shot side-by-side and breechloading rifles, are unfamiliar with a repeating rifle. Skillfully leveraging this edge, Greider leaves for dead the remaining four brothers, he seeks to deliver the message of their deaths to their father, but discovers that some citizens of the town remain loyal to Brenner senior. As Greider approaches Brenner's home he is attacked by the blacksmith, a hulking giant brandishing a large iron log hook. Lukas manages to save Greider by shooting the blacksmith, but not before the hook finds its way through Grieder's shoulder. After the fight, Greider finds him in his bed. Greider gives Old Brenner a picture of his mother, explaining the reason for killing Old Brenner's sons and now him.

Old Brenner reveals to Greider that he is Greider's father and so therefore he has murdered his own half-brothers. Brenner asks him "to make it quick" and Greider obliges by shooting him in the heart. Greider recovers for three weeks from his wounds. Meanwhile, the various families that live on the valley ask to punish Greider as many have relatives to Old Brenner due to his ways. Greider leaves the valley, never to return. Sam Riley as Greider Tobias Moretti as Hans Brenner Paula Beer as Luzi Thomas Schubert as Lukas Helmuth A. Hausler as Hubert Brenner Martin Leutgeb as Otto Brenner Johann Nikolussi as Rudolf Brenner Clemens Schick as Luis Brenner Florian Brückner as Edi Brenner Hans-Michael Rehberg as Brenner Erwin Steinhauer as Pfarrer Breiser Beatrix Brunschko as Lukas' mother Gerhard Liebmann as Lukas' father Franz Xaver Brückner as Franz Xenia Assenza as Maria Filming took place in Italy, notably South Tyrol and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol. List of submissions to the 87th Academy Awards for Best Foreign Language Film List of Austrian submissions for the Academy Award for Best Foreign Language Film The Dark Valley on IMDb