Music sequencer

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A music sequencer (or simply sequencer) is a device or application software that can record, edit, or play back music, by handling note and performance information in several forms, typically CV/Gate, MIDI, or Open Sound Control (OSC), and possibly audio and automation data for DAWs and plug-ins. (See § Types of music sequencer)[note 1]

Overview[edit]

Modern sequencers[edit]

1980s typical software sequencer platform, using Atari Mega ST computer.
Today's typical software sequencer, supporting multitrack audio (DAW) and plug-ins (Steinberg Cubase 6[1])
User interface on Steinberg Cubase v6.0, a digital audio workstation with an integrated software sequencer.

The advent of Musical Instrument Digital Interface (MIDI) and the Atari ST home computer in the 1980s gave programmers the opportunity to design software that could more easily record and play back sequences of notes played or programmed by a musician. This software also improved on the quality of the earlier sequencers which tended to be mechanical sounding and were only able to play back notes of exactly equal duration. Software-based sequencers allowed musicians to program performances that were more expressive and more human, these new sequencers could also be used to control external synthesizers, especially rackmounted sound modules, and it was no longer necessary for each synthesizer to have its own devoted keyboard.

As the technology matured, sequencers gained more features, such as the ability to record multitrack audio. Sequencers used for audio recording are called digital audio workstations (or DAWs).

Many modern sequencers can be used to control virtual instruments implemented as software plug-ins, this allows musicians to replace expensive and cumbersome standalone synthesizers with their software equivalents.

Today the term "sequencer" is often used to describe software. However, hardware sequencers still exist. Workstation keyboards have their own proprietary built-in MIDI sequencers. Drum machines and some older synthesizers have their own step sequencer built in. There are still also standalone hardware MIDI sequencers, although the market demand for those has diminished greatly due to the greater feature set of their software counterparts.

Types of music sequencer[edit]

Music sequencers are often categorized by handling data types, as following:.[citation needed]

Also, music sequencer can be categorized by its construction and supporting modes.

Realtime sequencer (realtime recording mode)[edit]

A realtime sequencer on the synthesizer

Realtime sequencers record the musical notes in real-time as on audio recorders, and play back musical notes with designated tempo, quantizations, and pitch. For editing, usually "punch in/punch out" feature originated in the tape recording is provided, although it requires enough skills to obtain desired result, for detailed editing, possibly another visual editing modes under graphical user interface may be more suitable. Anyway, this mode provides usability similar to the audio recorder already familiarized by musicians, and it is widely supported on software sequencer, DAW, and built-in hardware sequencers.

Analog sequencer[edit]

An analog sequencer

Analog sequencers are typically implemented with analog electronics, and play the musical notes designated by a series of knobs or sliders corresponding to each musical note (step). It is designed for both composition and live performance; users can change the musical notes at any time without regarding recording mode. And also possibly, the time-interval between each musical note (length of each step) can be independently adjustable. Typically, analog sequencer is used to generate the repeated minimalistic phrases which is reminiscent of Tangerine Dream, Giorgio Moroder or trance music.

Step sequencer (step recording mode)[edit]

step rhythm sequencer on the drum machine
A step note sequencer on the bass machine

On the step sequencers, musical notes are rounded into the steps of equal time-interval, and users can enter each musical note without exact timing; Instead, each timing and duration of step are designated in several ways:

  • On the drum machines: select a trigger timing from a row of step-buttons.
  • On the bass machines: select a step note (or rest) from a chromatic keypads, then select a step duration (or tie) from a group of length-buttons, sequentially.
  • On the several home keyboards: in addition to the realtime sequencer, a pair of step trigger button is provided; using it, notes on the pre-recorded sequence can be triggered in arbitrary timings for the timing dedicated recordings or performances. (See List of music sequencers#Step sequencers (supported on).)

In general, step mode, along with roughly quantized semi-realtime mode, is often supported on the drum machines, bass machines and several groove machines.

Software sequencer[edit]

Software sequencer is a class of application software providing a functionality of music sequencer, and often provided as one feature of the DAW or the integrated music authoring environments. The features provided as sequencers vary widely depending on the software; even an analog sequencer can be simulated. The user may control the software sequencer either by using the graphical user interfaces or a specialized input devices, such as a MIDI controller.

Typical features on software sequencers
Cheesetracker-shot.png
Numerical editor on Tracker
Cubase6 Score Editor.png
Score editor
 
Cubase6 Key Editor piano roll with Note Expression.jpg
Piano roll editor
with strip chart
Cubase6 main audio tracks.jpg
Audio and MIDI tracks on DAW
Cubase 6 feature - software studio environment including software instruments and software effects.svg
Automated, software studio environment including instruments and effect processors
Cubase6 LoopMash 2 loop remixer (brighten).jpg
Loop sequencer
 
Cubase6 Sample Editor beat slicing - Amen break.jpg
Sample editor
with beat slicer
Cubase6 VariAudio vocal pitch editing.jpg
Vocal editor
for pitch and timing

History[edit]

Early sequencers[edit]

Barrel with pins on a large stationary barrel organ
Music roll
on barrel organ

The early music sequencers were sound producing devices such as automatic musical instruments, music boxes, mechanical organs, player pianos, and Orchestrions. Player pianos, for example, had much in common with contemporary sequencers. Composers or arrangers transmitted music to piano rolls which were subsequently edited by technicians who prepared the rolls for mass duplication. Eventually consumers were able to purchase these rolls and play them back on their own player pianos.

The origin of automatic musical instruments seems remarkably old, as early as the 9th century, Persian inventors Banū Mūsā brothers invented a hydropowered organ using exchangeable cylinders with pins,[6] and also an automatic flute playing machine using steam power,[7][8] as described in their Book of Ingenious Devices. In the 14th century, rotating cylinders with pins were used to play a carillon (steam organ) in Flanders,[citation needed] and at least in the 15th century, barrel organs were seen in the Netherlands.[9]

Player piano (1920) controlled by piano roll.
RCA Mark II (1957),
controlled via wide punched paper roll

In the late-18th or early-19th century, with technological advances of the Industrial Revolution various automatic musical instruments were invented, some examples: music boxes, barrel organs and barrel pianos consisting of a barrel or cylinder with pins or a flat metal disc with punched holes; or mechanical organs, player pianos and orchestrions using book music / music rolls (piano rolls) with punched holes, etc. These instruments were disseminated widely as popular entertainment devices prior to the inventions of phonographs, radios, and sound films which eventually eclipsed all such home music production devices. Of them all, punched-paper-tape media had been used until the mid-20th century, the earliest programmable music synthesizers including the RCA Mark II Sound Synthesizer in 1957, and the Siemens Synthesizer in 1959, were also controlled via punch tapes similar to piano rolls.[10][11][12]

Additional inventions grew out of sound film audio technology, the drawn sound technique which appeared in the late 1920s, is notable as a precursor of today's intuitive graphical user interfaces. In this technique, notes and various sound parameters are trigggered by hand-drawn black ink waveforms directly upon the film substrate, hence they resemble piano rolls (or the 'strip charts' of the modern sequencers/DAWs). Drawn soundtrack was often used in early experimental electronic music, including the Variophone developed by Yevgeny Sholpo in 1930, and the Oramics designed by Daphne Oram in 1957, and so forth.

Analog sequencers[edit]

Earliest commercially available analog sequencers (bottom) on Buchla 100 (1964/1966)[13]
Moog sequencer module (left, probably added after 1968) on Moog Modular (1964)

During the 1940s–1960s, Raymond Scott, an American composer of electronic music, invented various kind of music sequencers for his electric compositions, the "Wall of Sound", once covered on the wall of his studio in New York during the 1940s–1950s, was an electro-mechanical sequencer to produce rhythmic patterns, consisting of stepping relays (used on dial pulse telephone exchange), solenoids, control switches, and tone circuits with 16 individual oscillators.[14] Later, Robert Moog explained it as "the whole room would go 'clack - clack - clack', and the sounds would come out all over the place",[15] the Circle Machine, developed in 1959, had dimmer bulbs arranged in a ring, and a rotating arm with photocell scanning over the ring, to generate arbitrary waveform. Also, the rotating speed of arm was controlled via brightness of lights, and as the results, arbitrary rhythms were generated.[16]

Clavivox, developed since 1952, was a kind of keyboard synthesizer with sequencer.[verification needed] On its prototype, a theremin manufactured by young Robert Moog was utilized to enable portamento over 3-octave range, and on later version, it was replaced by a pair of photographic film and photocell for controlling the pitch by voltage.[15]

In 1965 Ralph Lundsten had a polyphonic synthesizer with sequencer called Andromatic. built for him by Erkki Kurenniemi.[17]

Step sequencers[edit]

Electro-mechanical disc sequencer on early drum machine (1959)
Eko ComputeRhythm (1972),[18][19] one of the earliest programmable drum machines
Firstman SQ-01 (1980),[20] one of the earliest step bass machines

The step sequencers played rigid patterns of notes using a grid of (usually) 16 buttons, or steps, each step being 1/16 of a measure, these patterns of notes were then chained together to form longer compositions. Sequencers of this kind are still in use, mostly built into drum machines and grooveboxes, they are monophonic by nature, although some are multi-timbral, meaning that they can control several different sounds but only play one note on each of those sounds.[clarification needed]

Early computers[edit]

CSIRAC played the earliest computer music in 1951

On the other hand, software sequencers were continuously utilized since the 1950s in the context of computer music, including computer-played music (software sequencer), computer-composed music (music synthesis), and computer sound generation (sound synthesis). In June 1951, the first computer music Colonel Bogey was played on CSIRAC, Australia's first digital computer;[21][22] in 1956, Lejaren Hiller at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign wrote one of the earliest programs for computer music composition on ILLIAC, and collaborated on the first piece, Illiac Suite for String Quartet, with Leonard Issaction.[23] In 1957 Max Mathews at Bell Labs wrote MUSIC, the first widely used program for sound generation, and a 17-second composition was performed by the IBM 704 computer. Subsequently, computer music was mainly researched on the expensive mainframe computers in computer centers, until the 1970s when minicomputers and then microcomputers became available in this field.

In Japan, experiments in computer music date back to 1962, when Keio University professor Sekine and Toshiba engineer Hayashi experimented with the TOSBAC computer. This resulted in a piece entitled TOSBAC Suite.[24]

DDP-24 S Block (expansion card rack unit) that is assumed the A/D converters used for GROOVE (1970) by Max Mathews.

In 1965,[25] Mathews and L. Rosler developed Graphic 1, an interactive graphical sound system (that implies sequencer) on which one could draw figures using a light-pen that would be converted into sound, simplifying the process of composing computer generated music.[26][27] It used PDP-5 minicomputer for data input, and IBM 7094 mainframe computer for rendering sound. Also in 1970, Mathews and F. R. Moore developed the GROOVE (Generated Real-time Output Operations on Voltage-controlled Equipment) system,[28] a first fully developed music synthesis system for interactive composition (that implies sequencer) and realtime performance, using 3C/Honeywell DDP-24[29] (or DDP-224[30]) minicomputers. It used a CRT display to simplify the management of music synthesis in realtime, 12bit D/A for realtime sound playback, an interface for analog devices, and even several controllers including a musical keyboard, knobs, and rotating joysticks to capture realtime performance.[26][30][27]

EMS Sequencer 256 (1971), branched from Synthi 100.

Digital sequencers[edit]

In 1971, Electronic Music Studios (EMS) released one of the first digital sequencer products as a module of Synthi 100, and its derivation, Synthi Sequencer series.[31][32] After then, Oberheim released the DS-2 Digital Sequencer in 1974,[33] and Sequential Circuits released Model 800 in 1977 [34]

Synclavier I (1977)
Fairlight CMI (1979) supporting MCL (sequencer)

Music workstations[edit]

In 1975, New England Digital (NED) released ABLE computer (microcomputer)[35] as a dedicated data processing unit for Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer (1973), and based on it, later Synclavier series were developed.

The Synclavier I, released in September 1977,[36] was one of the earliest digital music workstation product with multitrack sequencer. Synclavier series evolved throughout the late-1970s to the mid-1980s, and they also established integration of digital-audio and music-sequencer, on their Direct-to-Disk option in 1984, and later Tapeless Studio system.

Page R on Fairlight

In 1982, renewed the Fairlight CMI Series II and added new sequencer software "Page R", which combined step sequencing with sample playback.[37]

Yamaha's GS-1, their first FM digital synthesizer, was released in 1980.[38] To program the synthesizer, Yamaha built a custom computer workstation designed to be used as a sequencer for the GS-1[citation needed][not in citation given]. It was only available at Yamaha's headquarters in Japan (Hamamatsu) and the United States (Buena Park).[39]

Standalone CV/Gate sequencers[edit]

While there were earlier microprocessor-based sequencers for digital polyphonic synthesizers,[note 4] their early products tended to prefer the newer internal digital buses than the old-style analogue CV/Gate interface once used on their prototype system. Then in the early-1980s, they also re-recognized the needs of CV/Gate interface, and supported it along with MIDI as options.

In 1977, Roland Corporation released the MC-8 Microcomposer, also called computer music composer by Roland. It was an early stand-alone, microprocessor-based, digital CV/Gate sequencer,[40][41] and an early polyphonic sequencer.[42][43] It equipped a keypad to enter notes as numeric codes, 16 KB of RAM for a maximum of 5200 notes (large for the time), and a polyphony function which allocated multiple pitch CVs to a single Gate.[44] It was capable of eight-channel polyphony, allowing the creation of polyrhythmic sequences.[45][40][41] The MC-8 had a significant impact on popular electronic music, with the MC-8 and its descendants (such as the Roland MC-4 Microcomposer) impacting popular electronic music production in the 1970s and 1980s more than any other family of sequencers,[45] the MC-8's earliest known users were Yellow Magic Orchestra in 1978.[46]

MIDI sequencers[edit]

In June 1981, Roland Corporation founder Ikutaro Kakehashi proposed the concept of standardization between different manufacturers' instruments as well as computers, to Oberheim Electronics founder Tom Oberheim and Sequential Circuits president Dave Smith. In October 1981, Kakehashi, Oberheim and Smith discussed the concept with representatives from Yamaha, Korg and Kawai.[47] In 1983, the MIDI standard was unveiled by Kakehashi and Smith,[48][49] the first MIDI sequencer was the Roland MSQ-700, released in 1983.[50]

It was not until the advent of MIDI that general-purpose computers started to play a role as sequencers. Following the widespread adoption of MIDI, computer-based MIDI sequencers were developed. MIDI-to-CV/Gate converters were then used to enable analogue synthesizers to be controlled by a MIDI sequencer,[41] since its introduction, MIDI has remained the musical instrument industry standard interface through to the present day.[51]

Personal computers[edit]

In 1978, Japanese personal computers such as the Hitachi Basic Master equipped the low-bit D/A converter to generate sound which can be sequenced using Music Macro Language (MML).[52] This was used to produce chiptune video game music.[24]

Moog Song Producer (1983) MIDI & CV/Gate interface on SynAmp

It was not until the advent of MIDI, introduced to the public in 1983, that general-purpose computers really started to play a role as software sequencers.[41] NEC's personal computers, the PC-88 and PC-98, added support for MIDI sequencing with MML programming in 1982.[24] In 1983, Yamaha modules for the MSX featured music production capabilities,[53][54] real-time FM synthesis with sequencing, MIDI sequencing,[55][54] and a graphical user interface for the software sequencer.[56][54] Also in 1983, Roland Corporation's CMU-800 sound module introduced music synthesis and sequencing to the PC, Apple II,[57] and Commodore 64.[58]

The spread of MIDI on personal computers was facilitated by Roland's MPU-401, released in 1984, it was the first MIDI-equipped PC sound card, capable of MIDI sound processing[59] and sequencing.[60][61] After Roland sold MPU sound chips to other sound card manufacturers,[59] it established a universal standard MIDI-to-PC interface.[62] Following the widespread adoption of MIDI, computer-based MIDI software sequencers were developed.[41]

Tracker software

In 1987, software sequencers called trackers were developed to realize the low-cost integration of sampling sound and interactive digital sequencer as seen on Fairlight CMI II "Page R", they became popular in the 1980s and 1990s as simple sequencers for creating computer game music, and remain popular in the demoscene and chiptune music.

Visual timeline of rhythm sequencers[edit]

Welte Style 6 Concert Orchestrion No.198 (1895) - Assembly 06 (brighten, transformed & clipped).jpg

Mechanical (pre 20c)




Nuvola arrow right.svg
Joseph Schillinger and the Rhythmicon.jpg

Rhythmicon (1930)




Nuvola arrow right.svg
Wurlitzer Sideman drum machine (inside).jpg

Drum machine
(1959–)




Nuvola arrow right.svg
Seeburg Select-A-Rhythm.jpg

Transistorized drum machine (1964–)




Nuvola arrow right.svg
Eko ComputeRhythm.png

Step drum machine (1972–)




Nuvola arrow right.svg
Linn LM-1 Drum Computer.jpg

Digital drum machine (1980–)




Nuvola arrow right.svg
Movement Computer Systems (MCS) Drum System II (or Percussion Computer II), circa 1981, United Kingdom - Knobcon 2014.jpg

Groove machine (1981–)




Nuvola arrow right.svg
Fairlight II Page R.png

“Page R” on Fairlight (1982)




Nuvola arrow right.svg
Milkytracker Instrument.jpg

Tracker (1987–)




Nuvola arrow right.svg
Cubase6 Sample Editor beat slicing - Amen break.jpg

Beat slicer (1990s–)

Spectrogram - Nine Inch Nails - My Violent Heart.png

Spectrogram editing (1994)

Cubase6 LoopMash 2 loop remixer (brighten).jpg

Loop sequencer (1998–)




Nuvola arrow right.svg
Polyphonic note separation & manipulation.jpg

Note manipulation on audio tracks (2009–)

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ On WhatIs.com of TechTarget (whatis.techtarget.com), an author seems to define a term "Sequencer" as an abbreviation of "MIDI sequencer".
    • Margaret Rouse (April 2005). "Define sequencer". WhatIs.com (whatis.techtarget.com). TechTarget. In digital audio recording, a sequencer is a program in a computer or stand-alone keyboard unit that puts together a sound sequence from a series (or sequence) of Musical Instrument Digital Interface ( MIDI ) events (operations). The MIDI sequencer allows the user to record and edit a musical performance without using an audio-based input source. ... 
  2. ^ Automation parameters on the DAW are often interoperable with MIDI messages (Control Changes (CC) or System Exclusive (SysEx); in that case, it can be controlled in real-time via pre-assigned MIDI messages generated by MIDI controllers or MIDI sequencers, etc.   And even more, on the several DAWs, automation parameters are explicitly recorded as MIDI messages on their embedded MIDI sequencers. (See Price 2006)
  3. ^ The term "audio sequencer" seems to be relatively new expression and seems to be not clearly defined, yet. For example, "DAW integrated with MIDI sequencer" is often referred as "Audio and MIDI sequencer". However, in this usage, the term "audio sequencer" is just a synonym for the "DAW", and beyond the scope of this article; in that case, please check Digital audio workstation.
  4. ^ In 1974-1975, Australian computer music engineer Tony Furse developed the MC6800-based Qasar M8 with a software sequencer MUSEQ 8, with a minimum price of $8,000. In 1976, it was licensed to Fairlight Instruments Pty Ltd., and eventually Fairlight CMI was released in 1979. (For details, see Fairlight CMI)
    Also in 1975, New England Digital released original microprocessor-based ABLE computer (utilizing mini-computer architecture) as a future migration target of Dartmouth Digital Synthesizer. Their commercial version of digital synthesizer, Synclavier I was first shipped in 1977. (For details, see Synclavier)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Cubase 6 screenshot licensed under CC-BY-SA-3.0". Steinberg Media Technologies GmbH. 
  2. ^ Rothstein, Joseph (1995). MIDI: A Comprehensive Introduction. Computer Music and Digital Audio Series. 7. A-R Editions, Inc. pp. 77, 122. ISBN 978-0-89579-309-6. 
  3. ^ Pinch, Trevor. J.; Trocco, Frank (2009). "Buchla's Box". Analog Days: The Invention and Impact of the Moog Synthesizer (reprint ed.). Harvard University Press. pp. 55–56. ISBN 978-0-674-04216-2. 
    "Subotnick suggested that using a light source to control sound might be promising. ... Later he [Buchla] turned this into an electro mechanical sequencer by introducing step relays and a dial. ... Buchla, like Moog, realized that voltage control ... But Buchla was after something different; ... Buchla was led to the electronic sequencer—a device that later was used to make much influential pop, rock, and dance music. A sequencer produces predetermined control voltages in a cycle or sequence and can endlessly recylce ..."
    Note: for a sequencer using a light source, see "Circle Machine" on #Analog sequencers and Raymond Scott#Electronics and research.
  4. ^ Price, Simon. "Using Mixer Automation In Reason - Reason Tips & Techniques". Technique: Reason Notes. Sound On Sound. No. September 2006. 
    "Controller Data Vs. Automation / ... sequencer package such as Logic or Pro Tools, ... are akin to automation on professional hardware mixing consoles, ... This type of automation system is different to using MIDI Continuous Controller [Control Changes] (CC) data, ... In Reason, automation is MIDI Controller [Control Changes] data, but with some specialised tools for handling the data and playing it back. ...",
    "Recording Mixer Automation / As automation in Reason is MIDI CC data, it must be recorded on a sequencer track."
  5. ^ Pejrolo, Andrea (2011). "1.7.1 The Primary Goals You Want to Achieve with Your Audio Sequencer". Creative Sequencing Techniques for Music Production: A Practical Guide to Pro Tools, Logic, Digital Performer, and Cubase. Taylor & Francis. p. 48. ISBN 978-0-240-52216-6.  (sub-section title contains the expression "Audio Sequencer")
  6. ^ Fowler, Charles B. (October 1967). "The Museum of Music: A History of Mechanical Instruments". Music Educators Journal. Music Educators Journal. 54 (2): 45–49. doi:10.2307/3391092. JSTOR 3391092. 
  7. ^ Koetsier, Teun (2001). "On the prehistory of programmable machines: musical automata, looms, calculators". Mechanism and Machine Theory. Elsevier. 36 (5): 589–603. doi:10.1016/S0094-114X(01)00005-2. 
  8. ^ Banu Musa (authors) (1979). Donald Routledge Hill (translator), ed. The book of ingenious devices (Kitāb al-ḥiyal). Springer. pp. 76–7. ISBN 9027708339. 
  9. ^ PD-icon.svg Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Barrel-organ". Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  10. ^ "The RCA Synthesiser". 120 Years of Electronic Music (120years.net). —(PDF version is available)
  11. ^ "Das Siemens-Studio für elektronische Musik von Alexander Schaaf und Helmut Klein" (in German). Deutsches Museum. Archived from the original on 2013-09-30. 
  12. ^ Holmes, Thom (2012). "Early Synthesizers and Experimenters". Electronic and Experimental Music: Technology, Music, and Culture (4th ed.). Routledge. pp. 190192. ISBN 978-1-136-46895-7.  (See also excerpt of pp. 157160 from Holmes 2008)
  13. ^ Holmes, Thom (2008). Electronic and experimental music: technology, music, and culture (3rd ed.). Routledge. p. 222. ISBN 978-0-415-95781-6. Moog admired Buchla's work, recently stating that Buchla designed a system not only for "making new sounds but [for] making textures out of these sounds by specifying when these sounds could change and how regular those change would be." 
  14. ^ "Wall of Sound (sequencer)". RaymondScott.com. Archived from the original on 2011-11-13. 
  15. ^ a b Robert Moog. "Memories of Raymond Scott". RaymondScott.com. Archived from the original on 2011-11-06. 
  16. ^ "Circle Machine". RaymondScott.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-27. —includes 2 sound files: Raymond Scott's demonstration, and commercial soundtrack for new batteries of Ford Motors.
  17. ^ Jörgen Städje (2012-10-06). "Andromatic, den automatiska andromedaren". International Data Group (IDG). 
  18. ^ "EKO Computerhythm (1972)". Jarrography - The ultimate Jean Michel Jarre discography. 
  19. ^ "EKO Computerhythm". SynthMaster.de. 
  20. ^ "Multivox International". SYNRISE (in German). Archived from the original on 2003-04-20. 
  21. ^ "CSIRAC: Australia's first computer". Australia: Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO). Retrieved 2007-12-21. 
  22. ^ Fildes, Jonathan (2008-06-17). "'Oldest' computer music unveiled". BBC News Online. Retrieved 2008-06-18. —another oldest known recording of computer realized music played by the Ferranti Mark 1, captured by BBC in Autumn, 1951; the songs Baa Baa Black Sheep and In the Mood.
  23. ^ Hiller, Lejaren (Winter 1981). "Composing with Computer: A Progress Report". Computer Music Journal. 5 (4). 
    also available in Curtis Roads (ed.). The Music Machine: Selected Readings from Computer Music Journal. MIT Press (1989/1992). pp. 75. ISBN 978-0-262-68078-3. 
  24. ^ a b c Shimazu, Takehito (1994). "The History of Electronic and Computer Music in Japan: Significant Composers and Their Works". Leonardo Music Journal. MIT Press. 4: 102–106 [104]. doi:10.2307/1513190. Retrieved 9 July 2012. 
  25. ^ Ninke, William (1965), "Graphic 1: A Remote Graphical Display Console System", Proceedings of Fall Joint Computer Conference, 27 
  26. ^ a b Holmes, Thom (2008). "Digital Synthesis and Computer Music". Electronic and experimental music: technology, music, and culture. Taylor & Francis. pp. 254. ISBN 978-0-415-95781-6. 
  27. ^ a b Roads, Curtis (Winter 1980). "Interview with Max Mathews". Computer Music Journal. 4 (4). 
    in Curtis Roads (ed.). The Music Machine: Selected Readings from Computer Music Journal. MIT Press (1989/1992). pp. 5. ISBN 978-0-262-68078-3. 
  28. ^ Max V., Mathews; F.R., Moore (1970). "GROOVE—a program to compose, store, and edit functions of time". Communications of the ACM. 13 (12). 
  29. ^ Nyssim Lefford; Eric D. Scheirer & Barry L. Vercoe. "An Interview with Barry Vercoe". Experimental Music Studio 25. Machine Listening Group, MIT Media Laboratory. 
  30. ^ a b Bogdanov, Vladimir (2001). All music guide to electronica: the definitive guide to electronic music. Backbeat Books. pp. 320. ISBN 978-0-87930-628-1. 
  31. ^ Hinton, Graham (2001). "Synthi 100 (1971, formerly Digitana, aka the Delaware)". Electronic Music Studios (Cornwall). 
  32. ^ Hinton, Graham (2001). "Synthi Sequencer 256 (1971, formerly Synthi Moog Sequencer)". Electronic Music Studios (Cornwall). 
  33. ^ J.Michmerhuizen; Thomas E. Oberheim (June 1974). DS-2 Digital Sequencer Instruction and Service Manual (PDF). 
  34. ^ "Model 800 Sequencer". SynthMuseum.com. 
  35. ^ "Synclavier Early History". Synclavier European Services. 
  36. ^ Joel Chadabe (May 1, 2001). "The Electronic Century Part IV: The Seeds of the Future". Electronic Musician. Archived from the original on October 2, 2009. In September 1977, I bought the first Synclavier, although mine came without the special keyboard and control panel ... (see Fig. 1 on the page). 
  37. ^ "Fairlight- The Whole Story". Audio Media. No. January 1996. Fairlight launched the CMI Series II in 1982, which incorporated their now legendary Page R, the first serious music sequencer, which, according to Paine, "simply blew people away". 
  38. ^ Curtis Roads (1996). The computer music tutorial. MIT Press. p. 226. ISBN 0-262-68082-3. Retrieved 2011-06-05. 
  39. ^ Nicolae Sfetc, The Music Sound, page 1525
  40. ^ a b Russ, Martin (2008). Sound Synthesis and Sampling. Focal Press. p. 346. ISBN 0240521056. Retrieved 21 June 2011. 
  41. ^ a b c d e Russ, Martin (2012). Sound Synthesis and Sampling. CRC Press. p. 192. ISBN 1136122141. Retrieved 26 April 2017. 
  42. ^ Paul Théberge (1997), Any Sound You Can Imagine: Making Music/Consuming Technology, page 223, Wesleyan University Press
  43. ^ Herbert A. Deutsch (1985), Synthesis: an introduction to the history, theory & practice of electronic music, page 96, Alfred Music
  44. ^ Gordon Reid. "The History Of Roland Part 1: 1930-1978". Sound On Sound (Nov 2004). Retrieved 2011-06-19. 
  45. ^ a b Chris Carter, ROLAND MC8 MICROCOMPOSER, Sound on Sound, Vol.12, No.5, March 1997
  46. ^ Yellow Magic Orchestra—Yellow Magic Orchestra at Discogs
  47. ^ Chadabe, Joel (1 May 2000). "Part IV: The Seeds of the Future". Electronic Musician. Penton Media. XVI (5). 
  48. ^ "Technical GRAMMY Award: Ikutaro Kakehashi And Dave Smith". 29 January 2013. 
  49. ^ "Ikutaro Kakehashi, Dave Smith: Technical GRAMMY Award Acceptance". 9 February 2013. 
  50. ^ https://www.roland.com/ca/company/history/
  51. ^ The life and times of Ikutaro Kakehashi, the Roland pioneer modern music owes everything to, Fact
  52. ^ Kunihiko, Nagai; Teruhiro, Takezawa; Kazuma, Yoshimura; KaTsutoshi, Tajima (April 1979). "Micro computer BASIC MASTER [MB-6880]" (PDF) (in Japanese). 2.特長 ... (4) スピーカーを内蔵しており、プログラムによる音楽の自動演奏が可能である。 / 表 I 「ベーシックマスター」の主な仕様一覧 ... 音楽発生機能: 5ビットD/A変換のスピーカー再生 / 4.3 音楽発生機能 ... 
    Published on: "Special Features: Micro computer and its application". Hitachi Hyoron. Japan: Hitachi, Ltd (April 1979). Retrieved 15 September 2017. 
  53. ^ Martin Russ, Sound Synthesis and Sampling, page 84, CRC Press
  54. ^ a b c David Ellis, Yamaha CX5M, Electronics & Music Maker, October 1984
  55. ^ Yamaha Music Computer CX5M Owner's Manual. Yamaha. 
  56. ^ Yamaha CX5M Music Computer Flyer, Yamaha
  57. ^ Roland CMU-800, Vintage Synth Explorer
  58. ^ Happy birthday MIDI 1.0: Slave to the rhythm, The Register
  59. ^ a b MIDI INTERFACES FOR THE IBM PC, Electronic Musician, September 1990
  60. ^ Programming the MPU-401 in UART mode
  61. ^ MIDI PROCESSING UNIT MPU-401 TECHNICAL REFERENCE MANUAL, Roland Corporation
  62. ^ Peter Manning (2013), Electronic and Computer Music, page 319, Oxford University Press

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