A music video is a short film that integrates a song with imagery, is produced for promotional or artistic purposes. Modern music videos are made and used as a marketing device intended to promote the sale of music recordings. There are cases where songs are used in tie-in marketing campaigns that allow them to become more than just a song. Tie-ins and merchandising can be used for food or other products. Although the origins of the music video date back to musical short films that first appeared in the 1920s, they again came into prominence in the 1980s when the channel MTV based its format around the medium. Prior to the 1980s, these kinds of videos were described by various terms including "illustrated song", "filmed insert", "promotional film", "promotional clip", "promotional video", "song video", "song clip" or "film clip". Music videos use a wide range of styles and contemporary video-making techniques, including animation, live action and non-narrative approaches such as abstract film.
Some music videos combine different styles with the music, such as animation and live action. Combining these styles and techniques has become more popular because of the variety for the audience. Many music videos interpret images and scenes from the song's lyrics, while others take a more thematic approach. Other music videos may not have any concept, being a filmed version of the song's live concert performance. In 1894, sheet music publishers Edward B. Marks and Joe Stern hired electrician George Thomas and various performers to promote sales of their song "The Little Lost Child". Using a magic lantern, Thomas projected a series of still images on a screen simultaneous to live performances; this would become a popular form of entertainment known as the illustrated song, the first step toward music video. In 1926, with the arrival of "talkies" many musical short films were produced. Vitaphone shorts featured many bands and dancers. Animation artist Max Fleischer introduced a series of sing-along short cartoons called Screen Songs, which invited audiences to sing along to popular songs by "following the bouncing ball", similar to a modern karaoke machine.
Early 1930s cartoons featured popular musicians performing their hit songs on-camera in live-action segments during the cartoons. The early animated films by Walt Disney, such as the Silly Symphonies shorts and Fantasia, which featured several interpretations of classical pieces, were built around music; the Warner Bros. cartoons today billed as Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies, were fashioned around specific songs from upcoming Warner Bros. musical films. Live action musical shorts, featuring such popular performers as Cab Calloway, were distributed to theaters. Blues singer Bessie Smith appeared in a two-reel short film called St. Louis Blues featuring a dramatized performance of the hit song. Numerous other musicians appeared in short musical subjects during this period. Soundies and released from 1940 to 1947, were musical films that included short dance sequences, similar to music videos. In the mid-1940s, musician Louis Jordan made short films for his songs, some of which were spliced together into a feature film, Lookout Sister.
These films were, according to music historian Donald Clarke, the "ancestors" of music video. Musical films were another important precursor to music video, several well-known music videos have imitated the style of classic Hollywood musicals from the 1930s to the 1950s. One of the best-known examples is Madonna's 1985 video for "Material Girl", modelled on Jack Cole's staging of "Diamonds Are A Girl's Best Friend" from the film Gentlemen Prefer Blondes. Several of Michael Jackson's videos show the unmistakable influence of the dance sequences in classic Hollywood musicals, including the landmark "Thriller" and the Martin Scorsese-directed "Bad", influenced by the stylized dance "fights" in the film version of West Side Story. According to the Internet Accuracy Project, disc jockey–singer J. P. "The Big Bopper" Richardson was the first to coin the phrase "music video", in 1959. In his autobiography, Tony Bennett claims to have created "...the first music video" when he was filmed walking along the Serpentine in Hyde Park, London in 1956, with the resulting clip being set to his recording of the song "Stranger in Paradise".
The clip was sent to UK and US television stations and aired on shows including Dick Clark's American Bandstand. The oldest example of a promotional music video with similarities to more abstract, modern videos seems to be the Czechoslovakia "Dáme si do bytu" created in 1958 and directed by Ladislav Rychman. In the late 1950s the Scopitone, a visual jukebox, was invented in France and short films were produced by many French artists, such as Serge Gainsbourg, Françoise Hardy, Jacques Dutronc, the Belgian Jacques Brel to accompany their songs, its use spread to other countries, similar machines such as the Cinebox in Italy and Color-sonic in the USA were patented. In 1961, for the Canadian show Singalong Jubilee, Manny Pittson began pre-recording the music audio, went on-location and taped various visuals with the musicians lip-synching edited the audio and video together. Most music numbers were taped in-studio on stage, the location shoot "videos" were to add variety. In 1961, after integrating his son Ricky Nelson's musical performances into the television program The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet for several episodes, Ozzie Nelson created a stand alone video for the song "Travelin' Man," superimposing travelogue footage over a performance.
His intention was to promote Ricky's records
Helmut Reichelt is a German Marxian economist and philosopher. Reichelt is one of the main authors of the “Neue Marx-Lektüre” and considered to be one of the most important theorists in the field of Marx's theory of value, he studied economics and philosophy in Frankfurt where Theodor W. Adorno supervised his diploma in 1968. In 1970 Reichelt obtained his Ph. D at the Institute for Social Research. In 1971 he became. One year he was appointed as the dean of the philosophy department in Frankfurt. On the initiative of Alfred Sohn-Rethel Reichelt accepted the Professorship for social theory at the department of Sociology at the University of Bremen in 1978, he remained in Bremen until his retirement in 2005. Reichelt's research interests are the theory of society with special emphasis on the problems of the theory of economic value. During his time as a university student he began a long-term cooperation with Hans-Georg Backhaus. Together with Backhaus he considered engaging with economic phenomena and economic theory as fundamental for critical theory.
Since 1998 Reichelt and Backhaus contributions have spawned a rich debate on theories of economic value and its relation to critical theory. Reichelt has published on Marx, on Adorno's social theory and on economic theory. Reichelt oversaw an edition of Hegel's Philosophy of Right in the Ullstein Verlag, he is the current chair of the German Marx-Society. Reichelt, Helmut: Neue Marx Lektuere - Zur Kritik sozialwissenschaftlicher Logik. Hamburg 2008. Reichelt, Helmut: Zur logischen Struktur des Kapitalbegriffs bei Karl Marx. Freiburg 2001. Der Zusammenhang von Werttheorie und ökonomischen Kategorien bei Marx, 1999 - online Die Marxsche Kritik ökonomischer Kategorien. Überlegungen zum Problem der Geltung in der dialektischen Darstellungsmethode im „Kapital“, 2001 - PDF Einige Fragen und Anmerkungen zu Nadjas „Kritik als Substanz des Denkens bei Kant und Marx.“, 2005 - PDF Marx's Critique of Economic Categories: Reflections on the Problem of Validity in the Dialectical Method of Presentation in Capital, in: Historical Materialism, Volume 15, Number 4, 2007, pp. 3–52 - abstract Eldred, Michael Critique of competitive freedom and the bourgeois-democratic state.
Copenhagen: Kurasje, 1984 ISBN 87-87437-40-6. Kerr, Derek: The Politics of Change: Globalisation and Critique.. Kirchhoff, Christine / Pahl, Hanno / Engemann, Christoph / Heckel, Judith / Meyer, Lars: Gesellschaft als Verkehrung. Perspektiven einer neuen Marx-Lektüre. Festschrift für Helmut Reichelt, Freiburg 2004, ISBN 3-924627-26-6. Kubota, Ken: Die dialektische Darstellung des allgemeinen Begriffs des Kapitals im Lichte der Philosophie Hegels. Zur logischen Analyse der politischen Ökonomie unter besonderer Berücksichtigung Adornos und der Forschungsergebnisse von Rubin, Reichelt, Uno und Sekine, in: Beiträge zur Marx-Engels-Forschung. Neue Folge 2009, pp. 199–224. Doi:10.4444/100.100.de. Meyer, Lars: Absoluter Wert und allgemeiner Wille. Zur Selbstbegründung dialektischer Gesellschaftstheorie, Bielefeld 2005, ISBN 978-3-89942-224-5. Pahl, Lars Meyer: Kognitiver Kapitalismus: Soziologische Beiträge zur Theorie der Wissensökonomie, Marburg 2007, ISBN 978-3-89518-619-6 Pahl, Hanno: Das Geld in der modernen Wirtschaft.
Marx und Luhmann im Vergleich, Frankfurt 2008, ISBN 3-593-38607-0 List of Publications, 2008 Verified, continuously updated selected bibliography with links and materials
PMD is released under a BSDish license while parts of it are under Apache License 2.0 and the LGPL. The Copy/Paste Detector is an add-on to PMD that uses the Rabin–Karp string search algorithm to find duplicated code. Unlike PMD, CPD works with a broader range of languages including Java, JavaServer Pages, C, C++, Fortran, PHP, C# code. PMD has plugins for JDeveloper, Eclipse, jEdit, JBuilder, Omnicore's CodeGuide, NetBeans/Sun Studio, IntelliJ IDEA, TextPad, Ant, Gel, JCreator, Jenkins, SonarQube, Visual Studio Code and Emacs. There is a CLI version. List of tools for static code analysis SonarQube Rutar, Foster, "A Comparison of Bug Finding Tools for Java". ISSRE'04 Proceedings of the 15th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering, IEEE, DOI: 10.1109/ISSRE.2004.1 Official website PMD on GitHub PMD on SourceForge.net CPD on SourceForge.net. Book: "PMD Applied" Written by the lead developer, Tom Copeland. PMD and CPD in Maven