Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue and dance. The story and emotional content of a musical – humor, love, anger – are communicated through words, music and technical aspects of the entertainment as an integrated whole. Although musical theatre overlaps with other theatrical forms like opera and dance, it may be distinguished by the equal importance given to the music as compared with the dialogue and other elements. Since the early 20th century, musical theatre stage works have been called musicals. Although music has been a part of dramatic presentations since ancient times, modern Western musical theatre emerged during the 19th century, with many structural elements established by the works of Gilbert and Sullivan in Britain and those of Harrigan and Hart in America; these were followed by the numerous Edwardian musical comedies and the musical theatre works of American creators like George M. Cohan at the turn of the 20th century; the Princess Theatre musicals and other smart shows like Of Thee I Sing were artistic steps forward beyond revues and other frothy entertainments of the early 20th century and led to such groundbreaking works as Show Boat and Oklahoma!.
Some of the most famous musicals through the decades that followed include West Side Story, The Fantasticks, Hair, A Chorus Line, Les Misérables, The Phantom of the Opera, The Producers and Hamilton. Musicals are performed around the world, they may be presented in large venues, such as big-budget Broadway or West End productions in New York City or London. Alternatively, musicals may be staged in smaller venues, such as fringe theatre, Off-Broadway, Off-Off-Broadway, regional theatre, or community theatre productions, or on tour. Musicals are presented by amateur and school groups in churches and other performance spaces. In addition to the United States and Britain, there are vibrant musical theatre scenes in continental Europe, Australasia and Latin America. Since the 20th century, the "book musical" has been defined as a musical play where songs and dances are integrated into a well-made story with serious dramatic goals, able to evoke genuine emotions other than laughter; the three main components of a book musical are its music and book.
The book or script of a musical refers to the story, character development and dramatic structure, including the spoken dialogue and stage directions, but it can refer to the dialogue and lyrics together, which are sometimes referred to as the libretto. The music and lyrics together form the score of a musical and include songs, incidental music and musical scenes, which are "theatrical sequence set to music combining song with spoken dialogue." The interpretation of a musical is the responsibility of its creative team, which includes a director, a musical director a choreographer and sometimes an orchestrator. A musical's production is creatively characterized by technical aspects, such as set design, stage properties and sound; the creative team and interpretations change from the original production to succeeding productions. Some production elements, may be retained from the original production, for example, Bob Fosse's choreography in Chicago. There is no fixed length for a musical. While it can range from a short one-act entertainment to several acts and several hours in length, most musicals range from one and a half to three hours.
Musicals are presented in two acts, with one short intermission, the first act is longer than the second. The first act introduces nearly all of the characters and most of the music and ends with the introduction of a dramatic conflict or plot complication while the second act may introduce a few new songs but contains reprises of important musical themes and resolves the conflict or complication. A book musical is built around four to six main theme tunes that are reprised in the show, although it sometimes consists of a series of songs not directly musically related. Spoken dialogue is interspersed between musical numbers, although "sung dialogue" or recitative may be used in so-called "sung-through" musicals such as Jesus Christ Superstar, Les Misérables and Hamilton. Several shorter musicals on Broadway and in the West End have been presented in one act in recent decades. Moments of greatest dramatic intensity in a book musical are performed in song. Proverbially, "when the emotion becomes too strong for speech, you sing.
In a book musical, a song is ideally crafted to suit the character and their situation within the story. As The New York Times critic Ben Brantley described the ideal of song in theatre when reviewing the 2008 revival of Gypsy: "There is no separation at all between song and character, what happens in those uncommon moments when musicals reach upward to achieve their ideal reasons to be." Many fewer words are sung in a five-minute song than are spoken in a five-minute block of dialogue. Therefore, there is less time to develop drama in a musical than in a straight play of equivalent length, since a musical devotes more time to music than to dialogue. Within the compressed nature of a musical, the writers must develop the plot; the materi
Boris Pregel was a Ukrainian-born Jewish engineer and dealer in uranium and radium. He was born in Odessa, in the Russian Empire, studied engineering in Belgium at the Free University of Brussels and the University of Liege, he served in the Russian army in World War I, entering as a private soldier and rising to the rank of colonel of engineers. He was put in charge of Russia's only aircraft factory, he moved to Paris after the October Revolution. In Paris he came in contact with Edgar Sengier, a Belgian mining engineer, in charge of the mining company, Union Minière, in the Belgian Congo. Pregel became interested in the radium department of this company. From the 1920s to the Second World War Pregel and Sengier controlled the world's supply of radium, he promoted the building of many radio-therapy installations, including the Queen Sofia Hospital in Sweden. He ensured that Marie Curie was lent a five-gram radium source, used in some of her important experiments. In 1937 he married daughter of Nikolai Avksentiev.
In 1939 he was awarded the French Legion of Honour in recognition of his role as the head of the International Organisation to Fight Cancer. The couple fled after the Nazi invasion of France. After his arrival in the USA he established, with his brother Alexander, the Canadian Radium and Uranium Corp of New York and became its president to sell the newly discovered rich ores in northern Canada, also in Colorado. George B. Pegram and his associates at Columbia University, who did some of the initial work on the Manhattan Project, sought Pregel's assistance because they did not have sufficient money to buy the uranium. Pregel gave them the first uranium used in the experiments. Pregel's company built radioactive neutron sources and radioactive luminescent signs. Pregel was the agent for the Canadian Eldorado Mining & Refining Co. which supplied the Manhattan Project with nearly all the uranium mined in North America. He sold 0.23 tonnes of uranium oxide to the Soviet Union during the war, with the authorisation of the U.
S. Government. In March 1945 the Canadian Foreign Exchange Control Board began formal hearings into Pregel's financial dealings; the case was settled out of court but Pregel and the other defendants paid over $1million in cash and other assets to settle. Furthermore, Pregel agreed to terminate his agency agreement between Eldorado and the Canadian Radium & Uranium Corp, he served as president and board chairman of the New York Academy of Sciences, as president of the French University in New York, as trustee of the New School for Social Research and as vice-president of the American Geographical Society. He received foreign decorations. Pregel founded the Boris Pregel Awards for science, awarded by the New York Academy of Sciences. Photo Dialogue for a play
The Boob is a 1926 American silent romantic comedy film directed by William A. Wellman, starring Gertrude Olmstead, Antonio D'Algy, George K. Arthur, Joan Crawford where in the search for justice things go tits up. Peter, a chivalrous idealist, seeks to win the heart of Amy. Jane is a Prohibition agent. Gertrude Olmstead as Amy George K. Arthur as Peter Good Joan Crawford as Jane Charles Murray as Cactus Jim Tony D'Algy as Harry Benson Hank Mann as The Village Soda Clerk Edythe Chapman as The Old Lady Babe London as Fat Girl A print of The Boob has been prepared and preserved by MGM; the Boob on IMDb Synopsis at AllMovie The Boob at the TCM Movie Database