A djembe or jembe is a rope-tuned skin-covered goblet drum played with bare hands, originally from West Africa. According to the Bambara people in Mali, the name of the djembe comes from the saying Anke djé, anke bé which translates to everyone together in peace. In the Bambara language, djé is the verb for gather, the djembe has a body carved of hardwood and a drumhead made of untreated rawhide, most commonly made from goatskin. Excluding rings, djembes have a diameter of 30–38 cm. The majority have a diameter in the 13 to 14 inch range, the weight of a djembe ranges from 5 kg to 13 kg and depends on size and shell material. A medium-size djembe carved from one of the traditional woods weighs around 9 kg, the djembe can produce a wide variety of sounds, making it a most versatile drum. The drum is very loud, allowing it to be heard clearly as a solo instrument over a large percussion ensemble, the Malinké people say that a skilled drummer is one who can make the djembe talk, meaning that the player can tell an emotional story.
Traditionally, the djembe is played only by men, as are the dunun that always accompany the djembe, other percussion instruments that are commonly played as part of an ensemble, such as the shekere and kese kese, are usually played by women. Even today, it is rare to see women play djembe or dunun in West Africa, there is general agreement that the origin of the djembe is associated with the Mandinka caste of blacksmiths, known as Numu. The wide dispersion of the drum throughout West Africa may be due to Numu migrations during the first millennium AD. Despite the association of the djembe with the Numu, there are no restrictions on who may become a djembefola. This is in contrast to instruments whose use is reserved for members of the caste, such as the balafon, kora. Anyone who plays djembe is a djembefola—the term does not imply a level of skill. However, due to the lack of records in West African countries. It seems likely that the history of the djembe reaches back for at least several centuries, the goblet shape of the djembe suggests that it originally may have been created from a mortar.
There are a number of different creation myths for the djembe, the djembe first came to the attention of audiences outside West Africa with the efforts of Fodéba Keïta, who, in 1952, founded Les Ballets Africains. Tourés policies alienated Guinea from the West and he followed the Eastern Bloc model of using the countrys culture and music for promotional means. He and Fodéba Keïta, who had become a friend of Touré, saw the ballets as a way to secularize traditional customs
Music of Mauritius
The traditional music of Mauritius is known as sega music, though reggae, zouk and other genres are popular. Well-known traditional sega singers from Mauritius include Ti Frére, Marlene Ravaton, Serge Lebrasse, Michel Legris, musicians in Mauritius are very talented and through the years Mauritian Music has evolved to international standards. There are many jazz and Blues Artists around the Island, Sega and Reggae remain the most popular produced Music in Mauritius amongst Mauritian artists. Thanks to a decent Internet connection nowadays we see more evolved artists doing RnB, Hip-Hop, Dubstep, Techno, the Sega is usually sung in Creole. The original instruments are fast disappearing, making way for the conventional orchestra ensemble. However, all along the fishing villages, the traditional instruments such as the “Ravanne”, “Triangle”, the “Maravanne”. By 2015, some of the most known Mauritian sega artists were - Alain Ramanisum, Desiré Francois, other top known Mauritian artists are Zulu and The Prophecy.
The sega is one of the most popular form of music, the traditional instrumentation includes the ravann, a goat-skin covered drum, the triangle, and the maravann. It is not clear when sega originated, most claim that sega music and dance origins are found in the slavery epoch, but research has not established this as a fact. Nowadays, Mauritians sing sega as a form of self-expression, rural forms of music include Mauritian bhojpuri songs, that date from the epoch of indentured labour and remained popular in Mauritian villages but are now fast disappearing. One of the most popular group in Mauritius is Cassiya. Indian immigrants have brought many of their own styles of music and dance, along with instruments like the sitar and tabla. Their fusion of bhojpuri lyrics, sega beats, and more traditional Indian, as well as Bollywood-style, music has won the hearts of many Mauritians, Chinese immigrants have infused Mauritian culture with elements from distinctly Chinese musical traditions. Rock music has become very popular in Mauritius, many bands have become famous, including XBreed Supersoul, Skeptikal.
A list of musical groups and singers from Mauritius. Sega music Seggae Santé engagé Category, Mauritian singers Category, Mauritian musicians Category, Mauritian musical instruments Ewens and Werner Graebner. In Broughton and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie and Duane, World Music, Vol.1, Africa and the Middle East, pp 505–508
The kora is a 21-string lute-bridge-harp used extensively in West Africa. A kora is a mandinka harp built from a large cut in half. The skin is supported by two handles that run under it and it supports a notched double free-standing bridge. It doesnt fit any one category of musical instruments, but rather several. The strings run in two divided ranks, making it a double harp and they do not end in a soundboard but are held in notches on a bridge, making it a bridge harp. They originate from an arm or neck and cross a bridge directly supported by a resonating chamber. The sound of a kora resembles that of a harp, though when played in the style, it bears a closer resemblance to flamenco. The player uses only the thumb and index finger of both hands to pluck the strings in polyrhythmic patterns, ostinato riffs and improvised solo runs are played at the same time by skilled players. Kora players have come from griot families who are traditional historians, genealogists. The instrument is played in Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, Burkina Faso, a traditional kora player is called a Jali, similar to a bard or oral historian.
Most West African musicians prefer the term jali to griot, which is the French word, Traditional koras feature 21 strings, eleven played by the left hand and ten by the right. Modern koras made in the Casamance region of southern Senegal sometimes feature additional bass strings, a vital accessory in the past was the nyenyemo, a leaf-shaped plate of tin or brass with wire loops threaded around the edge. Clamped to the bridge, it produced sympathetic sounds, serving as an amplifier since the sound carried well in the open air, in todays environment players usually prefer or need an electric pickup. By moving leather tuning rings up and down the neck, a player can retune the instrument into one of four seven-note scales. These scales are close in tuning to western major, the earliest European reference to the kora in Western literature is in Travels in Interior Districts of Africa by the Scottish Mungo Park. The kora is mentioned in the Senegalese national anthem Pincez Tous vos Koras, increasingly, koras are made with guitar machine heads instead of the traditional leather rings.
The advantage is that they are easier to tune. The disadvantage is that this limits the pitch of the instrument because string lengths are more fixed
Music of Niger
The music of Niger has developed from the musical traditions of a mix of ethnic groups, the Zarma Songhai people, Fula Kanuri, Diffa Arabs and Gurma. Most traditions existed quite independently in French West Africa but have begun to form a mixture of styles since the 1960s, while Nigers popular music has had little international attention and new musical styles have flourished since the end of the 1980s. These uses are typified by the usage of large trumpets to mark the authority of the Sultanate of Damagaram in the southeast Zinder area. Over 20% of Nigers population are Zarma people, while the Tuareg, the Kanuri are just over 4% while the Toubou and Gurma are all small populations of less than a half percent each. The Zarma inhabit the region around the capital and they play, generally solo, a variety of lutes and fiddles and, like the Fula, carry on the griot tradition of caste-based praise singers and musicians. Songhai traditional music was the topic of study in the late colonial. The Tuareg of the north are known for romantic, informal sung/spoken love poetry performed by men and women, with voices accompanied by clapping, tinde drums and a one-stringed viol.
The Fula and Wodaabe, a nomadic desert subgroup of Fula, practise group singing accompanied by clapping, the Wodaabe Gerewol festival is one example of this repeating and percussive choral tradition. The Beriberi too are known for complex polyphony singing, Music for the purpose of entertainment has not been readily accepted by the Nigerien government, though restrictions have loosened since the death of Seyni Kountché in 1987. A competitive music festival called the Prix Dan Gourmou helped inspire a renaissance in the country. The Centre for Musical Training and Promotion was founded in 1990, furthering this process, in the mid-1990s, internationally renowned record producer Ibrahima Sylla travelled to Niamey and ended up signing Poussy and Saadou Bori. He has since helped release records from Adams Junior and from Mamar Kassey, perhaps the best known Nigerien group outside the country, the band Etran Finatawa, consisting of Tuareg and Wodaabe members, formed in 2004 at the Festival in the Desert.
Since 2008 Tal National have been the most popular band in Niger. Their 2008 album A-Na Waya reached the top of the charts in Niger, in 2013 they signed a worldwide record deal with Fat Cat Records for the album Kaani. Tuareg Blues is perhaps the most internationally known of Tuareg musical styles, growing out of the refugee camps to the 1990s Tuareg insurgencies, Tuareg Blues have been exported to Europe, most notably by the Malian band Tinariwen. Rap Nigerien, a mélange of different languages spoken in Niger, the music is relaxed and mellow, mixed with the sounds of traditional musical styles from the many ethnicities in the country. It grew into an interesting sociologic phenomenon, expanding what was expected of domestic popular entertainment, the young and disaffected have used Rap Nigerien to give voice to popular complaints - forced marriages, child labor, corruption and other problems. Rap Nigerien spontaneously appeared in UNICEF grassroots cultural programs, one of the few outlets for large scale performance in the country, in August 2004, UNICEF opened the competition Scene Ouverte Rap, where 45 new groups were selected from among an over 300 entrants
Music of Mali
The Music of Mali is, like that of most African nations, ethnically diverse, but one influence predominates, that of the ancient Mali Empire of the Mandinka. Mande people make up 50% of the population, other ethnic groups include the Fula, Gur-speakers 12%, Songhai people and Moors and another 5%. Mali is divided into eight regions, Kayes, Mopti, Ségou, Tombouctou, Salif Keita, a noble-born Malian who became a singer, brought Mande-based Afro-pop to the world, adopting traditional garb and styles. He says he sings to himself and not as a traditional jeli or praise-singer. Mory Kanté saw major success with techno-influenced Mande music. Fans follow them for the nature of their lyrics, the perception that they embody tradition. The national anthem of Mali is Le Mali, after independence under President Modibo Keita orchestras were state-sponsored and the government created regional orchestras for all seven regions. From 1962 the orchestras competed in the annual Semaines Nationale de la Jeunesse held in Bamako, Keita was ousted by a coup détat in 1968 organized by General Moussa Traoré.
Malis second president, Moussa Traoré, discouraged Cuban music in favor of Malian traditional music, the annual arts festivals were held biannually and were known as the Biennales. At the end of the 1980s public support for the Malian government declined and praise-singings support for the status quo, the ethnomusicologist Ryan Skinner has done work on the relationship of music and politics in contemporary Mali. Historical interethnic relations were facilitated by the Niger River and the countrys vast savannahs, the Bambara, Malinké, Sarakole and Songhay are traditionally farmers, the Fula and Tuareg herders and the Bozo are fishers. In recent years, this linkage has shifted considerably, as ethnic groups seek diverse, Malis literary tradition is largely oral, mediated by jalis reciting or singing histories and stories from memory. Amadou Hampâté Bâ, Malis best-known historian, spent much of his recording the oral traditions of his own Fula teachers as well as those of Bambara. The jeliw are a caste of professional musicians and orators, sponsored by patrons of the horon class.
They act as dispute mediators and their position is highly respected and they are often trusted by their patrons with privileged information since the caste system does not allow them to rival nobles. The jeli class is endogamous, so certain surnames are held only by jeliw and their repertoire includes several ancient songs of which the oldest may be Lambang, which praises music. Other songs praise ancient kings and heroes, especially Sunjata Keita, lyrics are composed of a scripted refrain and an improvised section. Improvised lyrics praise ancestors, and are based around a surname
Music of Burkina Faso
The music of Burkina Faso includes the folk music of 60 different ethnic groups. In the north and east the Fulani of the Sahel preponderate, while in the south and west the Mande languages are common, Bissa, Senufo, Burkinabé traditional music has continued to thrive and musical output remains quite diverse. Popular music is mostly in French, Burkina Faso has yet to produce a major pan-African success, with a musical career that lasted half a century, singer Amadou Balaké was one of the foremost singers from the country during the 20th century. In his music, Balaké combined Mandé, and Afro-Cuban traditions, other influential artists from the country include George Ouédraogo and Joseph Moussa Salambéré Salambo. Popular traditional groups from Burkina Faso include balafon bands, percussion ensembles and others such as Farafina and Gabin Dabiré, Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Fasos second-largest city, is a cultural centre of Burkina Fasos Mandé people of the southwest. Another modern genre which entered Burkina Faso is the Ivorian coupé-décalé, characterised by its electronic dance beat, the zouglou genre from Côte dIvoire, along with its originator zouk, are popular modern genres in Burkina Faso.
The Mossi and their griots retain ancient royal courts and courtly music, the kora, the stringed instrument of the djeli, has been popular throughout much of West Africa since the Malian empire of the 1240s. The instrument traditionally featured seven strings until the Gambian griot Madi Woulendi increased that number to twenty-one, the kora can be played in several scales including the hypolydian mode, silaba and mandéka. Mande-speakers are known for the balafon, a kind of wooden xylophone, the Dagara and Senufo peoples have their own varieties. Djembe drums, like balafons, are manufactured in Bobo Dioulasso. The djembe, a part of Burkinabé traditional music, is said to be of Malinké origin. It is made from a piece of wood, usually from a caïlcedrat or lenke tree. The bendré drum is a made from a gourd with the top cut off. Another stringed instrument is called the ngoni, legend says it was invented by a Senufo hunter. The ngoni is played in Niger and Mali, the Fula people of the north play a variety of traditional instruments including drums and the riti or riiti, and use complex vocal techniques with clapping percussion.
Their griots are known as gawlo, in Broughton and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie and Duane, World Music, Vol.1, Africa and the Middle East, pp 437–439. ISBN 1-85828-636-0 Audio clips, Traditional music of Burkina Faso, two current CDs of traditional Burkinabe music are available through Nonesuch Records,1. Music of the Grasslands Documentary films of traditional Burkinabe musicians and celebrations have been published by African Family Films
Music of Cameroon
The best-known Music of the Cameroon is makossa, a popular style that has gained fans across Africa, and its related dance craze bikutsi. The pirogue sailors of Douala are known for a kind of singing called ngoso which has evolved into a kind of modern music accompanied by zanza, the ethnicities of Cameroon include an estimated 250 distinct ethnic groups in five regional-cultural divisions. An estimated 38% of the population are Western highlanders–Semi-Bantu or grassfielders including the Bamileke, Bamum, 12% are coastal tropical forest peoples, including the Bassa and many smaller groups in the southwest. The southern tropical forest peoples include the Beti-Pahuin and their sub-groups the Bulu and Fang, the Maka and Njem, as well as, the Beti, or Ewondo, live in the area around Yaoundé and south into Equatorial Guinea. They are best known for music, which has been popularized and become a rival for the more urban. The name can be translated as beating the ground continuously. Bikutsi, characterized by an intense 6/8 rhythm, is played at Beti gatherings including parties, the Ekang phase is intensely musical and usually lasts all night.
There are poetic recitations accompanied by clapping and dancing, with interludes for improvised and these interludes signal the shift to the bikutsi phase which is much less strictly structured than Ekang. During bikutsi, women dance and sing along with the balafon and these female choruses are an integral part of bikutsi, and their intense dancing and screams are characteristic of the genre. Another type of ceremony is the mevungu, when women dance all night to abstain from sex during those hours for a period of nine days, the sso ritual is much-feared by Beti boys as it involves a series of tests to mark a boys passage into manhood. The earliest recorded music from Cameroon comes from the 1930s, when the most popular styles were imported pop music and French-style chanson. In Douala, the most developed city in Cameroon and ambasse bey music were common, with performers like Lobe Lobe, Ebanda Manfred, ekambi Brillant and the first major Cameroonian hit, NGon Abo, set the stage for the development of makossa.
Post-independence in 1960, a variant on palm wine music called assiko, was popular especially Jean Bikoko. The urbanization of Cameroon has had a influence on the countrys music. Migration to the city of Yaoundé, for example, was a cause for the popularization of bikutsi music. During the 1950s, bars sprang up across the city to accommodate the influx of new inhabitants, balafon orchestras, consisting of 3-5 balafons and various percussion instruments became common in the bars. Some of these orchestras, such as Richard Band de Zoetele, the middle of the 20th century saw the popularization of a native folk music called bikutsi. Bikutsi is based on a war rhythm played with various rattles and drums, sung by women, bikutsi featured sexually explicit lyrics and songs about everyday problems
Music of the Republic of the Congo
The Republic of the Congo is an African nation with close musical ties to its neighbor, the Democratic Republic of the Congo. The Hip-Hop group Bisso na Bisso hails from Congo-Brazzaville, the national anthem of the Republic of the Congo is La Congolaise. It was adopted upon independence in 1959, replaced in 1969 by Les Trois Glorieuses, the words were written by Jacques Tondra and Georges Kibanghi, the music was composed by Jean Royer and Joseph Spadilière. The Republic is home to the Sub-Saharan African music traditions of the Kongo, Sangha, MBochi and Teke people, as well as 3% Europeans and others, folk instruments in the Republic of the Congo include the xylophone and mvet. The mvet is a kind of zither-harp, similar to styles found elsewhere in both Africa and Asia, the mvet is made of a long tube with one or two gourds acting as resonators. In these cities, American style orchestras played rumba influenced by traditional music, soukous arose from this fusion of styles, popularized as dance music by a number of different orchestras in the 1950s and 60s.
Kubik, Mvet, in, The New Grove Dictionary of Music, macmillan Publishers, London 1981 Bender, Sweet Mother - Moderne afrikanische Musik,1985, Trickster Verlag, München. ISBN 3-923804-10-5 Audio clips, Traditional music of the Republic of the Congo, afropop Country - Congo music Living Encyclopedia of Global African Music
Music of Equatorial Guinea
Equatorial Guineas culture has been less documented than most African countries, and commercial recordings remain scarce. The national anthem of Equatorial Guinea was written by Atanasio Ndongo Miyone and adopted in 1968, when the country gained independence from Spain. The largest ethnic group are the Fang, with 6. 5% Bubi and smaller populations of Mdowe, Annobónese and Bujeba, including groups such as the Ndowe, the Bisio. The Fang are known for their mvet, a cross between a zither and a harp, the mvet can have up to fifteen strings. The semi-spherical part of instrument is made of bamboo and the strings are attached to the center by fibers. Music for the mvet is written in a form of notation that can only be learned by initiates of the bebom-mvet society. Music is typically call and response with a chorus and drums alternating, musicians like Eyi Moan Ndong have helped to popularize folk styles. Another popular instrument is the tam-tam, a box covered with animal skin. In its center are bamboo keys installed with complete musical scales, a second type of tam-tam has two different levels of musical keys.
Generally, wooden instruments are decorated with fauna images and geometric drawings. Drums are covered with skins or animal drawings. There is little popular music coming out of Equatorial Guinea, pan-African styles like soukous and makossa are popular, as are reggae and rock and roll. Acoustic guitar bands based on a Spanish model are the countrys best-known indigenous popular tradition, especially national stars Desmali and Dambo de la Costa. In Broughton and Ellingham, Mark with McConnachie and Duane, World Music, Vol.1, Africa and the Middle East, pp 477–479
Music of Madagascar
Malagasy music can be roughly divided into three categories, traditional and popular music. Traditional musical styles vary by region and reflect local ethnographic history, foreign instruments such as the acoustic guitar and piano have been adapted locally to create uniquely Malagasy forms of music. Contemporary Malagasy musical styles such as the salegy or tsapika have evolved from traditional styles modernized by the incorporation of guitar, drums. Many Western styles of music, including rock, jazz, hip-hop. Music in Madagascar has served a variety of sacred and profane functions, Malagasy music is highly melodic and distinguishes itself from many traditions of mainland Africa by the predominance of chordophone relative to percussion instruments. Musical instruments and vocal styles found in Madagascar represent a blend of widespread commonalities, a common vocal style among the Merina and Betsileo of the Highlands, for instance, does not preclude differences in the prevalence of particular instrument types.
Similarly, the practice of tromba is present on both the western and eastern coasts of the island but the styles or instruments used in the ceremony will vary regionally. Music in Madagascar tends toward major keys and diatonic scales, although coastal music makes frequent use of minor keys, Malagasy music has served a wide range of social and mundane functions across the centuries. Musical performance in Madagascar has often been associated with spiritual functions, music has long been central to the famadihana ceremony. Instruments in Madagascar were brought to the island by successive waves of settlers from across the Old World, over 1500 years ago, the earliest settlers from Indonesia brought the oldest and most emblematic instruments, including the tube zither which evolved into a box form distinct to the island. The influence of instruments and musical styles from France and Great Britain began to have a significant impact on music in Madagascar by the 19th century. The most emblematic instrument of Madagascar, the valiha, is a tube zither very similar in form to those used traditionally in Indonesia.
The valiha is considered the national instrument of Madagascar and it is typically tuned to a diatonic mode to produce complex music based on harmonic, parallel thirds accompanied by a melodic bass line. Strings may be plucked with the fingernails, which are allowed to grow longer for this purpose, the instrument was originally used for rituals and for creative artistic expression alike. However, beginning in the century, playing the instrument became the prerogative of the Merina aristocracy to such an extent that possessing long fingernails became symbolic of nobility. In the region around the port city of Toamasina, for instance. The kabosy is a four to six-stringed simple guitar common in the southern Highlands moving toward the east, particularly among the Betsimisaraka and Betsileo ethnic groups. The soundbox, which is square or rectangular today, was originally circular in form, first made from a tortoise shell
Music of Tanzania
The music of Tanzania stretches from traditional African music to the string-based taarab to a distinctive hip hop known as bongo flava. The Tanzanian national anthem is Mungu Ibariki Africa, composed by South African composer Enoch Sontonga in 1897, the tune was ANCs official song and became the National Anthem of South Africa. The song is the national anthem Zambia, Swahili lyrics were set to this tune. The music industry in Tanzania has seen changes in the past ten years. With a mix of influences from other countries along with the feel of local musical traditions. From artists such as Dionys Mbilinyi, Sabinus Komba and many others, to new artists in R&B, Zouk, the trend among the Tanzanian music consumers has started changing towards favouring products from their local artists who sing in Swahili, the national language. Among prominent Bongo Flava music producers include Joachim Kimario aka Master J, others include Marco Chali, Dully Sykes, P-Funk Majani, Marlon Linje and Baucha. The Zaramo people, for instance, perform traditional dance such as Mitamba Yalagala Kumchuzi on tuned goblet drums, tuned cylindrical drums.
The multi-instrumentalist Hukwe Zawose, a member of the Gogo ethnic group, was the 20th centurys most prominent exponent of Tanzanian traditional music and he specialized in the ilimba, a large lamellophone similar to the mbira. A famous song of Tanzania is Tanzania Tanzania, saida Karoli is a famous traditionalist Tanzanian female singer and performer, who sings in Haya. Karolis music is described as natural with mellow vocals and hypnotically rhythmicism, a mtindo is simply a rhythm, dance or style identified with a particular band. Sikinde, for example, is associated with Mlimani Park, and is derived from the ngoma, some bands maintain the same mtindo throughout their career, while others change along with personnel or popular preference. Taarab is a popular genre descended from Islamic roots, using instruments from Africa, Europe and it is sung poetry and are a constant part of wedding music, and is associated with coastal areas like Lamu and Zanzibar, as well as with neighboring Kenya.
Taarab is often said to have an Egyptian origin, due to the popular of the Ikhwani Safaa Musical Club. While the Egyptian influence is undeniable, coastal East Africa is a melting pot and has absorbed influences from across the Indian Ocean. The first taarab superstar, indeed the first Swahili superstar, was Siti bint Saad, beginning in 1928, she and her band were the first from the region to make commercial recordings. Kidumbak ensembles grew popular, at least among the poor of Zanzibar, more recently, modern taarab bands like East African Melody have emerged, as has related backbiting songs for women called mipasho. The 1960s saw a group called the Black Star Musical Club, from Tanga, modernize the genre and brought it to audiences far afield, especially Burundi, Taarab music is a fusion of pre-Islamic Swahili tunes sung in rhythmic poetic style spiced with general Islamic melodies
Music of Namibia
The music of Namibia has a number of folk styles, as well as pop, reggae, jazz and hip hop. The Sanlam-NBC Music Awards and the Namibian Music Awards are two institutions that give out annual awards at shows on December 2 and May 6 respectively. The Namibia Society of Composers and Authors of Music has helped promote Namibian music within, the Namibian music industry remains under-developed, with no major record labels or distribution infrastructure. Traditional Namibian dance occurs at such as weddings and at traditional festivals such as the Caprivi Arts Festival. Folk music accompanies storytelling or dancing, the Namaqua use various strings and drums while the Bantu use xylophones and horn trumpets. The Herero peoples oviritje is popularly known as konsert, otjiherero is the primary language of Oviritje music. Prior to Kareke people like Matuarari Kaakunga and Bella Kazongominja have developed the Oviritje genre, today in recognition of his contribution to the Oviritje music Kareke Henguva has been accorded the title of doctor of modern Oviritje music.
Maǀgaisa, a music genre commonly known as Damara Punch, is performed by Stanley, ǃAubasen, Dixson. Many female singers are entering the Ma/gaisa world yearly, the genre was derived from Damara traditional music and is mainly sung in Khoekhoegowab. Shambo, the dance music of the Oshiwambo-speaking people, derives its name from Shambo Shakambode - music. In the late nineties Yoba Valombola blended existing Oshiwambo music widely popularised by folk guitarist Kwela, Kangwe Keenyala, Boetie Simon, Lexington and the Mighty Dread Band combined these and other Namibian styles and this was the birth of Shambo shakambode music. Yoba based Shambo on a dominant guitar, a guitar, percussion. Themes range from love to war and history, Young Namibian musicians contributed sampled tracks backed by a blend of house music and Kwaito. Prominent shambo musicians include Tunakie, Ama Daz Floor, Tate Kwela and D-Naff, Kwiku mixes shambo with Kwassa kwassa. The genre was popular by Tate Buti and his sister Janice with Faizel MC on the song Kwiku.
It is listened to by most Namibians including Basters and Coloureds, in 2005 it was recognized by the Namibia Society of Composers and Authors of Music as one of Namibias folk music genres. The annual Sanlam-NBC Music Awards included it as one of their genres in 2005. Other kwiku artists include trio PDK, Killa B, Faizel MC, hikwa or hip hop/kwaito is genre established by Sunny Boy