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Music recording certification

Music recording certification is a system of certifying that a music recording has shipped, sold, or streamed a certain number of units. The threshold quantity varies by nation or territory. All countries follow variations of the RIAA certification categories, which are named after precious materials; the threshold required for these awards depends upon the population of the territory where the recording is released. They are awarded only to international releases and are awarded individually for each country where the album is sold. Different sales levels, some 10 times lower than others, may exist for different music media; the original gold and silver record awards were presented to artists by their own record companies to publicize their sales achievements. The first silver disc was awarded by Regal Zonophone to George Formby in December 1937 for sales of 100,000 copies of "The Window Cleaner"; the first gold disc was awarded by RCA Victor to Glenn Miller and His Orchestra in February 1942, celebrating the sale of 1.2 million copies of single "Chattanooga Choo Choo".

Another example of a company award is the gold record awarded to Elvis Presley in 1956 for one million units sold of his single "Don't Be Cruel" or Decca’s gold record to Jerry Lewis for "Rock-a-Bye Your Baby with a Dixie Melody." The first gold record for an LP was awarded by RCA Victor to Harry Belafonte in 1957 for the album Calypso, the first album to sell over 1,000,000 copies in RCA's reckoning. At the industry level, in 1958 the Recording Industry Association of America introduced its gold record award program for records of any kind, albums or singles, which achieved one million dollars in retail sales; these sales were restricted to U. S.-based record companies and did not include exports to other countries. For albums in 1968, this would mean shipping 250,000 units; the platinum certification was introduced in 1976 for the sale of one million units for albums and two million for singles, with the gold certification redefined to mean sales of 500,000 units for albums and one million for singles.

No album was certified platinum prior to this year. For instance, the recording by Van Cliburn of the Tchaikovsky Piano Concerto from 1958 would be awarded a platinum citation, but this would not happen until two decades after its release. In 1999, the diamond certification was introduced for sales of ten million units. In the late 1980s, the certification thresholds for singles were dropped to match that of albums; the first official designation of a "gold record" by the Recording Industry Association of America was established for singles in 1958, the RIAA trademarked the term "gold record" in the United States. On 14 March 1958, the RIAA certified its first gold record, Perry Como's hit single "Catch a Falling Star"; the Oklahoma! Soundtrack was certified as the first gold album four months later. In 1976, RIAA introduced the platinum certification, first awarded to the Eagles compilation album Their Greatest Hits on 24 February 1976, to Johnnie Taylor's single "Disco Lady" on 22 April 1976.

As music sales increased with the introduction of compact discs, the RIAA created the Multi-Platinum award in 1984. Diamond awards, honoring those artists whose sales of singles or albums reached 10,000,000 copies, were introduced in 1999. In the 20th century, for a part of the first decade of the 21st, it was common for distributors to claim certifications based on their shipments – wholesale to retail outlets – which led to many certifications which outstripped the actual final retail sales figures; this became much less common once the majority of retail sales became paid digital downloads and digital streaming. In most countries certifications no longer apply to physical media but now include sales awards recognizing digital downloads. In June 2006, the RIAA certified the ringtone downloads of songs. Streaming from on-demand services such as Apple Music, Spotify and Napster has been included into existing digital certification in the U. S since 2013 and the U. K. and Germany since 2014. In the U.

S. and Germany video streaming services like YouTube, VEVO, Yahoo! Music began to be counted towards the certification, in both cases using the formula of 100 streams being equivalent to one download. Other countries, such as Denmark and Spain, maintain separate awards for digital download singles and streaming; the International Federation of the Phonographic Industry was founded in 1996, grants the IFPI Platinum Europe Award for album sales over one million within Europe and the Middle East. Multi-platinum Europe Awards are presented for sales in subsequent multiples of one million. Eligibility is unaffected by time, is not restricted to European-based artists; the Independent Music Companies Association was founded on April 2000 to grow the independent music sector and promote independent music in the interests of artistic and cultural diversity. IMPALA launched sales awards in 2005 as the first sales awards recognising that success on a pan-European basis begins well before sales reach one million.

The award levels are Silver, Double Silver, Double Gold, Diamond and Double Platinum. Below are certification thresholds for the United States, United Kingdom and France; the numbers in the tables are in ter

The Tree (short story)

"The Tree" is a macabre short story by American horror fiction writer H. P. Lovecraft, it was written in 1920, published in October 1921 in The Tryout. Set in ancient Greece, the story concerns two sculptors who accept a commission with ironic consequences. Lovecraft wrote "The Tree" early in his career, he was dismissive of the story in a 1936 letter. Such stories, he said, "if typed on good stock make excellent shelf-paper, but little else." The assessment of Lovecraft authority S. T. Joshi was that although the story "may be a trifle obvious… it is an effective display of Lovecraft's skill in handling a historical setting." On a slope of Mount Maenalus in Arcadia is an olive grove that grows around a marble tomb and the ruin of an old villa. There, one gigantic tree resembles a frighteningly distorted man, the roots of the tree have shifted the blocks of the tomb; the narrator explains that the beekeeper who lives next door told him a story about the tree: Two renowned sculptors and Musides, lived in the colonnaded villa, "resplendent" in its day.

Both men created works that were known and celebrated. They were devoted friends, but different in disposition: Musides enjoyed the nightlife, while Kalos preferred the quiet of the olive grove, it was there he was said to receive his inspiration. One day, emissaries from "the Tyrant of Syracuse" ask the sculptors each to create a statue of Tyché; the statue, they are told, must be "of great size and cunning workmanship", since it is to be "a wonder of nations and a goal of travellers." The most beautiful statue will be erected in Syracuse. Kalos and Musides accept the commission. Secretly, the Tyrant expects the sculptors not only to compete but to cooperate, resulting in statuary that will be magnificent; the work proceeds, although Musides is still social and active, he seems morose—apparently because Kalos has fallen ill. Despite Kalos' weakened state, his visitors detect in him a serenity. Despite the efforts of his doctors and his friend Musides, Kalos weakens; when Kalos' death seems imminent, Musides weeps and promises to carve for him an elaborate marble sepulchre.

Kalos asks. Soon after, Kalos dies in the olive grove. Musides buries the olive twigs. From the burial place of the twigs an enormous olive tree grows at an incredible rate. An large branch hangs over the villa and Musides' statue. Three years Musides' work on the statue is complete; the Tyrant's agents arrive head to town to stay the night. That evening, a windstorm whips down the mountain; when the Tyrant's people return to the villa the next morning, they find. Musides himself is nowhere to be found; the end of the story recalls the Latin aphorism that precedes the text: "Fata viam invenient". Lovecraft, Howard P.. "The Tree". In S. T. Joshi. Dagon and Other Macabre Tales. Sauk City, WI: Arkham House. ISBN 0-87054-039-4. Definitive version. Works related to The Tree at Wikisource The Tree title listing at the Internet Speculative Fiction Database The Tree public domain audiobook at LibriVox

Aladdin (BlackRock)

Aladdin is an electronic system by BlackRock Solutions, the risk management division of the largest investment management corporation, BlackRock, Inc. In 2013, it handled about $11 trillion in assets, about 7% of the world's financial assets, kept track of about 30,000 investment portfolios. Adam Curtis's 2016 documentary HyperNormalisation cites the Aladdin system as an example of how modern technocrats attempt to manage the complications of the real world. Aladdin uses the following technologies, Java, Docker, Zookeeper, Splunk, ELK Stack, Apache, Sybase ASE, Cognos, FIX, Swift, REST, AngularJS, TREP, it is claimed that it was built using Julia, It has been reported that written in C++, Java and Perl. BlackRock SecDB

Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act

The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act is a United States environmental law that amended the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 and authorized the Environmental Protection Agency to establish health and environmental standards for the stabilization and disposal of uranium mill waste. Title 1 of the Act required the EPA to set environmental protection standards consistent with the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, including groundwater protection limits. Title 1 established a uranium mill remedial action program jointly funded by the federal government and the state. Title 1 of the Act designated 22 inactive uranium mill sites for remediation, resulting in the containment of 40 million cubic yards of low-level radioactive material in UMTRCA Title 1 holding cells; the act was written in the "hectic final days" of the 95th U. S. Congress and contained multiple errors that made it "a nightmare of statutory construction," and required remedial legislation to fix; the act perpetuated the "Agreement State" program, established in 1959, in which the Atomic Energy Commission gave regulatory authority of certain nuclear materials to states.

It was unclear how much regulatory power Agreement states had, as a result these states took little regulatory action. Sites that were owned by the federal government, the NRC, or Agreement states were ineligible for remedial action under the UMTRCA, as they were instead the responsibility of the government agencies or states who owned them. Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Uranium mining "The Uranium Mill Tailings Cleanup: Federal Leadership at Last?". U. S. GAO ~ Office of Public Affairs. U. S. Government Accountability Office. June 20, 1978. OCLC 4051679. "Cleaning Up Commingled Uranium Mill Tailings: Is Federal Assistance Necessary?". U. S. GAO ~ Office of Public Affairs. U. S. Government Accountability Office. February 5, 1979. OCLC 4721432. "Uranium Mill Tailings: Cleanup Continues, but Future Costs Are Uncertain". U. S. GAO ~ Office of Public Affairs. U. S. Government Accountability Office. December 15, 1995. OCLC 33979475. "Uranium Mill Tailings: Status and Future Costs of Cleanup". U. S. GAO ~ Office of Public Affairs.

U. S. Government Accountability Office. February 28, 1996. OCLC 34483718. "DOE Cleanup: Status and Future Costs of Uranium Mill Tailings Program". U. S. GAO ~ Office of Public Affairs. U. S. Government Accountability Office. May 1, 1996. OCLC 35563817

AD Bairro

Associação Desportiva do Bairro Craveiro Lopes is a multisport club that had played in the Santiago Island South Zone League in Cape Verde. It is based in the capital city of Praia in the island of Santiago and plays in the stadium with a capacity of 8,000 The club never won a championship title, they have two cup titles, its sports include football, futsal, similar to arena football and volleyball. Its current president Carlos Sena Teixeira and its manager is Daniel Cardoso who came in February 2017, its nickname is canarinha, Portuguese for the little canary. Its logo color has a green seal with ADESBA on top and the club's full name on the bottom with the football and basketball in the middle, the sports that Bairro have, its uniform color is yellow with light green pants and socks with three thick black stripes for home games and all light green clothing for away games. Until October 2016, its home clothing was a white t-shirt with black pants and black striped yellow socks The football club was created in the late 1960s and was the first club to be founded in a city neighborhood, that time, the neighborhood named after the Portuguese president Nuno Craveiro Lopes who visited the country in 1955, the neighborhood at the time was more than ten years old.

The club participated in the second division at the time was the only one until they reached the first division in 1990 and continued since 1992. Zé Piguita played for ADESBA between 1999 and 2002 and became one of the greatest players of the club. In the 2002 season, they finished 3rd with two seasons had nine wins, their positions dropped to fifth a year but scored more goals numbering 28. In 2004, they finished fourth for two seasons, four draws and scored 25 goals, first with 26 points and six wins with 28 points and eight wins. Bairro dropped a position to fifth in 2005 where they finished for two seasons along with their six wins, they scored 27 goals in 2006, a year they scored 32. Bairro finished with 32 points in 2008 for two seasons along with five draws. In 2008, Bairro finished second; the club entered the national competition for the first time in 2008, as Sporting from Praia won the island championship for the year and they won the 2007 championship, they automatically participated which gave Bairro, the second place team to participate.

Bairro reached the semi-finals and challenged against Sporting Praia, they won 3–2 in the first match and scored nothing and lost at the second match. In goal totals by player, Fufuco had the most in the country with seven goals at the championships. In 2009, Bairro finished fourth, two seasons their positions dropped and finished 10th with 15 wins, four wins and 11th losses and was relegated for the Second Division next season. In the 2011–12 season, Bairro was playing in the Second Division, they got first place and returned to the Premier Division where the club has played since the 2013–14 season. In recent years, ADESBA had 16 points and scored 13 goals and had 4 wins and draws and 10 losses in the 2013/14 season, in the 2014/15 season, the club had 19 points and their goal total double than last season with 26. In the 2015/16 season, the first featuring 22 matches, they had the same goal total as last season numbering 26 but their point total skyrocketed nearly doubling to 41, their seasonal wins risen from 5 to 11 and their draws doubled from 4 to 8, Bairro conceded 13 goals, more than half than last season.

Their position risen from 7th in 2014 to 5th in 2016 and, it as ADESBA again finished fifth in 2017, they had scored more numbering 31 and finished with 31 points, more goals conceded numbering 33. ADESBA started the 2017–18 Premier Division season with a won over Eugénio Lima, their next win was at the fifth round where they defeated that new entrant Tira Chapéu 3–2 and fifth at the fifth round, they hadeight points shared with Sporting Praia, ADESBA has 5 goals scored, two less than Sporting. Two losses to Praia's top five clubs were Travadores and Sporting. A win over AD Ribeira Grande is the club's recent. Two more losses followed to Praia's other top five clubs Académica and Boavista with the last one, the region's worst as they lost 7–3 on 5 January. Bairro is in mid-position, 6th place with 11 points and conceded 18 goals, third worst behind the last two placed clubs Tira Chapéu and Eugênio Lima. Up next was a goal draw with Desportivo on 13 January and is sixth with 12 points three less than that club and one more than Travadores.

At the regional cup competitions, their first was won in 1995 and their recent was in 2012. Bairro qualified into the 4th Cape Verdean Cup in 2012, the recent edition and lost in one of the rounds. Bairro participated in the 2012 Super Cup, qualified as cup winner, they challenged Sporting Praia and after winning in the penalty shootouts, Bairro won their recent super cup title. Bairro's recent cup competitions met twice with their nearby club Celtic da Praia, they would lose to that club, both at the 1/8 finals and where Bairro started, first in 2016 with a 2–0 result to Celtic in 2017. Only in the penalty shootouts with the result 8–7 to that club after the match had not a single goal scored. ADESBA's home field is at the closest field to the neighborhood and its next to it. Due to its field size, ADESBA plays at a multi-use stadium in Praia, Cape Verde, it is used for football matches. The stadium holds 8,000; the stadium has seat rows in the left and right sides and a small hill and a plateau lies to the west.

It is played along with Praia's three other famous teams including Sporting Praia, Académica and CD Travadores i

Geoff Ward (cricketer)

Geoffrey Hubert Ward was an English cricketer. Ward was a right-handed batsman, he was born at Kent. Ward made two first-class appearances for Kent against Lancashire and Sussex in the 1949 County Championship, scoring 19 runs at an average of 9.50, with a high score of 6 not out, while behind the stumps he took 2 catches and made a single stumping. These were his only first-class appearances for Kent, in 1950 he moved to Essex, where he represented the county in a single first-class match against the Combined Services. In this match, he scored 2 runs in Essex's first-innings before being dismissed by John Deighton, while in their second-innings he made the same score before being dismissed by Brian Close, he died at Bearsted, Kent on 20 April 2008. Geoff Ward at ESPNcricinfo Geoff Ward at CricketArchive