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Musical instrument classification

Throughout history, various methods of musical instrument classification have been used. The most used system divides instruments into string instruments, woodwind instruments, brass instruments and percussion instruments; the oldest known scheme of classifying instruments is Chinese and may date as far back as the second millennium BC. It grouped instruments according to the materials they are made of. Instruments made of stone were in one group, those of wood in another, those of silk are in a third, those of bamboo in a fourth, as recorded in the Yo Chi, compiled from sources of the Chou period and corresponding to the four seasons and four winds; the eight-fold system of pa yin, from the same source, occurred and in the legendary Emperor Zhun's time it is believed to have been presented in the following order: metal, silk, gourd, clay and wood classes, it correlated to the eight seasons and eight winds of Chinese culture and west, autumn-winter and NW, summer and south and east, winter-spring and NE, summer-autumn and SW, winter and north, spring-summer and SE, respectively.

However, the Chou-Li, an anonymous treatise compiled from earlier sources in about the 2nd century BC, had the following order: metal, clay, silk, wood and bamboo. The same order was presented in the Tso Chuan, attributed to Tso Chiu-Ming compiled in the 4th century BC. Much Ming dynasty scholar Chu Tsai Yu recognized three groups: those instruments using muscle power or used for musical accompaniment, those that are blown, those that are rhythmic, a scheme, the first scholarly attempt, while the earlier ones were traditional, folk taxonomies. More instruments are classified according to how the sound is produced; the modern system divides instruments into wind and percussion. It is of Greek origin; the scheme was expanded by Martin Agricola, who distinguished plucked string instruments, such as guitars, from bowed string instruments, such as violins. Classical musicians today do not always maintain this division, but distinguish between wind instruments with a reed and those where the air is set in motion directly by the lips.

Many instruments do not fit neatly into this scheme. The serpent, for example, ought to be classified as a brass instrument, as a column of air is set in motion by the lips. However, it looks more like a woodwind instrument, is closer to one in many ways, having finger-holes to control pitch, rather than valves. Keyboard instruments do not fit into this scheme. For example, the piano has strings, but they are struck by hammers, so it is not clear whether it should be classified as a string instrument or a percussion instrument. For this reason, keyboard instruments are regarded as inhabiting a category of their own, including all instruments played by a keyboard, whether they have struck strings, plucked strings or no strings at all, it might be said that with these extra categories, the classical system of instrument classification focuses less on the fundamental way in which instruments produce sound, more on the technique required to play them. Various names have been assigned to these three traditional Western groupings: Boethius labelled them intensione ut nervis, spiritu ut tibiis, percussione.

Ottoman encyclopedist Hadji Khalifa recognized the same three classes in his Kashf al-Zunun an Asami al-Kutub wa al-Funun, a treatise on the origin and construction of musical instruments. But this was exceptional for Near Eastern writers as they ignored the percussion group as did early Hellenistic Greeks, the Near Eastern culture traditionally and that period of Greek history having low regard for that group; the T'boli of Mindanao use the same three categories as well, but group the strings with the winds together based on a gentleness-strength dichotomy (lemnoy-megel, r

Dragon Voice

Dragon Voice is a manga series by Yuriko Nishiyama. It was collected in 11 bound volumes; the manga was licensed in North America by Tokyopop, but the license was dropped after publishing 10 volumes. The story centers on a Japanese pop-singing group called Beatmen and focuses on the life of Rin Amami, the unlikely fifth member of the group, foretold as the bearer of a legendary unique singing vocal called'Dragon Voice'; the main character is 15-year-old a gifted street dancer. His dream was to become a singer like his mother. However, his chance encounter with the idol singing group Beatmen opens the path to the music industry to him; the head of the small idol agency called Redshoes is certain that Rin's voice is the legendary'Dragon Voice.' Rin is a smart-mouthed street dancer. He can copy any dance routine just by watching them once, he started out as a teenager. Rin's hidden desire is to be a singer like his late mother, but decided to give up his dreams because of his bad voice, referred by his schoolmates to'resemble the voice of a bullfrog'.

Shino is the responsible leader of the pop-singing group. Professional, he pushes himself hard at work though he has an asthmatic condition, he is the most optimistic member of the group. He acts as the "glue that sticks the Beatmen together". Yuhgo is the quiet member of The Beatmen. He's been involved in the music industry since he was young, he writes lyrics, is the most technologically adept member of the group. His straight attitude sometimes make people think of him as being arrogant, though it is because of his difficulty in expressing his own feelings. Goh is the "wild" member of the bunch, he was brought up in a family of kabuki actors and was supposed to succeed the family occupation, but rebelled in order to perform his own kind of music with the Beatmen. He has a younger brother. Toshi is the flamboyant member of the group, he is a bit of a coward. Hailing from a wealthy family, he was trained as a classical pianist, but decided to throw his lot in with the Beatmen. Chapters are called "#"s, written and illustrated by Yuriko Nishiyama, published in Japan by Kodansha, published in English in North America by Tokyopop Tokyopop's Vol 1 Vol 2 Vol 3 Vol 4 Vol 5 Vol 6 Vol 7 Vol 8 Vol 9 Vol 10 Dragon Voice at Anime News Network's encyclopedia

Religion and Nothingness

Religion and Nothingness is a 1961 book by the Japanese philosopher Keiji Nishitani, in which the author discusses nihilism. The book was published in English translation in 1982, received positive reviews, commending Nishitani for his understanding of both western and eastern philosophy; the appearance of the English translation increased interest in Nishitani's ideas among philosophers. According to Ruben L. F. Habito and Nothingness first appeared in English translation in 1982, generating increasing interest in Nishitani's ideas among philosophers and religious scholars; the book received positive reviews from Donald L. Smith in Library Journal and J. N. Gray in The Times Literary Supplement. Smith wrote that Nishitani "presents a subtle philosophical analysis of reality and a lively argument for resolving problems of being in terms of certain metaphysical principles of Zen Buddhism." Smith called the book "profound yet written", credited Nishitani with "erudite wisdom and understanding of both Eastern and Western philosophical traditions."

Gray wrote that Nishitani "achieves a remarkable cross-fertilization of the most profound and radical elements in Eastern and Western philosophy and spiritual experience", that the book "will have the utmost value for all those who see in contemporary Western philosophy the unresolved issue of nihilism, who are prepared to entertain the supposition that thought emerging from a tradition in which the experience of Nothingness was not threatening, rather a benediction, may have something to teach us."The book was reviewed by Philip Blosser in Research in Phenomenology, the theologian Thomas J. J. Altizer in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, the Buddhist studies scholar Bernard Faure in The Journal of Asian Studies, Thomas P. Kasulis in The Journal of Religion, Richard H. Drummond in Journal of Ecumenical Studies. James L. Fredericks wrote in The Journal of Religion that Religion and Nothingness appeals to "a broad theologically or philosophically oriented readership."Graham Parkes called Religion and Nothingness Nishitani's masterwork, writing that in it Nishitani achieved a philosophical synthesis that matches the achievements of the philosophers Søren Kierkegaard, Friedrich Nietzsche, Martin Heidegger in depth of insight.

Books Journals

Miami SunPost

The Miami SunPost was a free weekly community-style newspaper published in Miami and distributed in a print edition and an on-line edition every Thursday. The paper covered local news, business, culture and the arts, it circulated in Miami Beach, North Bay Village, Bay Harbor Islands, Bal Harbour, Sunny Isles Beach, North Miami, North Miami Beach, Miami's Design District, Upper Eastside, Miami Shores. It ceased publishing in 2014. Writers and contributors included columnists Alejandro Arce and Charles Branham-Bailey. Erik Bojnansky is a former executive editor. Former staff writers have included Rebecca Wakefield, Anne Newport Royall and Arthur Carl "A. C." Weinstein. The paper issued annual special issues including the SunPost "Best Of the Beaches," recognizing the best places and businesses in South Florida in several categories, the "SunPost Top 50 People," recognizing local citizens for notable achievements and contributions; the SunPost was founded by publisher emeritus Felix Stark. Stark, owner of a chain of papers in his native South Africa, bought the daily Sun Reporter in 1979.

In 1985 he started the SunPost. The newspaper never missed a weekly print issue on the day founder Felix Stark was buried. An article written by the Miami New Times, the Sunpost’s direct competitor, in March 2009 mistakenly attributed the closing of the paper based on a front page obituary to long time columnist A. C Weinstein, it remained in print until 2014. The SunPost won a September 1997 "Laurel" by the Columbia Journalism Review for the coverage of the "Save Miami Beach" campaign and referendum to curb the size of waterfront construction in the city; the paper was recognized for "keeping its beam on a shadowy deal. When, without any public discussion, the city agreed to adjust its zoning regulations on a $321 million stretch of waterfront property owned by a controversial foreign developer who planned to transform it into a towering'mini-metropolis' of unlimited height, the local power establishment -- including The Miami Herald -- lined up in warm support. In contrast, when a group of outraged citizens began collecting signatures for a petition that would refer such'upzoning' requests to a public vote, the SunPost took on the lonely job of reporting on its progress.

The paper staunchly resisted the pressures of real-estate advertisers and city hall, as well as a million-dollar p.r. campaign of misinformation. Two years on June 3, when the question of who should decide on the development of what's left of the precious waterfront went to a referendum, the SunPost was able to report on a tremendous upset in Dade County politics: the people had won. "

Shchigry, Kursk Oblast

Shchigry is a town in Kursk Oblast, located between the Shchigra and Lesnaya Plata Rivers, 60 kilometers northeast of Kursk. Population: 17,040 , it has been known to exist since the 17th century. In 1779, it was renamed Shchigry. During World War II, Shchigry was occupied by German troops from 21 November 1941 to 5 February 1943. Within the framework of administrative divisions, Shchigry serves as the administrative center of Shchigrovsky District though it is not a part of it; as an administrative division, it is incorporated separately as the town of oblast significance of Shchigry—an administrative unit with the status equal to that of the districts. As a municipal division, the town of oblast significance of Shchigry is incorporated as Shchigry Urban Okrug. Губернатор Курской области. Постановление №489 от 6 ноября 2008 г. «Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц населённых пунктов Курской области», в ред. Постановления №26-пг от 29 января 2013 г. «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Постановление Губернатора Курской области от 06.11.2008 №489 "Об утверждении реестра административно-территориальных единиц населённых пунктов Курской области"».

Вступил в силу 6 ноября 2008 г.. Курская областная Дума. Закон №48-ЗКО от 21 октября 2004 г. «О муниципальных образованиях Курской области», в ред. Закона №65-ЗКО от 23 августа 2011 г. «О внесении изменений и дополнений в Закон Курской области "О границах муниципальных образований Курской области", Закон Курской области "О муниципальных образованиях Курской области"». Вступил в силу со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Курская правда", №214, 30 октября 2004 г

Volvo B58

The Volvo B58 was a mid-engined single-decker bus, double-decker bus, single-decker articulated bus and single-decker coach chassis manufactured by Volvo in Sweden from 1966 until early 1982. It was succeeded by the B10M. In the United Kingdom, it was sold to many major operators including Wallace Arnold and Park's of Hamilton from 1972. Many of the Volvo B58s in the UK were built as coaches. One Volvo B58 was rebodied as a double-decker bus with East Lancs Droop Nose double-decker bus body for Skills of Nottingham. In 1978, Greater Stockholm Transport Authority ordered 250 B58s; until November 2009, GO Wellington in New Zealand operated 68 Volvo B58 trolleybuses. In Brazil, The Volvo B58 was built in Curitiba from 1979 to 1998, it was used in city buses, including trolleybuses, road coaches, in cities like São Paulo, Porto Alegre, Campinas and Belo Horizonte. In 1992, B58E was Brazil's first bi-articulated chassis, the first 33 operated in Curitiba as Express Line Buses. In Australia the B58 was popular with government operators.

ACTION, placed 77 in service between 1972 and 1976, the Metropolitan Transport Trust, Tasmania 68 rigid buses and three articulated buses from September 1975, the State Transport Authority, Adelaide 65 rigids and 35 articulateds from April 1980. The chassis found a market with Australian private operators. Forest Coach Lines purchased 13 between 1972 and 1984, Busways 30 between 1978 and 1981, Grenda Corporation 18 between 1980 and 1983. All supplemented their fleets with second hand purchases. Media related to Volvo B58 at Wikimedia Commons